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able young sarage, while Mr. Charles Bates and can help being an idealist; by trying very hard the Dodger are enshrined in our most intimate he may become an idealist of the bad, and call affection. Now, Shakespeare and Scott are not himself a "naturalist.” All these terms of jargon great at boys, as any one will find if he tries to
are empty and otiose. It does pot matter what a recall the boys in the plays and Waverley Novels. man calls himself; his "æsthetic principles" do not On the other hand, Thackeray's boys are matter. Homer had none, nor probably had numerous and excellent, in their way, as the boys Shakespeare; now we hear of them, as if they of Dickens. "A soaring human boy" is the delight were half the battle and things highly precious. of the conteniplative man. His contempt for you
His contempt for you Nothing matters but the result, the work done, (but thinly veiled), his frankness, his loyalty, his and that depends on a man's temperament and gratitude (he never, never forgets a tip), his hero genius. To these he accommodates his "æsthetic worship, his pleasing exterior, and the utter principles,” if he keeps such things, and does just devilishness of the creature. his ram pagiousness, what God gave him the power of doing. Wordshis inventiveness in mischief, the gravity of his worth evolved prefaces on his principles ; Scott most absurd social laws and taboos, the primitive- . did not, and each man wrote precisely wliat he ness of the brat,--all these amiable qualities felt disposed to write, Wordsworth extracting his endear boys to their so despised and suffering principles out of his practice. For these reasons seniors. Dickens and Thackeray were good it is waste of time to discuss Dickens as an idealfriends to boys, and one remembers fondly the ist or a realist, or the like. He worked pretty hours which they stole for him from studies consistently with the Aristotelian theory of art, infinitely less important, and the "tips" in the of which, perhaps, he had never heard, except in way of endless laughter and diversion which they "Tom Jones." His perpetual "moral purpose," of provided for his green, unknowing youth. They course, was un-Aristotelian, but bad he known were--I hope they still are-the spiritual uncles this he would not have altered his practice. of British boy hood; we kpow how Mr. Winkle Of Dickens, the man, there is little occasion to consoled certain troubled hours of Mr. Harry (or speak, as we shall never know more of Scud) East's.
scarcely, than all the world may read in Mr. In girls, doubtless, Dickens was not so learned, Forster's "Life." We see him brave, kind, genand it is superfluous to refer to his heroines. We erous, vivacious, capable of passion which death do not fallin love with any one ofthem as we do with and time warred against in vaia. We see his Beatrix Esmond, Diana Vernon, Catherine Seton, hatred of cruelty, oppression and indifference ; and many others.
Dickens' most successful we see that knowledge and deep thought, politiwomen are Mrs. Gamp, Mrs. Nickleby; his large cal or literary, were not his strong points. He collection of shrews; Aunt Trot wood, Flora, Dora was "the pleasantest of companions," with whom and so forth. Women say that Thackeray was men "forgot that he had ever written anything." hard on them, but really Thackeray drew mich To myself, I own, bis letters, and what is told of more winsome women (Sairey excepted) than his social qualities, attest rather hilarity and Dickens. The lawyers of the latter author, his buoyancy than that soft, all-embracing humor cads, his crowd, are all beyond praise, like his which plays round the letters of Lanıb, of Scott, cabotins, and his strollers of every description. and of Thackeray. Mr. Dickens took himself and Penden nis, Warrington, Lord Kew, were as much his works with a consuming seriousness and earout of his way as Quilp or old John Wilet was pestness not to be remarked in these other out of Thackeray's. He could certainly draw a authors. Mr. Forster speaks of "the intensity and gentleman, but
the gentleman tenacity with which he recognized, realized, con(by no fault of his own) was in the templated, cultivated and thoroughly enjoyed his heraldic sense, Dickens became uneasy, bristled own individuality." That is very evident, and I up; felt that he ought to be satirical. I do not confess that to be thus self-centered and selfmean, of course, that he felt thus in the inter
absorbed seems to me to have prevented Dickens course of life, but he did when he had a pen in from being, as a man, such a humorist as he is his hand. It was one of his limitations. He had with pen and ink before him. His humor is not many limitations in human nature. He had rather a kind of wit (often, at least), based on none of the ordinary English contempt and dis- enjoyment of observation of incongruities than trust of foreigners. Of course, he was not a suc quality of love, of melancholy, of contemplacess in dealing with quite ordinary people--say, tion, of detachment, of sense of our own littleness, Miss Austen's people-because his genius lay in which makes what one understands by "humor." detecting the extraordinary, and when it was not Thus, in his high moods and hilarious hours, he there, he invented it. Thus, he is now called an seems not so much to have been humorous as Idealist, which, with some critics, ineans the joyous and convivial. Dickens was not self deAccursed Thing. No artist, let him try as he will, tached, was not contemplative, had none of the
sense of littleness which, in contrast with our WORDSWORTH AS A BOOK COLLECTOR. infinite importance to ourselves), and combined
Although the variety of book collectors is infinwith the kindness of which he was full, make the
ite, they may be roughly segregated in two sechumorist in essence. I do not niean, any more
tions those who read their purchases and those than Mr. Forster means, that Dickens was "con
who do not. Wordsworth was distinctly of the ceited.” Not that it would matter much if he
first class; indeed, he not only used his books was.
