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reserved to the citizens of the respective States in the compact of 1785 and its subsequent ratifications indicate the intention of each State to maintain riparian rights and privileges to its citizens on their own side of the river.

This conclusion gives to Maryland a uniform southern boundary along Virginia and West Virginia at low-water mark on the south bank of the Potomac River to the intersection of the north and south line between Maryland and West Virginia, established by the decree in this case. This conclusion is also consistent with the previous exercise of political jurisdiction by the States respectively.

The decree will therefore provide for the south bank of the Potomac River at low-water mark on the West Virginia shore as the true southern boundary line of the State of Maryland.

The other contention in the case concerns the costs of the surveys made by the surveyors of the respective States. It is the contention of Maryland that they should be equally divided, while West Virginia contends that each State should bear its own expense in this respect. An examination of the record shows that early in the proceedings in this case, on the twenty-sixth day of May, 1894, an order was entered by consent of parties, which authorized a survey to be made by surveyors to be agreed upon in writing by counsel for the respective States, said surveyor or surveyors to return to this court a report and map or maps made by him or them under the order, together with copies of such report, map or maps. The order provided for notice to be given attorneys for both parties of the time and place of commencing such surveys. Subsequently surveyors were designated, surveys were made and elaborate reports were filed in this court. Under these circumstances we are of opinion that the order heretofore made concerning the division of the costs should include the costs of such surveys.' As was said by this court in Nebraska v. Iowa, 143 U. S. 359, 370,

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in making an order for a division of costs between the two

a States in a boundary dispute, the matter involved is governmental in character, in which each party has a real and yet not a litigious interest. The object to be obtained is the settlement of a boundary line between sovereign States in the interest, not only of property rights, but also in promotion of the peace and good order of the communities, and is one which the States have a common interest to bring to a satisfactory and final conclusion. Where such is the nature of the cause we think the expenses should be borne in common, so far as may be, and we therefore adopt so much of the decree proposed by the State of Maryland as makes provision for the costs of the surveys made under the order of this court.

We append the decree to be entered:


This cause came on to be heard at this term and was argued by counsel; and thereupon, on consideration thereof, it was adjudged and decreed as follows:

First. That the true boundary line between the States of Maryland and West Virginia is ascertained and established as follows:

Beginning at the common corner of the States of Maryland and Virginia on the southern bank of the Pctomac River at low-water mark at or near the mouth of the Shenandoah River, (near Harper's Ferry,) and running thence with the southern bank of the said Potomac River, at low-water mark, and with the southern bank of the North Branch of the Potomac River at low-water mark, to the point where the north and south line from the Fairfax Stone crosses the said North Branch of the Potomac, and thence running northerly, as near as may be, with the Deakins or Old State line to the line of the State of Pennsylvania.

Second. That Julius K. Monroe, William McCulloch

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Brown and Samuel S. Gannett be, and they are hereby, appointed commissioners to run, locate and establish and permanently mark with suitable monuments the said Deakins or Old State line as the boundary line between the States of Maryland and West Virginia from said point on the southern bank of the North Branch of the Potomac River to the said Pennsylvania line, in accordance with the opinion of this court heretofore filed in this case and with this decree, the said line to be run and located as far as practicable as it has been generally recognized and adopted by the people residing about or near the same as the boundary line between the said States, and not as conforming, except to a limited extent, to the western boundary of the Maryland Military Lots as said lots are now located and held. Said commissioners shall mark said line as run, located and established by them with suitable stone monuments, at reasonable and proper intervals, according to the topography of the country.

It is further ordered that before entering upon the discharge of their duties each of said commissioners shall be duly sworn to perform faithfully, impartially and without prejudice or bias the duties herein imposed; said oath to be taken before the clerk of this court, or before either of the clerks of the Circuit Courts of the United States for the District of Maryland or for the Northern District of West Virginia, or before an officer authorized by law to administer an oath in the State of Maryland or of West Virginia, and returned with their report; that said commissioners may arrange for their organization, their meetings and the particular manner of the performance of their duties, and are authorized to adopt all ordinary and legitimate methods in the ascertainment of the true location of said boundary line, including the taking of evidence under oath and calling for papers and documents, but in the event evidence is taken the parties shall be notified and permitted to be present and cross-examine

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the witnesses; and all evidence taken by the commissioners and all exceptions thereto and action thereon shall be preserved and certified and returned with their report.

Said commissioners are also at liberty to refer to and consult the printed record in the cause so far as they may think proper to enable them to discharge their duties under this decree.

It is further ordered that the clerk of this court shall at once forward to the governor of each of said States of Maryland and West Virginia, and to each of the commissioners appointed by this decree, a copy of this decree duly authenticated. And said commissioners are authorized, if they deem it necessary, to request the cooperation and assistance of the State authorities in the performance of the duties imposed on them by this decree.

It is further ordered that said commissioners do proceed, with all convenient dispatch, to discharge their duties in running, locating, establishing and marking said line as herein directed, and make their report thereof and of their proceedings in the premises to this court on or before the first day of January, 1911, together with a complete bill of costs and charges annexed.

It is further ordered that should vacancies occur in said board of commissioners by reason of death, the refusal to act or inability to perform the duties required by this decree, the Chief Justice of this court is hereby authorized and empowered to appoint other commissioners to supply such vacancies, and said Chief Justice is authorized to act on such information in the premises as may be satisfactory to himself.

It is further ordered that all the costs of the proceedings by said commissioners under this decree, including a remuneration of not exceeding fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day and his reasonable expenses for each commissioner whilst actually engaged in the performance of his duties

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hereunder, and the other costs incident to the running, locating, establishing and marking said line, shall be paid by the States of Maryland and West Virginia equally.

Third. That the cross bill of the State of West Virginia, in so far as it asks for a decree fixing the north bank of the Potomac River as the boundary line between said States, be, and the same is, hereby dismissed.

Fourth. That this decree shall not be construed as abrogating or setting aside the compact made between commissioners of the State of Maryland and the State of Virginia at Mount Vernon on the 28th day of March, 1785, and which was confirmed by the general assembly of Maryland and afterwards by act of the general assembly of Virginia passed on the 3rd day of January, 1786, but the said compact, except so far as it may have been superseded by the provisions of the Constitution of the United States, or may be inconsistent with this decree, shall remain obligatory upon and between the States of Maryland and West Virginia, so far as it is applicable to that part of the Potomac River which extends along the border of said States, as ascertained and established by this decree.

Fifth. That all the costs in this case and the proceedings therein as the same shall be taxed by the clerk of this court, and including also the costs of the surveys made by the two States under the order or orders of this court, said costs for said surveys to be ascertained and taxed by the clerk of this court upon vouchers sworn to and exhibited to him, shall be equally divided between the said two States.

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