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same with those of the snipe above the banks of the Thames, and in the described. It is much less frequent county of Norfolk. In August, 1831,

a couple of these birds were shot within a few miles of Norwich, the male being of the extraordinary weight of ten ounces, the female eight ounces.


SOHO. The word used to denote a hare found sitting.

SOILING. Feeding a horse with green food in the stable or under cover.


SOLE OF A HORSE. The plate of among us, and very difficult to be horn which, encompassing the fleshy found, lying so close, as to hazard sole, covers the whole bottom of the being trod on before it will rise ; its foot. The sole ought to be thick flight is never distant, and its mo- and strong, and the shoe of a horse tions, compared with the common so set upon the hoof as not to bear snipe, altogether sluggish. The di- upon it; for otherwise the sole would mensions of the two, however, bear be hurt, and not only make the horse not the same proportion : the length lame, but destroy the flesh that sepaof the snipe being thirteen inches; rates it from the coffin bone. the jack-snipe, ten. The merlin (the SORREL. A reddish colour of smallest of the hawk tribe) is very horses, with which the mane should destructive to snipes.

be red or white. There are two The Great or SOLITARY SNIPE. degrees of this colour, burnt sorrel Its size, as its scientific name (Sco- and bright sorrel, and both are signs lopar media) implies, is about mid- of a good horse. way between the woodcock and com SOUNDNESS.

“ The bargain mon snipe: it is also distinguished for a horse,” says Mr. John Lawby its bill being shorter and stronger rence, “ is either attended with the than that of the latter; its belly and warranty of sound, free from vice vent dusky white, barred with black, or blemish, and quiet to ride or that of the common snipe white; the draw,' or he is sold without warrant, plumage on the back is darker; the to be taken with all faults; in which tail has more red in it; the legs are latter case, the buyer can have no of a darker green, not black, as de- right or pretence to return him, exscribed by Latham; and when sprung cept he prove glandered, which exdoes not cry out. They are gene- ception I suppose arises from the rally found in high stuff, such as illegality of selling any horse in that reeds, flags, &c. They lie very state.' Mr. Taplin observes that, close, and are not so quick on the “ Amongst sportsmen (who are wing as the other species. These justly entitled to the appellation of birds abound in the Pontine Marsbes, gentlemen, and possess a high and are frequently found in the swampy proper sense of honour and the country of the south-west of France, principle of equity) the general acnear the shores of the Bay of Biscay, ceptation of the word 'sound' has and breed in Sweden. The name ever been, and still is, intended to which they are known by in France convey an honourable, unequivocal is La double Becassine.” It is assurance of the perfect state of both sometimes, though rarely, found in the frame and bodily health of the the marshes near the metropolis, on subject, without exception or ambi




guity. It is meant to imply the The bitch, Fanny, mother of the total absence of blemishes, as well breed, on her foot being taken, castas defects(unless particularly pointed ing a look of inexpressible softness out and explained), and is really in- into the face of the person, would tended to confirm a bona fide decla- return the friendly squeeze, with a ration of the horse's being (at the sensibility almost human.” The coat time) free from every imperfection, of the water spaniel is more harsh labouring under no impediment to and curled. The spaniel is a most sight or action. This is the estab- useful dog, but subject to many dislished intent and meaning of the eases ; among these the mange is a word ‘sound' amongst gentlemen frequent and infectious one; the forand sportsmen; its explication and mica, a disorder affecting the ears; various uses for the convenient pur- swelling in the glands of the neck. poses and impositions of blacklegs See Dogs, DISEASES OF. and jobbing itinerants are too per

SPARRING (with Cockfightfectly understood (by those who ers). The fighting of a cock with have run the gauntlet of experience another to breathe him, in which and deception) to require further fights they put muffles on their spurs, animadversion.”

that they may not hurt one another. SPANIEL (Canis extrārius). SPARROW-HAWK (Falco niFrom the name it may be supposed sus, Falco spurverius, Accipiter finthat we were indebted to Spain for gillarius). With green cere, yellow this breed: there were two varieties legs, white belly, undulated with of this kind; the first, formerly used gray, and the tail marked with blackin hawking to spring the game; the ish belts. This is the most pernicious other was used only for the net, and called Index, or the setter. The spaniel, says the author of British Field Sports, is a dog of high antiquity, and has ever been applied to his present purposes, namely, those of finding and bringing game when killed to his master, whether by land or water, and although there is a regular variety of spaniels, the province of which is the water, spaniels in general have no aversion to it, of which their coats is an indication. There is a sort of symmetry and delicacy proper to the true-bred spaniel, particularly discoverable in hawk we have, and makes great the head and ear and fineness of the havoc among partridges and pigeons. flew. “ The most exquisitely deli- It builds in bollow trees, in old nests cate breed of the land spaniel, which of crows, large ruins, and high rocks: I ever witnessed (remarks the vete- it lays four white eggs, encircled, ran John Lawrence), at the same near the blunt end, with red specks. time possessing internal sensibility SPASMS. If a twitching or in an equal degree, was in the hands spasm takes place in any of the of a trainer of race horses. They muscles, it must be treated with were of a reddish yellow and white, gentle frictions with a brush, openthe coat and flew soft and glossy ing the bowels, and then adminisbeyond description, and the eyes tering opium liberally. The best beaming with the tenderest affec- form to give this powerful and at tion-of the smallest kind, but in present only antispasmodic, in veteform, most resembling the springer. rinary medicine, is as follows:


