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generally from down-leaps, false | received. In gentle exercise the steps, or sudden attempts at reco-coffin joint is excited to little or no vering the feet from a slip. There action ; but in a quick pace a tenare frequently hard lumps remain- derness and slight lameness will be ing after the inflammation abates and observable. Unless remedies be apthe strain is recovered, which arise plied in proper time, strains in the from the coagulable lymph being coffin joint are the most difficult to thrown out in the accident and ulti- cure. The animal should be bled mately becoming callous. These freely, his bowels kept cool by molumps are early felt; they are not of derate purgatives, and the foot, from very great consequence, but in ge- the fetlock joint down, should be neral a slight lameness accompanies well poulticed every morning and them, which goes off when the ani- night with Goulard water and linmal trots a little and becomes warm; seed meal. He should be kept quiet, but, if the horse be much worked, and the poultice continued for a the lameness returns from the con- week or ten days, and longer if the stant action upon the parts. The case require it. After this he may treatment will be in the first in- be turned out to grass until the joint stance nearly the same as in other is restored to its original strength strains; next bleeding, purging, and and flexibility, cold applications to the injured limb, STRAIN OF THE FETLOCK Joint. The with a moist diet. Cold poultices symptoms of this injury are similar should be applied every morning to those of strain in the back sinews; and night, which should erwrap the the fetlock joint appears swollen and limb from above the knee joint down- inflamed, attended by lameness. The wards. The best poultice is—lin- horse must be copiously bled, and seed cake six ounces, bran (suffi- kept tranquil in a roomy stall; in ciently wetted) three pints; mixed. slight cases this will be sufficient. It will be more beneficial to look to A few emollient poultices, in bad the horse's constitution, and lessen cases, will be necessary, and the the action of the blood vessels ac- body should be kept cool by modecording to the strength and irritabi- rate aperients. Firing the limb is lity of the animal, than to depend frequently practised by veterinarians on local remedies. When the in- as a sure preventive against the reflammatory stage has gone by it will currence of the injury ; this operabe then right to use rubbing with tion also tends to strengthen the liniments and oils, such as cam- joint. After a rest of about a fortphorated liniment, soap, spirits, &c. night, in the stable, he may be turned and to bandage the limb. If this out to grass in an enclosed field, plan do not quite remove the swell when he will gradually recover. ing in a fortnight, a blister must be
STRAIN OF THE HIP-JOINT, FEapplied; and, when healed, the MUR, HURDLE-BONE, WHIRL-BONE, or horse turned out to grass. It may ROUND-BONE. Injuries of this kind be a long time before a perfect cure are frequently brought on by neglican be established, and the only gence in riding or driving, and hope is in repeated blisters at the sometimes from a sudden slip of interval of a month between each. the animal's hind feet on a bad When, however, full trial be given road or pavement, whereby he is to this, firing may be resorted to. thrown upon his side: in some cases
STRAIN OF THE COFFIN JOINT. the head of the bone or cup of the Those accidents are more difficult joint may be affected ; in other cases to ascertain at first than strains in the thigh and hip joint are so seany other part of the horse, as the verely injured, that violent inflamlameness is hardly perceptible for mation and lameness of the parts some time after the injury has been ensue, When the strain has been
of a slight nature, it may not be curb should not be entirely removed, perceptible at first, further than a the blistering spirit should be again tenderness in leaning on the limb resorted to. affected when in exercise; but, if STRAIN OF THE KNEE-JOINT. There he has been left to stand for a short is a correspondence between the time in the stable, and be taken out, knee-joint of the horse and the huthe lameness will be obvious. In man wrist, and the stifle-joint with this case the horse must be kept the human knee. When the kneequiet in stable for some time after-joint is strained it is mostly accomwards, until by repose he gradually panied by that coinmon accident recovers his strength. In severe called broken knees, and is in constrains a strong blister should be sequence distinguished with diffiapplied to the part, and if necessary culty. Bleeding and rest must, it would be expedient also to fire however, be employed here, as the limb injured, and of course bleed should the case turn out to be sim
ply a broken knee, bleeding will be STRAIN OF THE Hock, or Curs. This found extremely serviceable. disease was formerly considered as STRAIN IN THE Loins. The sympa kind of exostosis, but now it is toms of this strain are either a parproperly admitted under the head tial stiffness of the back, and an of strains. The back part of the involuntary yielding of the horse to hind leg is the seat of this disease, any weight placed upon him, or, in arising from the articulation of the very bad cases, general lameness same bones which are affected in ensues. The animal should, as soon spavin, and is succeeded by the as possible after the accident, be formation of a considerable tumour freely bled, which, together with a little below the hock. It is gene- rest, may be sufficient in slight inrally the consequence of a strain, juries; but, if otherwise, in addition accompanied with inflammation; the to bleeding, even