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that it has great power in relieving forth; and produce rarely above many painful and obstinate nervous eleven eggs at a time, each about and muscular affections.

the size of a blackbird's, and linked ADDER STUNG. A term used, together in the womb like a string when horses or cattle are stung or of beads; each egg containing from bitten by any venomous reptile, or one to four young ones; so that the by hornets, horse-flies, wasps, hedge- whole of a brood may amount to hogs, shrews, &c. The common about twenty or thirty. Mr. White British viper or adder abounds in informs us, in his History of Selthe Hebrides, and in many parts of borne, that a viper which he opened, Britain, particularly in chalky, dry, had in it fifteen young ones of the and stony districts. According to size of earth-worms, about seven Pennant and other naturalists they inches long. They twisted and are viviparous, but proceed from an wriggled about with great alertness; internal egg.

This viper seldom and, when touched, erected themexceeds two feet in length, though selves, and gaped very wide, exhiPennant tells us he once saw a fe- biting tokens of menace and defiance, male nearly three feet long. The though no fangs could be perceived, ground colour of the male is a dirty even with the assistance of glasses : yellow, that of the female deeper. which the author remarks as an inIts back is marked the whole length stance, among others, of that wonwith a series of rhomboidal black derful instinctive knowledge young spots, touching each other at the animals possess of the position and points; the sides with triangular use of their natural weapons, even ones; the belly black. There is a before these weapons are formed. variety wholly black; but the rhom- Vipers feed on frogs, lizards, mice, boidal marks are very conspicuous, toads, and young birds: they are being of a deeper and more glossy capable of enduring very long abstihue than the rest. The head of the nence, and appear to live occasionviper is inflated, which distinguishes ally on those well known, nutritious it from the common snake. Catesby substances floating in the atmosays, that “the difference between sphere, and which are continually vipers and snakes or other serpents taken in by animal respiration; their is that the former have long hollow young separated from every thing fangs or tusks, with an opening near but air, will grow considerably in a the point; the neck small, the head few days. When at liberty vipers broad, the cheeks extending wide, remain torpid throughout the winter; scales rough, the body, for the most but when confined have never been part, flat and thick; they are slow known to take their annual repose : of motion; swell the head and neck in this latter state, however, if mice, when irritated; and have a terrible their favourite diet, be given them, and ugly aspect.” The tongue is though they will kill, they will not forked, the teeth small; the four ca- devour them. Their poison, too, denine teeth are placed two on each creases in proportion to the length side the upper jaw: these instru- of their incarceration. The method ments of poison are long, crooked, of catching them is by putting a cleft and capable of being raised or de- stick on or near the head; after pressed at the pleasure of the ani- which they are seized by the tail mal. Vipers are said not to arrive and put into a bag. The viperat their full growth, till the sixth or catchers are frequently bitten by seventh year; but that they are them, notwithstanding this precaucapable of engendering in the second tion: yet we rarely hear of the or third. They copulate in May, and wound proving fatal, if early attendare supposed to remain impregnated ed to, by rubbing the affected part, for three months before they bring or the whole limb, with salad oil.

A remarkable instance of the effi- nine hours sound rest, awoke about cacy of olive oil in neutralizing the six the next morning, and found effects of the viper's poison occurred himself very well; but in the afterat Bath nearly a century since, in noon, on drinking some rum and the person of one Oliver, a noted strong beer, so as to be almost incatcher of these reptiles, who is said toxicated, the swelling returned with to have discovered this admirable much pain and cold sweats, which remedy.