constantly, but, it must be admitted, rather badly. It is said of his face, in youth, that "light and
He died in April, 1850, but his “varied and valumotion flashed from every part of it. It was as it able library”-to use the alliterative expression of made of stoel," according to Mrs. Carlyle. Now, the auctioneer--remained intact until the death of one feels; in Dickens' letters, the presence of a his widow nine years later at "that haunt of halkind of polished hardness somewhere in his
lowed memories" I am again quoting the auccharacter; a wilfulness that went with his extra
tioneer Rydal Mount, near Ambleside.
It was ordinary restless energy and desire to have his
sold on July 19, 20 and 21, 1859, on the premises own way, and that at once. In this impression, by a Mr. John Burton, of Preston.” The sale vague and possibly erroneous, one finds, perhaps, catalogue is one of considerable rarity; the library the secret of that want of satisfaction, of complete itself was not, apparently, thought of sufficient sympathy, which Mr. Forster's “Life" left in the importance to transport to London, and the books minds of many readers. Dickens was not some
were of what booksellers describe as of the breadhow exactly the man we had expected; there
and cheese" order. Wordsworth's library cona want somewhere. But his friends who
sisted of about three thousand volumes, "pot only knew him certainly seem to have felt nothing of of curious and rare editions of old English worthies, all this; and the fault may be with us, or with the
in black letter and other early typography," but biographer. Carlyle found in Dickens "a man
also "an extensive aggregation of later lucubramost cordial, sincere, clear-sighted, quietly decis.
tions of contemporary celebrities.” The Prefatory ive, just and loving." This was in a letter of con
Note was, like the two quotations just given, the dolence: “He is a good creature, too,” said the
work of the auctioneer, who was clearly reared in sage, on an ordinary occasion; "he is a fine little
the school which produced the ever-to-be forgotfellow," on another. To pass Mr. Carlyle's exam
ten George Robins. "No costly 'tooling,' po 'araination, to go by that philosopher's tu!) unbitten, besque gilding,' on 'russia' and 'morocco' decorate was a distinction indeed. But Dickens and Lock
the works by which his shelves were thronged," hart passed; they were accepted. Hence, it may
declared Mr. Burton, for "many, indeed, in quaint be inferred that there was nothing, or next to 'cottonian' coverings, or in tattered guise, are those nothing to be seriously said against then. In a
he most cherished.” fanious
Nearly every hook in his library "contains evi. and otliers discoursed of the illustrious dead
dence of the late poet's identity with its ownership whom they wished, for once, to meet on this side
in his own band writing, and in numerous instances of the River. Thinking of Dickens, I feel that
by that of the late Mrs. Wordsworth also.” The there are a few others whom I more passionately
seven hundred lots were grouped somewhat desire to meet, whom "not having seen, I love," roughly together in sections, and each of these more than Dickens, among the great writers of
sections is headed with one or more appropriate the recent past. He who sleeps in Dryburgh; quotations. The first section comprises history, he to whose room camie Athos, Aramis, Porthos
political economy, jurisprudence, and cognate suband d'Artagnan with their noiseless swagger,- jects, and it includes an incomplete set of the these, I admit, are dearer to my heart than even
Annual Register; sixty-one volumes of the publithe beloved author of "Pickwick.” Their tastes,
cations of the Camden Society; Blackstone's "Comtheir ideas, their humor, there ways are, some mentaries," 1768, which, as we are obligiogly rehow, kindlier to me. Prejudice, no doubt, of minded in a footnote, Sir William Jones describes education, country and training, accounts for this
"as the most correct and beautiful outline that preference (purely sentimental); but one can well
ever was exhibited in any human science"; Cæs. believe that the votes of English readers, in such ar's "Commentarium de Bello Gallico," 1508, a meeting as Hazlitt describes, would, for the minus the title-page, but with presentation inmore part, be for Dickens. He has bequeathed to
scription in the autograph of Walter Savage us an almost insupportable burden of gratitude Landor; the “Proceedings of the African Associaand while I have played the Devil's Advocate,
tion, 1791, with the autographs of Coleridge and when the part seemed called for, in this study, it
Wordsworth; Gibbon's “Decline and Fall of the has been contrecaur, and from an odd sense of
Roman Empire"; Sir David Lindsay's "Monarchie," duty which seemed half undutiful.
