Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems
Lance H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling
Island Press, 2002 - Business & Economics - 507 pages
Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma. Panarchy is the structure in which systems, including those of nature (e.g., forests) and of humans (e.g., capitalism), as well as combined human-natural systems (e.g., institutions that govern natural resource use such as the Forest Service), are interlinked in continual adaptive cycles of growth, accumulation, restructuring, and renewal. These transformational cycles take place at scales ranging from a drop of water to the biosphere, over periods from days to geologic epochs. By understanding these cycles and their scales, researchers can identify the points at which a system is capable of accepting positive change, and can use those leverage points to foster resilience and sustainability within the system.This volume brings together leading thinkers on the subject -- including Fikret Berkes, Buz Brock, Steve Carpenter, Carl Folke, Lance Gunderson, C.S. Holling, Don Ludwig, Karl-Goran Maler, Charles Perrings, Marten Scheffer, Brian Walker, and Frances Westley -- to develop and examine the concept of panarchy and to consider how it can be applied to human, natural, and human-natural systems. Throughout, contributors seek to identify adaptive approaches to management that recognize uncertainty and encourage innovation while fostering resilience.The book is a fundamental new development in a widely acclaimed line of inquiry. It represents the first step in integrating disciplinary knowledge for the adaptive management of human-natural systems across widely divergent scales, and offers an important base of knowledge from which institutions for adaptive management can be developed. It will be an invaluable source of ideas and understanding for students, researchers, and professionals involved with ecology, conservation biology, ecological economics, environmental policy, or related fields.
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Part II Theories of Change
Part III Myths Models and Metaphors
Part IV Linking Theory to Practice
Part V Summary and Synthesis
Appendix A A Model for Ecosystems with Alternative Stable States
Appendix B Optimizing Social Utility from Lake Use
Appendix C Tax as a Way to Direct Society
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accumulated adaptive cycle adaptive management Affectors agencies agents alternative stable approach behavior biomass Brock C. S. Holling Carpenter Chapter climate change collapse complex complex adaptive systems connectedness conservation create creative destruction crises crisis critical cultural decision described disturbance diversity dynamics dystopia Ecocommunalism ecological systems economic ecosys ecosystem effects emerge Enjoyers environment environmental equilibrium eutrophic Everglades example exploitation external Figure fish fisheries flip forest function future global groups growth Gunderson herbivores hierarchy Holling human systems increase individual institutions interactions Karel lake landscape learning models Nash equilibrium nature nonlinear nutrient occur oligotrophic optimal organization panarchy patterns phase phosphorus political population potential practices problem processes production rangelands regional renewal reorganization resilience resource management response result scales scenarios self-organized shifts slow variables social capital social systems society spatial species stakeholders stress structure sustainability theory tion traditional transformation uncertainty understanding vegetation walleye welfare