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by the water-side, made by histogos-bawk, a laner, or a swan, should rians and romance-writers of the suffer imprisonment for a year and a middle ages, is a circumstance that day, and be liable to a fine at the led to the supposition that the pur- king's pleasure.” suit of water-fowls afforded the most Hentzner, who wrote his Itinerary diversion. In the poetical romance in the year 1598, affirms that hawkof the Squire of Low Degree, the ing was then the general sport of the king of Hungary promises his daugh- English nobility: yet so rapidly did ter, that, at her return from hunting, this amusement decline, that, before she should hawk by the river-side the time of the civil wars, it was alwith gos-hawk, gentle falcon, and most forgotten. This no doubt arose other well-tutored birds : so also from the introduction and gradual Chaucer, in the rhyme of Sir Tho- improvement of the gun, which enpaz, says, that he could hunt the sured a greater certainty of procurwild-deer,
ing game, and rendered all the ex“ And ryde on hawkynge by the ryver pense of training and maintaining With grey gos-hawke in hand.”
hawks unnecessary. The fair sex were about this pe Of late years, however, there has riod renowned for their partiality to evidently been an attempt to revive hawking; and, besides accompany the diversion of hawking by several ing their male friends when engaged country gentlemen; among the forein this sport, they frequently, it most of whom stands Sir John Seseems, practised it by themselves. bright, Bart., who, about two years Johan Sarisburiensis, who wrote in since, published his Observations the thirteenth century, asserts that upon Hawking, giving, among other " they even excelled the men in entertaining particulars, a pleasing their knowledge and exercise of the description of the mode of breaking art of falconry.'
and managing the several kinds of From the Carta de Foresta ob- hawks used in falconry. tained from King John, it would As Sir John, from his long pracseem that no person, except of the tical knowledge in the art of rehighest rank, was, under the Nor- claiming these birds, is no mean man laws, permitted to breed hawks; authority to quote, we shall proceed but by that charter every free man to cite a few of the most interesting was privileged to have eyries of facts adverted to by the Hon. Barohawks, falcons, eagles, and herons net, without particular regard to in his own woods.
their order. In the 37th of Edward III. the In the commencement of the trea. stealing and concealing of a hawk tise we are informed that the village was made felony by the legislature; of Falconswaerd, near Bois-le-duc, and in the same reign, as appears in Holland, has for many years furfrom the register of Orleton, bishop nished falconers to the rest of Euof Winchester, the bishop of Ely rope. “ I have known,” says the excommunicated certain persons for author, “ many falconers in Engstealing a bawk belonging to him- land, and in the services of different self, that was sitting on its perch in princes on the continent, but I never the cloisters of Bermondsey Abbey met with one of them who was not a in Southwark.
pative of Falconswaerd." Even the very eggs of these birds The two species of birds genewere protected by royal edicts; an rally used in falconry are the slight instance of which occurs in the falcon (falco gentilis ) and the goseleventh year of the reign of Henry hawk (falco pulumbarius). The forVII., when it was decreed, that mer is called a long-winged hawk,
any person taking from the nest, or one of the lure; the latter, a or destroying the eggs of a falcon, a short-winged hawk, or one of the
fist. All hawks, according to the hand but when it is absolutely nelength of their wings, and to their cessary; but he must of course be
held during these operations, care being taken not to break his fea. thers, or to do him any other injury. A block of solid wood, in the form of a truncated cone, one foot in height, eight or nine inches in diameter at the top, and large enough at the base not to be easily overturned, is the resting-place of the hawk. A small staple is driven into the top, and to this he is to be tied, with sufficient length of leash to
allow him to go from the block to mode of flight, belong to one or the the
ground at pleasure. other of these two classes. The The following is the practice slight falcon may either be taken adopted by falconers in partridgefrom the nest (or eyrie, as it is hawking. called, from the German word for An open country is required for egg ), or may be caught when it has this sport. The falconers must be attained its full growth. It is then on horseback, provided with a steady termed a passage-hawk. Slight fal- pointer, and one or two spaniels uncons breed in cliffs in several parts der good command. When a partof England, but are more abundant ridge is marked down, or pointed in Scotland and in the northern by the dog, the hawk is to be unregions. The old birds, if not de- hooded and cast off. He will fly stroyed, return every year to the round the falconer, and, if a good
bird, mount to a considerable height A cap of leather, called a hood,
- the higher the better. If he is to be put on the hawk's head the ranges to too great a distance, he moment he is taken. It is so con- may be made to incline inwards by structed as to prevent him from the voice of the falconer, and by the seeing, but allows him to feed, and lure; but these should be used with may be put on or taken off at plea- discretion: for it is much better sure; but to hood a hawk (we are that a flight should occasionally be told) requires a degree of manual lost from a hawk's ranging too far, dexterity that is not easily acquired. than that his pitch should be lowSlips of light leather, seven or eightered (as is often the case) by too inches long and a quarter of an inch much luring. This, and the not wide, are to be made fast to each of giving the hawk time to mount behis legs. These are called jesses, fore the game is sprung, are very and are to be fastened to a small common faults in the management swivel fixed to the end of a thong of of slight falcons. leather three or four feet long, called It is by no means necessary that a leash, so as easily to be detached the hawk should be very near the from the swivel when the hawk is birds when they rise. If he be withrequired to fly. The jesses always in two or three hundred yards of remain on his legs. He is also to them it will be near enough, probe equipped with two light bells, vided that his pitch be high, and fastened to his legs by two light that his head be turned towards pieces of soft leather, by the sound them. of which, when he is lost, we may High ranging pointers are by far be assisted in recovering him. Å the best for this sport; for the birds hawk is never to be touched by the will often lie to a dog when they
will not suffer horsemen to approach of hawk. Sir John Sebright regrets them.