to faintness, the coagulable lymph which is thrown following embrocation should be apout is often left, and causes a hard- plied to the loins, viz. :-Liquid ness to remain. If the affection be ammonia, two ounces; oil of turobserved in its early stage, those pentine, one ounce; olive oil, three applications which are used in ounces. A fresh sheepskin, with strains of the back sinews will ge- the fleshy side in, should be laid nerally effect a cure. Should the across the strained parts. pain and substance, however, con STRAIN OF THE SHOULDER. Strains tinue ten or twelve days, after hav- of the shoulder appear trifling in ing had recourse to this treatment, some cases at first, and lameness is a more powerful plan must be pur- not observable until the horse cools. sued. When this is the case, cut in strains of a severe or desperate the hair close, and use the following nature the animal can hardly lay blistering spirit:- Take euphorbi- his foot to the ground, and stands um, Spanish flies powdered, of each upon three legs. In all slight cases two drachms; oil of thyme, spirit copious bleeding, and confinement of turpentine, pure ammonia water, to the stable, in a spacious stall, so of each one ounce; vinegar, egypti- that he can move about, will be aticum, of each two ounces. Let sufficient; but in severe strains it them be put into a bottle, and well will be necessary, besides bleeding, shaken before they are used. Let to introduce a rowel to the chest; the part affected be well rubbed and if that be not effectual in rewith the hand for six or seven moving the strain, the shoulder mornings following; after which must be blistered, or the same emturn the animal out to grass for five brocation as prescribed for strain of or six weeks. If at this period the the loins should be well rubbed into
the chest and shoulder. Send him tinue the poultice for a day or two. out to graze in a well enclosed field, See Vives. and he will gradually recover.
STRANGURY. A disease STRANGLES. A disease af- whose characteristic symptom is a fecting the kernels and other glands partial suppression of urine, but at of the neck, general fever, swelling the same time unaccompanied by of glands under and within the fever or other general symptoms. lower jaw, cough, drought, and loss It is the effect of irritation, occaof appetite ; sometimes there is very sioning a spasmodic contraction little general fever, and the glands about the neck of the bladder. swell, suppurate, and burst, with STRIGIL, or STRIGILES. An inout much notice ; generally, how- strument to scrape off the sweat ever, the disease is mistaken for the during the gymnastic exercises of distemper. It is distinguished from the ancients, and in their baths. this by the swellings, which are hot, Something of this kind is used at more tender, and larger, than in the the present day to remove the foam distemper. A similar case, in each and sweat on a horse's body after treatment, is proper; but it is ad- a race, and from stage-coach horses vantageous to bring the swellings at their mid stages. to a head in strangles as soon as
The string. possible; for this purpose use strong, halt, Mr. White observes, has been hot, stimulating poultices. In the properly enough named blind spavin. distemper, we must use a liniment It is thought by the French to be of of hartshorn, vinegar, and oil : if the same nature as bone spavin, the we are in doubt, therefore, we must bony excrescence being concealed, use only warm fomentations; this or on the outside of the small tarsal removes tightness and irritability, bones, and out of sight. If any rewithout occasioning suppuration. medy is thought necessary for this, Sometimes, in strangles, there is a firing should be preferred; but this discharge from the nose, before the will generally be found to fail. A kernels come to a head: this is few years ago, says Mr. White, I called the bastard strangles. When had the pleasure of spending a day the fever is considerable, we must with the late Dr. Jenner, at Berkenot bleed, unless upon a great emer- ley, when he informed me that gency; that is, when the pulse is string-halt depended upon a disease hard and quick, the flanks heave, of the spine, and showed me several the legs cold, the cough painful, vertebræ, which afforded a proof of and the nostrils red: if the throat it. From what I have since obe be sore, stimulate it, but do not served, I am satisfied that this is blister; apply constantly a nose- the case. Firing and all other opebag, with a warm mash in it, fre- rations must therefore be useless. quently changed; rub the swellings
STUBBED. There are few cases with an ointment, made of equal of mechanical injury to which the parts of suet and turpentine; do horses of fox-hunters are more liable this twice a day, and keep on a than thorns in their legs, or stubs warm poultice; if necessary, shave in their frogs or fetlocks. These the hair off the kernels. When the subjects have been very little noswellings burst internally, nature ticed by veterinary writers; but must effect the cure: the horse must there is a field for a display of their have light food, and mild exercise. knowledge in the art of extracting, When there is a proper point to the and healing. With thorns, of course abscess, open it with a lancet, and the first point to be desired is express out the matter gently; then traction ; but then it is often difficult keep the wound open with a piece to find the seat of them : also, when of lint, covered with lard, and con- found, they are not always easy to
be got at. Sometimes we are com- ner of doing anything. Ex.gr. When pelled to wait for suppuration, which a man rides his horse full speed at must be encouraged as much as pos- double posts and rails, with a " squire sible.