Take infusion of bark, a quart; of the eggs hatched in the uterus. In tincture of opium, half an ounce: the oviparous hermaphrodite fishes, mix.

the spawn is impregnated by the SPAVIN, BLOOD. This disease same individual that deposits the consists in an enlargement of the eggs. saphena vein, which passes over the SPAYING, or SPADING. The bog spavin, and often accompanies operation of castrating the females that disease. The remedy employed of the several kinds of animals, to by farriers is to make an incision in prevent them from conception the skin, and pass some thread, by promote fattening. It is performed means of a crooked needle, under by cutting them in the mid flank on the vein below the dilated part. In the left side, making the incision in one case, after the vein had been an oblique manner, and of breadth securely tied, and the wound in the sufficient to admit of the introducskin stitched up, the horse was tion of the fore-finger to remove the turned to grass; sometimes with ovaries. These are two kernels, a strengthening plaster or charge placed one on each side of the placed all over the joint.

uterus, which being drawn out to Bog SPAVIN.— This is a swelling the wound, the cord is cut and both on the inside of the hock, rather taken away. It is advisable, after towards the fore part; the large stitching up the wound, to anoint the vein, which is so conspicuous on part with tår salve, and keep the the inside of the leg, passing over animal warm for two or three days. it. It depends either upon a dis SPEAR. The feather of a horse, tension or rupture of the membranes called the stroke of the spear, is a which form the synovial cavity, or mark in the neck or near the shoulbursa mucosa, through which the der of some barbs, and some Turkish great flexor tendon passes. The and Spanish horses, representing the swelling is soft and yielding to the blow or cut of a spear, with some pressure of the finger, but rises again resemblance of a scar. This feather as soon as the pressure is removed. is deemed an infallible sign of a good -Sometimes, however, there is a horse. swelling on the outside of the hock SPIRITS OF WINE. A volaalso, and in that case the fluid, or tile substance obtained by distillasynovia, which the swelling con- tion, and possessing a valuable antitains, may be forced from one to septic power. It is much used in the other. Only remedy, firing and the composition of horse medicines. sufficient rest, but not always neces

SPITTER. A male deer, rising sary.

two years old, whose spring is sharp Bone SPAVIN, is a hard tumour or and spit-wise; the same as brocket excrescence formed on the inside of and pricket. the hock; it sometimes occurs on

SPLINTS. Hard excrescences the lower part of the hock, at others which form on the shank bone of it is more deeply seated in the cen- the horse, are termed splints; they tre of the joint; the latter is by far vary in size and shape, and are the most painful. Cure. Firing, and sometimes so large as to press blistering immediately after. against the back sinew, causing

SPAWNING of Fish, is the act stiffness, and in some instances de of depositing the oviparous mat- cided lameness. Those of a smaller ter of the female, and of its being kind are seldom of much importimpregnated with that of the male. ance, unless situated on or pear the Most species of river fish, and many joint. The treatment in all these of the sea kind, produce their young cases requires but little variation. in this way. In the oviparous fishes, The horse will be very lame on the sexual intercourse takes place, and first appearance of these excres


cences, and for some time previous, an otter whines; a boar freams; a requiring judgment on the part of fox barks; a badger shrieks; a wolf the practitioner to ascertain the howls ; a goat rattles.

Gentle treatment must be For their copulation.– A hart or had recourse to in the first instance, buck goes to rut; a roe goes to and the following blister will be tourn ; a boar goes to brim ; a hare found efficacious: Take Spanish flies, or coney goes to buck; a fox goes euphorbium, of each two drachms to clicketing ; a wolf goes to match and a half; Egyptiaticum, strong or make ; an otter huntelh for his vinegar, of each two ounces; spirit kind. of turpentine, water of pure ammo For the footing and treading.– pia, of each ten drachms; oil of Of a hart, we say the slot; of a thyme one ounce: mix and put into buck, and all fallow-deer, the view; a bottle, shaking previous to using. of all deer, if on the grass, and Lameness from a splint may some scarce visible, the foiling; of a fox, times be removed by placing a the print; and of other the like verpledget of old linen, wet with gou- min, the footing; of an otter, the lard or saturnine lotion, on it, and marks ; of a boar, the truck. The confining it with a bandage kept hare, when in open field, is said to constantly wet. I have seen a good sore; when she winds about to deeffect from diluted vinegar also. ceive the bounds, she doubles; when Saturnine lotion : Super cetate of 'she beats on the hard hway, and lead,one ounce; vinegar, four ounces; her footing comes to be perceived, water, one pint: mix.