1566, wanting the title and dedication; a copy of ANDREW LANG,
"Political Disquisitions," 1744, inscribed "From
Thomas de Quincy to William Wordsworth, Gras in Wordsworth's hand writing: My dear Daughter mere, Friday, June 22, 1810,” while Sandoval, and I became acquainted with this gentleman at Scaliger, Stow, and other authors are also repre Brussels, where he showed great kindness to us sented. Two of the entries are particularly curi both. Io “Rudiments of the Italian Tongue,” ous: of Potter's "Archæologia Græca," 1808, and 1781, Mrs. Wordsworth has written: "This book "History of the Knights of Malta," 1770, only the was much valued as belonging to my dear husfirst two volumes, and of Southey's “History of band when he studied the language at Cambridge. Brazil," 1819, only the third volume were discov M. W., 1850;" and a propos of this may be menerable, and this fact elicited from the auctioneer tioned Guicciardini's "L'Hore di Ricreatione, the footnote: "The missing volumes of these works 1636, which has the autographs of Thomas Hayhaving been lent (to whom is not known) may ward, the poet, and W. Wordsworth. possibly be returned in time for the sale, and, if So far as poetry is concerned, the library inso, will be certainly sold with the above."
cluded editions of most ancient and modern writers. The section of biography, topography, geogra Elizabeth B. Barrett's "Seraphim and Other phy, physical science, and natural history coni Poems,” 1831, is in a bundle with five other volprised many interesting books, and included most umes by poets whose names even now are utterly of which, at that period, no gentleman's library unknown. Of Burns there are two editions; R. was without. They ranged from the "Eikon H. Horne, Landor, Charles Lloyd, Talfourd, BerBasilike” to Dobrizhoffer's “Account of the Abi pard, Barten, Bowles, Southey, Coleridge, and pones,” 1822, and from Culpepper's “English Phy- others of the time are represented in autograph sician," 1657, to Toland's "Life of Milton." But presentation copies; Thomas Cooper's "Purgatory it also included Frend's “Evening Amusements,” of Suicides" is accompanied by an autograph let. 1803-1809, inscribed to "Hartley Coleridge from ter from the author; the copy of Dryden's "Poems," his affectionate father, S. T. Coleridge, 1809"; a published by Jacob Tonson in 1701, is inscribed copy of Pomponii Melæ, “Oe Situ Orbis, lib. tres," “From the Rev. Charles Townsend to William 1646, without the title-page, but with the auto Wordsworth in remembrance of a long and pleasgraphs of Coleridge and Wordsworth; and an ant walk this day, May 23, 1836.” One of the autograph presentation copy of the “Account of two editions of Gray's works bears the inscription the Skerry rore Lighthouse,” 1848, by Alan Stey "To W. Wordsworth from Samuel Rogers, January enson, great-uncle of the novelist. The section of
27, 1836;" and Scott's "Marmion” and “Lord of theology and ethics, ecclesiastical history and the Isles” both carry presentation inscriptions from polemical divinity, was largely made up of battered the author to Wordsworth. The rarest books of fragments and volumes that had lost their title verse in the collection were the copies of Allot's pages. One of the most notable was the Calvin "England's Parnassus," 1600, and "Wit's Recreabook, "Institutio Christianæ Religionis," 1569, tion,” 1641. with the autographs of S. T. Coleridge and Wil But this sale did not include the whole of Wordsliam Wordsworth; there was also a copy of the worth's library, for on June 23, 1896, a selection very scarce work of Sir John Harington's "Briefe of twenty-six lots came under the hammer of Soview of the state of the Church of England as it theby's. They were then the property of Mr. W. stood in Q. Elizabeth's and K. James's Reigne to Wordsworth, LL.D., C.I. E., late of Elphinstone the Yeere 1608,” a somewhat malicious book, College, Bombay, and all were formerly in Willwbich was written for the private use of Prince iam Wordsworth's library. This selection comHenry, and was either the cause or the effect of prised Matthew Arnold's “The Strayed Reveller,” the proverb:
1849; a most interesting and valuable copy of Sir "Henry the Eighth puli'd down monks and their cells- Thomas Browne's "Enquiries into Vulgar and Henry the Ninth will pull down Bishops and their Bells."