trap” on the other side (a moderate More hunters are ruined by stubs ditch of about two yards wide, cut or splinters of wood running into on purpose to break gentlemen's their legs and feet, than by thorns. necks), he is then reckoned at MelIndeed, when we reflect on the ton to have rode it in style.-Notes many hundred times in the course to Billesdon Coplow. of a season that hunters, ridden in SUMPTER-HORSE. A horse close woodland countries, alight, that carries provisions and necessafrom high banks, on ground nearly ries for a journey. covered with sharp-pointed stubs, SUPPLE. To supple a horse in from which faggots, stakes, &c. have the manège, is to make him bend been cut, we must confess our sur- his neck, shoulders, and sides, and prise that accidents do not oftener to render all the parts of his body happen. Many good horses, how- more pliable, ever, are annually lamed by being SURBATING. The old term stubbed, many of which are so far for inflammation of the foot, or rainjured as to be destroyed. ther foot founder; to which dogs
In the first place there is no judg. and horses are liable ftom overing of wounds but from appearance work. and locality; therefore a description SURFEIT. This word, derived of them is useless. Add to this, it from super, over and above, or exoften happens that ligaments, ten- cess, and fio, to be made, applies to dons, or nerves become wounded, the notion which was entertained the treatment of which (fatal con- that the malady arose out of a supersequences being always so near at abundance of humours produced by hand) requires all the skill of the over feeding. There are different regularly bred veterinarian, who causes which produce surfeits, but alone is fit to direct it, and observe they mostly arise from bad food. the attempts of nature in their pro- When the coat of a horse is of a gress. Contused and lacerated as dirty colour, and stares, he is said the parts are from accidents of this to labour under a surfeit. The skin nature, we cannot be surprised at is covered with scurf and scabs; the violent inflammation which too these return although rubbed off. often ensues.
Sometimes the surfeit appears on STUB-NETS. Used far taking the skin of the horse in small lumps, carp and trout when they lie close like peas or beans: this is often ocin under the banks.
casioned by his drinking much cold STUD. A place where stallions water when unusually heated. This and mares are kept to propagate kind of surfeit will be cured effecthe kind, or else the word signifies tually by a gentle purge and bleedthe stallions and breeding mares ing. In some cases the scabs appear themselves,
covering the whole of the body and STUMBLING, says Mr. White, limbs; at times moist, and at others is frequently caused by an undue dry. The irritation is generally sa determination of blood to the frog, great, as to cause the horse to chafe in consequence of compression of himself, producing rawness in many the sensible foot from contraction parts, and degenerating into mange. of the heels, which occasions the In the first instance, it will be requihorse to go upon his toes, in order site to give him a dose or two of to avoid the pain felt on touching mercurial physic. Should his conthe ground with the frog.
dition be good, and able to bear it, STYLE. The best possible man- he may subsequently take the fol
lowing balls, which will produce a the largest of the British birds ; it gentle purging and perspiration on is distinguished externally from the the skin, and lead to beneficial re-wild swan ; first, by its size, being sults:-Take crocus of antimony, flour of sulphur, nitre, Venice soap, Barbadoes aloes, of each in fine powder, four ounces : precipitated sulphur of antimony, one ounce. Let them be mixed, add a sufficient quantity of honey or treacle, and liquorice powder, and make them into a mass fit for balls. The weight of each ball should be one ounce and a half,
SWAN, WILD, or WHISTLING HOOPER ( Anas cygnus ferus). This much larger; secondly, by the bill, large and very beautiful bird is an which is red, and the tip and sides
black; a black callous knob projects over the base of the upper mandible. No bird, perhaps, makes so inelegant a figure out of the water, or has the command of such beautiful attitudes on that element as the swan, when“ it proudly rows its state,” Milton's words, "with arch. ed neck between its white wings mantling.” The male and female assist in forming their nest, composed of long grass, aquatic plants, and sticks; the number of posited not exceeding eight, white, and considerably larger than those
of the goose. It sits nearly two occasional visiter of our shores, par- months before its young are exticularly in hard winters; they are cluded, which do not reach their gregarious and difficult of approach. proper size until they are a twelveThis species is less than the tame month old : indeed all the stages of
The lower part of the bill this bird's approach to maturity are is black; the base and the space slow, and seem to mark its longebetween it and the eyes is covered vity. with a naked yellow skin; the eye În such high estimation were lids are bare and yellow; the entire swans held, that by an act of parplumage, in old birds, of a pure liament passed in the twenty-second white; the down, soft and thick; year of the reign of Edward IV. no the legs, dusky. The cry of the person, except the king's son or a wild swan is shrill, loud, and harsh, freeholder of five marks a year, was and may be heard at a great dis- allowed to keep a swan : and by an tance: this may be attributed to act of James I. to take or destroy the peculiar formation of the wind-their eggs, subjects the offender to pipe, which falls into the chest, then a fine of twenty shillings for each turns back like a trumpet, and after-egg, or imprisonment for three wards makes a second bend to join months. It is felony to steal any the lungs.
swan lawfully marked or domestiSWAN, MUTE or TAME, cated in private motes, ponds, or ( Anas cygnus mansuetus.) This is rivers.