abated on bathing the arm as before, In the presence of a great number and wrapping it up in brown paper of persons, this man suffered him- soaked in the oil. ' In corroboration self to be bitten by an old black of the efficacy of vegetable oil, as an viper (brought by one of the com- antidote to the poison of the adder pany) upon the wrist and joint of or viper, we quote the writer of a the thumb of the right hand, until paper in the fourth volume of the blood issued from the wounds: even Annals of Sporting, who says, “ If before the viper was loosened from olive oil should not be at hand comhis hand he felt a violent burning mon sweet oil will answer the purpain in his arm: in a few minutes pose, as I have several times tried his eyes began to look red and it upon dogs which have been bitten fiery, and to water much; in less by vipers or adders.” than an hour the venom reached Notwithstanding the dreadful efhis heart, with a throbbing pain, at- fects of the viper's bite, the flesh is tended with faintness, shortness of celebrated as a restorative. · The breath, and cold sweats: soon after old remedy for an adder's sting conhis belly began to swell, accompa- sists of dragon's blood, barley meal, nied with vomitings and purgings: and the white of an egg. during the violence of these symp ADVANCER. One of the starts toms he lost his sight, but retained or branches of a buck's attire, behis hearing. After the lapse of an tween the back antler and palm. hour and a quarter, a chaffing-dish

ÆGYPTIACUM. This compoof glowing charcoal was brought in, sition takes its name from its dusky and his naked arm held over it, while colour, wherein it resembles that of his wife rubbed in the oil with her the natives of Egypt. It iş chiefly hand, continually turning his arm used as an external application for round: the poison soon abated, but cleansing foul ulcers, and keeping the swelling did not diminish much: down fungous flesh. We extract most violent purgings and vomitings the following recipe from the Pharfollowed; and the pulse became so macopæia in use at the Royal Vetelow and so often interrupted, that a rinary College, Pancras: Ægyprepetition of cordial potions was tiacum. Verdigris (subacetate of deemed proper, from the effects of copper) eighteen ounces; alum in which, however, the patient was not powder, six ounces; vinegar, twelve sensible of deriving any great relief, ounces; treacle, ten ounces. Boil as he expressed himself; but that a gently together, and add, sulphuric glass or two of olive oil which he acid, two ounces and a half. drank seemed to give him ease. AFFOREST. To turn a tract of Continuing in this state, he was put land into a forest. On the conto bed, by Dr. Mortimer's direction, trary, disafforested implies land dis(the physician who drew up the charged from being a forest, reduced case), and rubbed with olive oil, from the privileges of forest to comheated in a ladle over the charcoal. mon ground. From this last operation he declared AFTER-MATH, or AFTER-GRASS. he found immediate ease, as if by The second crop, or grass which some charm : he soon after fell into springs up after mowing; or grassa profound sleep, and, after about math that is cut after some kinds of

corn.

"In cutting rowen, or second | inner leg, inner rein, &c. are called crops of grass,” says Mr. Loudon, Inner Aids. The outer heel, outer “ more attention will be requisite leg, outer rein, &c. are called Outer than in the first, as the crops are Aids. mostly much lighter and more diffi AIR. See EXERCISE. cult to be cut, the scythe being apt AIR (in the Manège) is a cato rise and slip through the grass dence or freedom of action, accomwithout cutting it fairly, except modated to the natural disposition when in the hands of an expert of the horse, which makes him rise workman."

with obedience, measure, and exactAGARICA, AGARIC, AGARICUM, ness of time. or AGARICUS. A fungous excrescence

AIR GUN. Of all weapons, this growing on the trunk of the larch is the most dangerous, and the best tree and upon some kinds of oak. It advice I can give the young ones, is was formerly used as a styptic, but never on any pretext to have one in is banished from modern practice, their possession. Air guns have as exciting insupportable nausea, been in vogue for a considerable also being inefficacious and unsafe. period on the continent, as well as

AGE OF A HORSE. See Horse. in England; but none are so safe, AGE OF A HART, is ascer- (if safety can be an attribute of such tained from the furniture of his head. a missile) as those manufactured in At a year old bunches only appear; the last mentioned country. A vaat two years old the horns are de- riety of forms has been adopted in veloped, but straighter and smaller; their construction to please the eye, at three they grow into two spars or and to add to their power of proantlers; at four into three, and so pelling ; but none answer better than increase annually in branches, until those constructed with a stock, like the animal is six years old, after the ordinary fowling-piece, which which its age must be guessed from has a spheroid ball, or large copper the size of the antlers, and the thickness of the branch which sustains them.