Common Errors," 1658, with a long letter relative In the way of philology, bibliography, belles
to the book from Mary Hutchinson (afterward lettres, and miscellanea we find a copy of the rare
Wordsworth's wife), with MS. notes by Coleridge edition of Alciati's "Emblems," 1573; of Barclay's
and the autograph of Charles Lamb; a presenta“Argenis,” 1625; Sir Thomas Browne's “Religio
tion copy of Keats' "Poems," "To W. Wordsworth, Medici," 1669, inscribed “William Wordsworth,
with the author's sincere reverence"; and other given to him by Charles Lamb''; Burton's "Anato
volumes not so generally interesting as those my of Melancholy," 1676; a long series of Coler.
named. But doubtless sufficient facts have been idge's publications; an imperfect copy of the
urged in proof of Wordsworth's claim to be ranked beautiful but little-known Etienne edition of "Rei
as a book collector.--Literature. Rusticæ Scriptores," 1543, with numerous annotations and observations in the handwriting of
Don Quixote read romances till his wits, Wordsworth; a copy of Pryse L. Gordon's "Bel
By nature weak, became extremely hazy; gium and Hoiland,” with presentation autograph
The modern reader quite collected sits,
It is the writer only who is crazy, by the author, dated Cheltenham, 1834, and a note
-Ballads of a Bookworm.
FRANCIS TURNER PALGRAVE.* as he discharged his duties as an educator and critic.
The impression conveyed by the fine portrait that Francis Turner Palgrave was perhaps best
graces this memorial is confirmed by the book it. known in this country in connection with his
self. It is that of a man of the highest culture, of Golden Treasury, that exquisite anthology of Eng.
deep sensibility, and of noble character, who was lish songs and lyrics, the First Series of which ap
loved by all who knew him, and who, devoted to peared in 1861, and the Second in 1897, or only a
his friends, could inspire their devotion in return. few weeks before his death; but by many Ameri
It could, indeed, be said of him that he had a caps he was also krown as a poet of more than or
genius for friendship, as was strikingly illustrated dinary merit. By all such, therefore, this me
in his relations with the late Poet Laureate. “Tenmorial volume by his daughter will be welcomed,
nyson's affectionate friendship,” he wrote after and not only because they like his verse, but also
the poet's death, "has been one of the mainstays because they would be better acquainted with the
of my life.” He thought that Tennyson was "all man.