that this language should prevail, When the dog points at a dis as it has led (he says) to many mistance the hawk is to be cast off, as takes. The term falcon, he conit will both prevent the birds from siders, should be applied, par excelrising and give him time to mount. lence, to the falco gentilis-a distincWhen the partridge rises the hawk tion to which he is well entitled, by will dart down to it with wonderful reason of his superior qualities as a velocity, and either take it in the bird of chase. first fight, or force it to take refuge Slight falcons, we are informed, in a bush or hedge. In the latter take up their abode every year, case the hawk will make his point, from October or November until the that is, rise perpendicularly in the spring, upon Westminster Abbey, air over the spot where the bird got and upon other churches in the meinto covert. The falconer is now to tropolis: this appears to be well attend solely to his hawk, and leave known to the London pigeon-fanit to others to assist the dog in ciers, from the great havoc they springing the bird. The hawk should make in their flights. wait on at a moderate distance, but Hawks are not susceptible of athis flight should not be lowered by tachment to their keeper ; nor do an injudicious use of the lure. they, like the dog, pursue game for
When the hawk has taken the the pleasure of the sport. Hunger partridge, the falconer alone is to is in them the only inducement to approach him, at first walking round action; and in a wild, as in a dohim at a distance with the greatest mestic state, they remain almost circumspection, and drawing near motionless when their hunger is him by degrees, as he seems dis satisfied. It is, therefore, by this posed to bear it. At length, by appetite alone that hawks can be kneeling down, whistling as at the governed-it is the bridle that retime of feeding, the arm may be ex- strains them, and the spur that urges tended gently (for all sudden emo- them to exertion ; and it is, there tions are to be avoided), and by fore, on the right management of taking hold of the partridge, which this primum mobile that the success the hawk will certainly not quit, of the falconer must principally dehe may be placed on the fist, still pend. Fresh raw beef is the best grasping his prey in his talons. food for hawks. The quantity must The hawk is then to be booded, depend upon the condition and beafter having been rewarded with haviour of each individual bird, and the head of the partridge ; or, if not will, of course, vary from day to required to fly again, he should be day; but the average is about oneimmediately fed.
third of a pound of beef a day for a A great many partridges may be slight falcon, and for other hawks in killed by means of the gos-hawk in proportion. the beginning of the season,
when Hawking has, for many years, the birds are young, and particularly almost ceased to be followed as a in a dewy morning, as their wings sport, except in a few instances.becoming wet from their having been The Duke of St. Albans, Grand Hedriven into the hedges, they will be reditary Falconer of England, has easily taken by the dogs.
revived this ancient sport upon his The females of almost every kind own estates, and gratified the faof hawk are considerably larger than shionables by a splendid display of the males. In the language of fal- the sport of hawking, on the downs conry the former are called falcons, near Brighton. See Hawk. and the latter teircels. These terms FALLOW (Faal, Bel.; Fulvus, are applied to almost every species Lat.). A palish red colour, resem
bling the tint of a half-burned | lar service to beasts of chase, by afbrick.
fording them free respiration ; these FALLOW-DEER (Buck and additional postrils being thrown open Doe.) This species is very numer- when they are hard run. Mr. Penous in England; all, except on a nant has observed the same curious few chases, confined in parks. The organization in the antelope. Deer colour is various — reddish, deep are easily tamed, and their venison brown, white, or spotted : horns is in high esteem among the luxuribranched, compressed, recurved, and. ous. The velvet, when fried, is con
sidered by epicures the most delicate part of the deer.
