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A hare is the first year called a applied to those persons who are leveret; the second year, a hare; fond of field diversions, and who the third year, a great hare. follow them with regularity, skill,
The fox is the first year called a and fairness, and in this sense it is cub; the second, a fox; the third, an opposed to the poacher. old fox.
SPREAD-NET. For catching A
coney is called the first year a partridges generally consists of four rabbit, and afterwards an old coney. square meshes.
The hart, buck, and boar often SPRINGER (Canis extranius ). take soil without being forced; and The true English springer differs all other beasts are said to take water, except the otter, and he is said to beat the stream.
When a stag breaks herd, and draws to the covert, we say he goes to harbour, or takes his hold, or he covers; and when he comes out again, then he discovers himself.
There is a great difference between the frith and the fell; the fells being taken for the valleys, green pastures, and mountains, and the friths for springs and coppices.
By the word way is meant the but little in figure from the setter, high and beaten ways on the oute except in size; varying only in a side of a forest or wood: and by the small degree, if any, from a red, word trench, a very small way, not yellow, liver-colour, or white, which so commonly used.
seems to be the invariable external Blemishes are the marks to know standard of this breed; and being where a deer hath gone in or out, nearly two-fifths less in height and and they are little boughs plashed strength than the setter, delicately or broken to hang downwards ; any formed, ears long, soft, and pliable, thing that is hung up is called a coat waving and silky, eyes and sewel.
nose red or black, the tail somewhat FEATHERED GAME. - A brace, a bushy and pendulous, and always in leash, a pack of grouse; a brace, a motion when actively employed. leash, a pack of black game: a brace, The COCKER, though of the same a brace and half (3), a covey of part-race, is smaller than the springer. ridges; a brace, a leash, a nid, an It has also a shorter and more comeye, or nye of pheasants; a brace, a pact form, a rounder head, shorter brace and half (3), a bevy of quails; nose, ears long (and the longer the a couple of snipes (in Ireland called more admired), the limbs short and a brace), a couple and half (3), a strong, the coat more inclined to wisp or walk of snipes; a couple, a curl than the springer's, and longer, couple and half, a fight, or fall of particularly on the tail, which is woodcocks; a fiock or badelynge of generally truncated; the colour liver wild ducks; a gaggle of geese; a and white, red, red and white, black wing or congregation of plovers; a and white, all liver-colour, and not trip of dotterel; a fiock of bustards. unfrequently black, with tanned legs
Raise a grouse, or pack; ruise a and muzzle. The cocker is so called black-cock, or pack; raise a part- from being adapted to covert or ridge, or covey; raise a quail, or woodcock shooting. bevy; push a pheasant; frush a wood SPRINGES, Gins, SNARES. Decock; spring a snipe.
vices for the taking of game of variSPORTSMAN. Sportsman is ous descriptions, placed usually in
their paths, feeding places, or most | Shock, &c. At Newmarket, in frequent haunts.
April, 1759, he beat Mr. Panton's SPUR. A piece of metal made Mystery, six years old (who allowed to fit the heel of the horseman, and Squirrel only 7 lb. for the year), armed with a rowel of eight or ten B. C. 300 gs. At Hambleton, in points.
August following, he received a forSQUIRREL (Sciurus). A spe- feit from a horse of Mr. Turner's of cies of quadruped belonging to the the same age, to whom he was to
have allowed 1 st. He also, at Newmarket, in October, beat the Duke of Cumberland's Spider, aged, 8 st. 7 lb. each, R. M. 200 gs. At Newmarket, in April, 1760, Squirrel, at 9 st. 7 lb. beat the Duke of Cumberland's Dapper, by Cade, 8st. 71b. B. C. 500 gs.; after which he won the 90 gs. plate at Huntingdon, beating, at two heats, Mr. Gorge's Juniper, and Mr. Panton's Posthumous, who was second and drawn. And at Newmarket, in April and
May, 1761, he stood matched against gnawers, and distinguished from Jason and Babram for 1000 gs. each, most animals of the tribe by the com- the former of which he beat easy; pressed form of the lower incisors. but was lamed in the fetlock joint They pass their lives in the woods, before the time of starting with Bawhere they feed on fruits, and dis- bram, which accident rendered him play singular activity in leaping incapable of racing any more. Squirfrom branch to branch. They were rel was sire of a great number of formerly very numerous in England, speedy running horses, &c. at Newand afforded tolerable sport to hunt market. ers of an humble class. They are SQUIRT, ch. foaled in 1732, bred still very numerous in Wales, where by Mr. Metcalfe, of Beverley, who they are hunted and killed for their sold him to Lord Portmore. Squirt skins.