AGISTMENT. Where cattle are taken into pasture at a certain rate per week. It is so called because the cattle were suffered “ agi- bulb just under the lock. This ball ser,” that is, to be levant and couch- is filled with common air, pumped ant, in the King's Forest.

into it by an instrument of that AGISTOR. An officer that name, and when filled is attached to takes in cattle of strangers to feed the missile by a nutt, which screws in a forest, and receives for the king's on, and thus prevents the escape of use such tack-money as becomes due the air. The trigger being pulled, upon that account.” The office is the valve instantaneously opens, held by letters patent; and four whereby a sufficient portion of air agistors are appointed to every forest rushes into the barrel, and the bullet where his majesty has any pannage, is sent forth with great velocity. or swine's food, l'hey are also called But as successive firings absorb the in English“Guest-takers,"or“Gist- air, from a parity of reasoning the takers.”

strength of the projectile becomes AID (in the Manège), called also lessened, and ultimately enfeebled; cherishing, is used to avoid the ne- until the pump is again had recourse cessity of correction, and consists to. In point of fact, from the first in helping a horse to work true and shot, a failing of strength progresmark his motions with exactness. sively takes place. That great emSee BROUILLER. The inner heel, porium, Birmingham, has the honour

of turning out a great variety of this sisting body. This reasoning, howinstrument of treachery and destruc-ever, has been proved false, with tion ; for the best of all reasons, be- respect to both weapons. Air guns cause most of our first-rate town may be well enough for a park gunsmiths have a very proper dread keeper to kill a buck, but then he in making or exposing them for sale. must be very near, or no fatal blow The regular poacher is seldom with is given; and we all know, in our out his friend the air gun, and to extensive parks, where the deer are him it is well adapted; inasmuch, wild and shy, how difficult it is to as it is made up in such disguised get within range of the antlered forms, walking-sticks, umbrellas, &c. monarch, even with a rifle; so that that all suspicion becomes lulled, much time must necessarily be spent and as the ball for the air gun is to catch a buck napping so much, as so easily detached, and hid about to let the air gun be successfully the person, he must be a sagacious used against him. Rookeries have keeper, who, if he seizes the walking- sometimes the honour of having this stick, &c., can discover the viper treacherous weapon exercised on which lurks within. A very clear the sable habitants of the trees, but and scientific writer has laid it down, still, it is not in any degree equal to that gunpowder contains a thousand the rabbit rifle; and as this weapon times its own bulk of fixed air, or may be so treacherously applied more properly speaking, that a grain against man, by his cold blooded or charge of gunpowder on its igni- fellow, I would put a veto on the tion, generates an air or fluid, which manufacture of the weapon in toto. expands until it is a thousand times AIRING, of horses, purifies the larger than its original bulk; so that blood, purges the body, hardens the guo powder will be strong in propor- fat, teaches him to take his wind tion to its expansive power on ig- equally, and keep time with the acnition. We all know the gun's power tions and motions of his body, and of impulsion arises from compressed lastly, it sharpens the appetite. air, and from the same projectile Horses should be brought forth to force is the air gun acted on, but in air immediately after sun-rise, and a different mode, and of a different just before sun-set. quality. The walking-sticks have AIRY, or AERY. The nest of a no spheroid ball for the air, the hawk or eagle. breech of the barrel being construct

ALANDES. The ancient term ed to answer the purpose. It is for wolf-dogs. probable that the air gun from its ALANERARIUS. The keeper quiet mode of propelling the bullet, or manager of spaniels or setters took precedence of the cross-bow; used in falconry. Obsolete. for this reason, that it is more power