“ By castrating the males when newly dropped,' says Mr. Loudon," which is not in the least dangerous, it affords the means of having good venison until Christmas, without any other sort of food than grass : they also fatten more quickly: the operation must, however, be performed while they are quite young.” By stat. 16 Geo. III. c. 30, if any person shall hunt or take in a snare, or kill or wound any red or fallow deer, in any forest, chase, &c. whether enclosed or not; or in any closed park, paddock, &c. without the consent of the owner,
or be aiding in such offence, he shall palmated at the top. During rut- forfeit 201. for the first offence, and ting-time they will contend with also 301. for each deer killed, taken, each other for their mistress, but are
or wounded. A gamekeeper offendless fierce than the stag, though ing to forfeit double. For a second equally inconstant. No two animals offence, offenders shall be transapproach so near to each other as ported for seven years. By stat. the stag and the fallow deer. Al. 28 Geo. II. c. 19, destroying gorse, though their similarity be great, furze, and fern, in forests and chases, they never herd together, never en- being
the covert for deer, subjects gender, or form a mixed breed. In the offenders to a penalty from 40s. fact, they constitute distinct fami- to 51. or to three month's imprisonlies, and avoid each other with the ment. most deep-rooted antipathy. The FALSE QUARTER (in Farperiod of gestation, however, is about riery). A crack on the inner or the same in both. The great dif- outer side of a horse's hoof, having ference between these animals con- the appearance of a piece that has sists in the duration of their lives, been inserted. It is attended by a the fallow deer seldom attaining violent pain, and opens as the horse twenty years.
sets foot to the ground. Relief may In drinking, deer plunge their be had by careful shoeing, taking noses very deep under water, and care that the unsound part does not remain in that situation for a con- touch the shoe, while the sound porsiderable time; but, to obviate any tion shall bear fully upon it. Paring inconveniency, they can open two and oiling are also of advantage, vents, one at the inner corner of tending somewhat to restore the each eye, having a communication part. with the nose. This extraordinary
FAR, or OFF. An appellation provision of Nature may be of singu- given to any part of a horse's right
side; thus the far or off foot, shoul-, when each party appoints a person der, &c. is the same with the right to ride without weighing. Catch foot, the right shoulder, &c. weights signify the same.
FARCY, Farcio, Lat. (in Far FEEDER. A person whose duty riery). A creeping, loathsome, le- it is to mix and prepare the meat, prous disease in horses, beginning &c. for the hounds. Cleanliness with hard buttons, buds, or particles cannot be too much recommended that dilate and spread themselves, to this functionary: as sport deand sometimes overrun the whole pends entirely on that exquisite body, and following the course of sense of smelling so peculiar to the the veins. These pustules in a short hound, the kennel must be kept time become soft, break, and dis- sweet and clean. charge foul and bloody matter. It FEEDING. In the usual way of appears indifferently in all parts of feeding and treating horses, no atthe animal. Copious bleeding is a tention is paid to the state of the remedy much relied on, after which stomach when they are put to work, four ounces of cream of tartar, with but frequently they are put into a a lenitive electuary, made into balls, chaise, or coach, or ridden off at a should be given every other day for quick pace with their stomachs loadone week, and at the same time leted with food; the consequence of three ounces of nitre be put into his this has often been gripes, infiamdrink every day. The unbroken mation of the bowels, and even sudtumours should be rubbed, twice a den death. The bay, as well as the day, with an ointment made as fol- corn, should, if possible, be divided lows:- Elder ointment, four ounces; into four portions, and each portion, oil of turpentine, two ounces: sugar both of oats and hay, should be wetof lead, half an ounce; white vitriol, ted with water: this will facilitate powdered, two drachms. The broken mastication and swallowing, and likepustules should be rubbed gently wise digestion; a horse thus fed will with the “budding-iron,” at a dull so quickly digest that he will always red heat.
be fit for his labour. The largest FARCY, WATER (in Farriery). A portion, both of oats and hay, should disease incident to horses, and ter- be given at night, and the next in minating cutaneously, or else the quantity to this, early in the mornwater is suffused through different ing; the other two portions in the parts of the body, and appears in a forenoon and afternoon, or about number of soft swellings. The first twelve and four. But this must of species may be relieved by slight course depend upon the kind of scarifications; but the second re- work a horse is employed in, and quires length of time, skilful admi- must be regulated accordingly.nistration of reliefs and restoration, Horses that have been accustomed and has frequently a fatal termina- to an unlimited allowance of hay, tion.
often eat their litter when put upon FARRIERY. See VETERINARY a proper diet; but this must be preART.
vented by a muzzle. FAWN. A buck or doe of the FEEL. To feel a horse in the
hand, is to observe that the will of FÈATHER. A natural frizzling the horse is in the hand, that he or turning of the hair, in some de tastes the bridle, and has a good gree resembling the top of an ear of appui in obeying the bit. corn, found on many parts of the To feel a horse upon the haunches, horse's body, but more commonly is to observe that he plies or bends between the eyes.
them, which is contrary to leaning FEATHER-WEIGHT. A horse or throwing upon the shoulders. is said to carry a feather, in racing, FEET. See HORSE,