was got by Bartlett's Childers, out SQUIRREL, the property of Je- of the Old Snake mare (sister to nison Shafto, Esq. was bred by Mr. Country Wench); grandam, Grey William Cornforth, and got by Tra-Wilkes (sister to Clumsy), by Hautveller; his dam by Bloody But boy, out of Miss D'Arcy's Pet mare, tocks (which mare was the dam of a daughter of a Sedbury royal mare. Mr. Parker's Lady Thigh and Mr. In October, 1737, Squirt, 8 st. 7 lb. Robinson's Music, and own sister beat Lord Lonsdale's Sultan, 8 st. to the dam of the Widdrington 2 lb. B. C. 200 gs. In April, 1739, Mare). At Newmarket, in Octo- at 8 st. 5 lb. he beat the Duke of ber, 1758, Squirrel won a sweep Bridgewater's Poker, 8 st. 1 lb. stakes of 1400 gs. for four-year-olds, B. C. 200 gs.; after which he won beating the Earl of Northumber- 40 gs. at Epsom, 50 gs. at Stamford, land's ches. filly, by Wilson's Ara- and 301. at Winchester. In 1740, bian (out of Matchem's dam), Mr. he won the give-and-take plate at Panton's Bay Colt, by the Godol- Salisbury. Squirt afterwards bephin Arabian, &c. and a sweep-came a stallion, and, when the prostakes of 120 gs. B. C. beating Mr. perty of Sir Harry Harpur, was orCurzon's Kiddleston, by Whitenose, dered to be shot; but his life was Duke of Ancaster's Standby, by spared at the intercession of one of Shepherd's Crab, Lord Gower's Sir Harry's grooms : after which he
got Marske (the sire of Eclipse), and, next to that, limestone not less Syphon, Mr. Pratt's famous Old than one foot square. Mare(the dam of Pumpkin, Maiden, STAG. A game cock of the sePurity, &c. &c.) Squirt was sire cond year. of many good runners; and it is to STAG. See RED DEER. be lamented that a greater number STAGGERS, MAD, The leadof well-bred mares were not put to ing symptoms
this disease are, him.
unusual drowsiness, loss of appeSQUIRT MARE, foaled in 1750, tite, and an inflamed appearance her dam (Lot's dam) by Mogul - under the eyelids. As the disorder Camilla, by Bay Bolton-Old Lady advances the animal becomes sud(Starling's dam), by Pulleine's chest- denly ferocious, endeavours to bite nut Arabian-Rockwood-Bustler. and destroy any other horse near, This famous mare produced seven or any being who attempts to apteen foals--two died young, three proach him. After those convulsive were never trained, and the re-efforts he sometimes lies down ; and, mainder proved most excellent when recovered from exhaustion, racers. She was dam of Virgin, rises up suddenly, and resumes his Miracle, Dido (dam of Goldfinch), furious operations. This desperate Conundrum, Ranthos, Enigma, Rid- disease originates sometimes from dle, Miss Timms (dam of Prince worms in the stomach, called botts; Ferdinand), Pumpkin, Maiden, Ras- and, in other cases, from too much selas, and Purity (the dam of Rock- confinement in the stable, and high ingham), her last produce. She feeding; the horse should be immedied, August 20, 1777, aged twenty- diately secured in this violent stage
This mare, the property of of the disorder; the two jugular Mr. Pratt, was never trained : she veins should be opened, and, as in was covered twenty-three seasons. the case of inflammatory fever, the Speaking of this mare, Mr. Smith animal should be bled even to faintsays, in his“Observations on breed- ing, and if convulsive symptoms ing for the Turf,” that," From her should again appear, the operation has sprung more good blood than must be repeated. When the anifrom the produce of any other mare mal is thus rendered quiescent, he in the whole stud-book."
should be served with a few emolSTABLE-STAND. See BACK- lient clysters, and one or two purga
tive doses. As soon as his strength STABLING. Loftiness is very is sufficiently recruited, give him desirable in a stable. It should occasional bran mashes, and green never be less than twelve feet high, herbage in small proportions. In and the best method of ventilation some time after (if the weather be is by means of a chimney or square favourable) send him to grass on a opening in the ceiling, communi- light wholesome pasture. The recating with the open air, or it may medies to be relied upon most, are be made in the form of a dome or repeated bleedings and purging. cupola, which would be more orna. STAGGERS, STOMACH. The stomental. The chimney need not be mach is sometimes, when in a disopen at the top so as to admit the eased state, affected by acute inrain, but should be roofed, and have flammation, from receiving into it lateral openings by means of wea- poisonous or highly stimulating subther-boards, as they are termed. As stances. However, this is not a to the admission of air into the sta case of very frequent occurrence. ble, the usual means provided for Botts are supposed to produce somethat purpose are quite sufficient; times a species of chronic inflammathat is, by windows. The best floor tion in the stomach. The principal for a stable, by far, is hard brick ; | indications of acute stomachic in
flammation are, general heaviness, ation of urine is liable to interrupquick breathing and pulsation, legs tion from various causes. and ears chilly, &c. If an over STALKING-HORSE. See quantity of arsenic, blue vitriol, or Fowling. corrosive sublimate, be received in STALLION, or STONE-HORSE. A the stomach, the best antidotes horse kept to propagate the species : against their poisonous effects are, he ought to be sound, well-made, liver of sulpbur; a solution of soap, vigorous, and of a good breed: in with an infusion of fax seed ; a so- him should centre all the points and lution of gum arabic, or arrow-root qualities that it is possible for a good boiled, is also recommended. If horse to possess; since the proacute inflammation ensue from the duce, whether male or female, much action of violent stimulants, such as more frequently acquires and retains an excessive dose of nitrate of pot- the shape, make, marks, and dispoass, linseed infusion is considered sition of the sire than the dam. This the best anti-stimulant. The ani- justifies us in rejecting stallions with mal should also be bled. If the the least appearance of disease, blestomach be inflamed by botts, doses mish, or bodily defect. It is even of olive or castor oil should be given, necessary to descend to the minutiæ and clysters of oil and warm water be of symmetry in the head, neck, thrown up. As the disease abates, shoulder, fore-hand, ribs, back, loins, his regimen of diet should be very joints, and pasterns, attending to a temperate, nutritive mashes of bran, strict uniformity in the shape, make, and a small portion of bruised oats; and texture of the very hoofs. also green herbage, as grass, &c. are The mare," says Buffon, “conthe best diet.