she pricketh; in snow, it is called SPORT. The diversion of the the trace of the hare. field: we say equally of hunting, The tail of a hart, buck, or other coursing, shooting, and racing, We deer, is called the single; that of a have had good sport, or bad sport, boar, the wreath; of a fox, the brush as the case may be.

or drug; and the tip at the end, the SPORTING PHRASEOLOGY. chape; of a wolf, the stern; of a Many of these terms are introduced hare and coney, the scut. more as a matter of curiosity than

The ordure or excrement of a of use, being now obsolete. hart, and all deer, is called fewmets

For beasts, when in company, we or fewmishing ; of a hare, crotiles say, a herd of harts, and all manner or crotising; of a boar, lesses; of a of deer; a bey of roes; a sounder of fox, the billiting; and of other the swine; a rout of wolves; a richess like vermin, the fuants; of an otter, of martens; a brace or leash of bucks, the spraints. foxes, or hares; a couple of rabbits As to the attire of deer, those of or coneys.

a stag, if perfect, are the bur, the For their lodging.--A hart is said pearls (the little knobs on it), the to harbour; a buck lodges ; a roe beam, the gutters, the antler, the surbeds; a hare seats or forms; a coney antler, royal sur-royal, and all at top sits; a fox kennels; a marten trees; the croches; of the buck, the bur, an otter watches ; a badger earths ; beam, brow-antler, back-antler, ada boar couches.-Hence, to express vancer, palm, and spellers; if the their dislodging, we say, unharbour croches grow in the form of a man's the hart; rouse the buck; start the hand, it is called a palmed-head; hare; bolt the coney; unkennel the heads bearing not above three or fox; untree the marten ; vent the four, and the croches placed aloft, otter; dig the badger; rear the all of one height, are called crownedboar.

heads; heads having double croches For their noise at rutting-time.- are called forked-heads, because the A hart bells; a buck groans or troats; croches are planted on the top of a roe bellows; a hare beats or taps; the beam like forks.

on rotten


317 We say, a litter of cubs, a nest of The first head of a fallow deer is rabbits, a squirrel's dray.

called the prick. The terms used in respect of the When huntsmen endeavour to find dogs, &c.—Of greyhounds, two make a hart by the slot, and observe his a brace, of hounds a couple; of grey- step, they say they know him by hounds, three make a leash, of hounds, his gait. a couple and half. We say, let slip When deer, after having been a greyhound; and, cast-off a hound. hard run, turn head against the The string wherein a greyhound is hounds, they are said to bay. led is called a leash ; and that of a When a hare (though very selhound, a leam, hain, or lyome. The dom) takes the ground like a coney, greyhound has his collar, and the we say, she goes to the vault. hound his couples. We say a kennel When they beat the bushes after of hounds, and a pack of beagles. a fox, they call it drawing.

When hounds are first cast-off, When a hare runs and, finding game, begin to open, ground and it sticks to her feet, we they are said to challenge; when say she curries. they are too busy ere the scent be When a fox has young ones in good, they are said to babble ; when her, we say she is with cub. too busy, where the scent is good, When beagles bark and cry at to buul; when they run it endwise their prey, we say they yearn. orderly, holding in merrily, they are Upon view of a hart, if he be a said to be in full cry; when they goodly deer, do not call him fair, run without opening, it called but great; and so a great hind and running mute.

a great buck; but a fair and comely When spaniels open in the string, doe. or a greyhound in the course, they When a deer eats in a corn or are said to lapse.

grass field, he is said to feed, otherWhen beagles bark and cry at wise to browse ; and if he stays to their prey, they are said to yearn. look on any thing, he is said to stand

When the dogs hit the scent the at gaze; when he forces by, he contrary way, they are said to draw trips; and when he runs a pace, he amiss.

strains. When they take fresh scent, and When he is hunted and leaves quit the former chase for a new one, the herd, then he singles; and when it is called hunting change.

he foams at the mouth, he is emWhen they hunt the game by the bossed; when he swells or vents any heel or track, they are said to hunt thing, they say he hath this or that counter.

in the wind; when he holds out his When the chase goes off and re- neck at full length inclining, they turns again, traversing the same say he is spent; and being dead, he ground, it is called hunting the foil. is done.

When the dogs run at a herd of When hounds find where the deer, instead of a single one, it is chase hath been, and make a proffer called running riot.

to enter, but return, they call it a When hounds or beagles have blemish. finished their chase, by the death of A lesson, blown on the horn to what they pursued, and in requital comfort the hounds, is termed a are fed by the huntsman or others, call; a recheat is a lesson blown on it is called a reward.

the horn; the mort or death is blown When deer cast their horns, they at the death of a deer. are said to mew.

A hind in the first year is called When a deer has been hard a calf'; in the second year, a hearse ; hunted, and then betakes himself to and sometimes we say a brocket's swimming, we say he takes soil. sister, &c.; and the third year, ahind.

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