ALCOHOL. The purely spiriful in its stroke or blow, and more tuous part of all liquors that have convenient to the party using it. I undergone the vinous fermentation, have seen air guns of antique ma- and derived from none but such as nufacture *, of a most unconscion-are susceptible of it. As a chymical able length; doubtless, from the agent it is of the highest importance, supposition that, as in guns ignited and in its various combinations inby powder, the longer the barrel, volving all the grand principles of the greater force is given to the re. the science. * An instrument of this description was malt liquor, occasionally given to

ALE. A well known fermented invented by Ctesibus of Alexandria, one hundred and twenty years before Christ, horses, cattle, &c. in cases where a and the first modern account of an, air cordial remedy is required. To the gun will be found in the Elements d’Ar- former it may be administered with tillerie of David Rivaut, preceptor to Louis XIII. of France.

advantage, on unusually long jour.

neys, or after extraordinary fatigue. also the difference in weight, made Its advantages, however, have been in stakes to colts or fillies, the get frequently abused.

or produce of an untried sire or ALEXIS. A chestnut colt, foaled dam, viz. one whose produce has 1770, bred by Mr. Scawen, was got never run in public. by Herod, dam by Shakspeare ; ALLURE. See LURE. grandam by Cade; great grandam ALMOND TUMBLER. See (sister to Lodge's Roan Mare) by PIGEON. Parker; great great grandam by ALOES. A cathartic juice exDale's horse (bred by Lord Cardi- tracted from the common aloes tree. gan, and got by the duke of Rich- At present various sorts are met mond's Turk, out of a full sister to with, distinguished either by the Leeds] great great great grandam, place whence they are derived, by by Whynot; great great great great the species of the plants, or by grandam, by Wilkinson's Bay Ara- some difference in the juices thembian out of a Natural Barb Mare, selves. Those commonly sold in the the property of Lord Arlington (se- shops may be arranged in three cretary of state to Charles the Se- classes, viz. 1. Common or Barbacond), to whom she was sent as a does aloes; 2. Caballine or fetid present by the emperor of Morocco. aloes, chiefly distinguished by its

Alexis started twenty times, and strong, rank smell; and 3. Socowas ten times a winner. In 1774, trine or Cape aloes. Of the aloes he became the property of Sir used in veterinary practice, a moCharles Bunbury: in 1776, he raced dern writer observes, “ In a public twice only, but proved unsuccessful ; establishment like the college, where in 1777, he covered at Barton, at the horse, under physic, can be exfive guineas. His winnings are esti-ercised as much as the head of the mated at 3,675 guineas.

establishment chooses to order, or ALIMENT. See Food.

where in fact he can be exercised ALL ABROAD. When a horse till the physic does work; or in a is pushed beyond his strength, and cavalry regiment, where the same the fore legs spread out, the animal facilities exist, Cape aloes may be is said to be “all abroad.”

used; yet even there the Barbadoes ALL-AGE Plates or Stakes. are preferable, as more certain, and Those for which any horse, mare, or far less liable to gripe.” Of all the gelding may enter, carrying weight known purges administered to the according to age, with allowances, horse, this is unquestionably the and in certain cases extra weight, most efficacious. All the experi. according to circumstances. ments made on oils by Mr. W. Per

ALLXY. To allay a pheasant is cival, as cathartics in horses, hare to carve it when served up at table. proved them to be uncertain, if not Obsolete.

dangerous, in their operation. ALLODIAL LANDS. Where ALPINE HARE. See HARE. an inheritance is held without ac ALTERATIVES. Such mediknowledgement to any lord or supe-cines as have a power of changing rior, in contradistinction to feudal. the constitution, without any sensiThere are no allodial lands in this ble increase or diminution of the country, all being held either me- natural evacuations. The following diately or immediately of the king. alterative ball has been administered Lords paramount of manors were with the greatest success :-Cinnaanciently styled allodarii.

bar of antimony, three ounces; balALLOWANCE (in Racing). The sam of sulphur, two ounces; camweight, generally three pounds, phor, one ounce; nitre, four ounces. which mares and geldings are al- To be made into ten balls, one of lowed to carry less than horses; which may be given weekly to horses

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