tributes less than the stallion to the STAG-HOUND. The largest and beauty of the foal, but, perhaps, most powerful kind of dog kept for more to its disposition and shape."
STAND-HOUSE. A building erected on a rising ground, in a position commanding a view of the course, and open for the accommodation of the public generally, or of subscribers by whom it is maintained.
STARS. Distinguishing marks in the foreheads of horses: they are usually white.
STARTING. A horse is said to start, that is skittish or timorous, and that takes every object he sees
to be otherwise than it is. the purpose of hunting in England.
This fault is most common to It is the produce of a cross between horses that have defects in their the old English hound and the fox- eyes, or that have been kept a long hound.
time in the stable without airing: a STALING. A term used to sig- starting horse should never be beat nify, in a horse or mare, the act of in his consternation, but made to evacuating the urinary bladder. It advance gently, and by soothing is a humane and necessary practice means, to the object that alarms to suffer horses to void their urine him, till he recovers and gains conat full leisure; and to encourage fidence. them to it by whistling, or any
It is also used for a hare being other of the soothing methods which moved from her seat, or for a racethey may understand. The evacu- horse beginning his course; indeed
it is so appropriated to this, that it specific differences, by which they is difficult to find a phrase to explain may be easily known : first, the size; it. In the first instance, it is used the weasel being always less than as a transitive verb; in the last, as the stoat; secondly, the tail of the a neuter, when applied to the horse, though sometimes the owner will say, “ I mean to start my horse.”
STERN. The tail of a grey. hound or a wolf.
STEW. A small store pond or reservoir wherein fish are kept alive for present use.
This should be so situated as to be near the chief man. sion, and enclosed, the better to be defended from robbers.
STICKLEBACK (Gasterosteus latter is always tipped with black, aculeātus). Spawns in May, and is is longer in proportion, and more found in rivers, ponds, and ditches. hairy; while the tail of the weasel Trout and pike rise easily at them, is shorter, and of the same colour and when the prickles are cut off, with the body; thirdly, the edges they make excellent baits.
of the ears, and the ends of the STIFLE (in a Horse). That part toes in the stoat, are of a yellowish of the hind leg which advances to- white. It may be added, that the wards his belly, similar to the small stoat haunts woods, hedges, and cramp-bone in a leg of mutton; and meadows, especially where there is a most dangerous part to receive are brooks whose sides are covered
with small bushes; and sometimes STIRRUP (in the Manège). An (but less frequently than the weairon frame attached to the saddle to sel) inbabits barns, and other farm assist the horseman to mount, and buildings. afterwards to aid him in preserving The natural history of the stoat a proper seat. When your foot is and weasel are much the same. in the stirrups you should depress They both feed on birds, rabbits, the heel, and the right stirrup lea mice, &c. In agility they are alike, ther should be half a point shorter and the scent of both is equally fetid. than the left.
The stoat is more common in EngThe ancients were not acquainted land than the weasel. with this mode of mounting their STOOPING (in Falconry). horses, but supplied the want by When a hawk on her wings, and at agility, by the assistance of their the height of her pitch, bends down slaves, by training their horses to violently to take the fowl. bend for them, by the assistance of STOPPING. The filling the holtheir javelins; and they had stones low of a horse's foot with cow-dung, laid along the road side in very poultice, or any other moist applicamany places to facilitate the same tion. It has the effect of softening object.
the sole, and, on some occasions, STOAT. The length of the stoat, may be advantageous, though it is to the origin of the tail, is ten inches; frequently misapplied. and of the tail five inches and a half. STRAIN IN THE BACK SINews, or The colours bear so near a resem- Clap. This accident may happen blance to those of the weasel, as to in either fore or hind legs, and may cause them to be frequently confound be either a simple extension of the ed together; the weasel being usually tendons, or accompanied with some mistaken for a small stoat: but these degree of laceration of the cellular animals have evident and invariable substance or ligaments. It occurs
a blow upon.