in all the best talker” he had "ever known,” aud Palgrave was the eldest son of Sir Francis Pal
said, "Every time I had the honor of traveling grave, K. H., Deputy Keeper of Her Majesty's
with him, the enormous grandeur and simplicity Records, an antiquarian and historian, and of
of his character impressed me more and more, and Elizabeth, daughter of Dawson Turner, who, we
no one can imagine his unfailing considerateness are told, was “a woman of remarkable culture and
to me.” Says Miss Palgrave with pardonable brilliancy of mind." Born in 1824 he was sent to
pride, “Tennyson has had many admirers and Charterhouse School, London, at the age of four
many interpreters, but Palgrave was certainly one teen, and thence to Balliol College, Oxford. He
of the very first to recognize the distinctive quality took his degree with a first in classics in 1847, and
and nobility of the poetry which has made so deep was elected a Fellow of Exeter College. Strongly
a mark on English thought and taste.” inclined for a time to devote himself to architec
One of Palgrave's services to English literature ture, he ultimately entered the Education Depart
was as a "preacher" of Blake, the artist-poet. He ment in Whitehall, with which he remained connected until 1884. In 1854 he published Idyls and conspared Blake to Fra Angelico, and said; “To
men of this class the Invisible world is the Visible, Songs, his first book of poems, and in 1862 he
the Supernatural was the Real.” He did a great married Cecil Grenville Milnes, daughter of James deal to make Barnes, the Dorset poet, better Milnes-Gaskell, M. P., of whom Gladstone said, known, and "gave him a foremost place among "He might have been Prime Minister had it not
our modern poets." been for his indolence.” Palgrave's love for his
Miss Palgrave has performed her labor of love
with becoming modesty. She has said no more in wife, who died in 1890, was almost an adoration.
praise of her father than she had the right to say, “Such was the depth and the intensity of his feel. and we thank her for tbe insight that she has ing and reverence towards her," says his daughter, given us into his affluent and well-rounded "that even in her lifetime he only spoke of her character. Mechanically regarded, this memorial
is as handsome a specimen of book-making as we or of her opinions and judgment, with a kind of
have seen for many a day. bated breath as though she were too far above him to be mentioned in an ordinary way.” In 1881 Palgrave published his Visions of England, a
THE REAL HEAVEN. series of poems on episodes in English bistory, of The golden streets of Paradise which book Longfellow, in a letter to the author,
He wandered by himself, said that he had "read it with delight and admira
Until his seeking, quickened eyes
Saw books upon a shelf. tion," and that he thought the ballad on Crecy "a
In Heaven's library he strolled, fit companion piece to Draytou's Agincourt." He
Those countless tomes to view; was elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford in 1885
By bookish passion made o'erbold, and re-elected for another term of five years in
He searched their titles through. 1890. His lectures were of a high order, and a Rabelais met his eager sight; series entitled Landscape in Poetry was published
He rubbed his eyes again. in 1897. We have already referred to the two Yes, there within his reach, at right, volumes of the Golden Treasury, which were the
He recognized Tom Paine. result of much labor, and are a worthy monument
Omar Khayyam and Montaigne, to Palgrave's learning and taste.
Huxley and Hume, were there;
His old friend Darwin, and again Miss Palgrave has, we think, accomplished what
He clasped with love Voltaire. she undertook to do—to make the outside world
The student's eyes, by tears made blind, acquainted with her father as he really was in his
No more the titles read. domestic life, as he moved among his friends and
Prostrate, his joyful form reclined: *Francis Turner Palgrave; His Journals and Memories of
"Ah, this is Heaven!” he said. His Life. By Gwenllian F. Palgrave. Longmans, Green & Co.
IK MARVEL'S NEW BOOK.
Between 1820 and 1830 the fastest post between
New York and Philadelphia was twelve hours in His Second “ American Lands and Letters" Volume. coming, and it was considered wonderful when From Cooper to Poe.
Cooper, the actor, undertook to play alternate
nights in the two cities. At this time “Wistar" Ik Marvel's long.expected second volume on “ American Lands and Letters” is at hand. The
parties were the vogue in the Quaker City-so first volume, as many readers will remember, was
called in honor of the great physician, whose published a year or so ago. The present record
name is also associated with our beautiful wistaria extends from "Leather Stocking to Poe's 'Raven.'"
vine. The Careys of the famous old book house
of that name were very Mr. Mitchell, in his preface, states that he “had
prominent socially in hoped to extend the record to embrace many
Philadelphia, many of the famous books of the another honored American name, whose birth
day bearing their imprint. date belongs to the second decade of the present
In 1836 Philip Hone sold his Broadway house, century." He regrets, however, that the length
purchased fourteen years before for $25,000, for of the present volume forbids further use of the $60,000, showing clearly how early and how rapmass of potes on his table, with their innumer
idly the good property in New York City inable references to the "bouncing brilliancies of
creased in value. Shortly afterward Hone bought tbe Beecher family,” the Tuckermans, Duyck
a house—“way up towa”- at the corner of incks, Saxe, Frederic Cozzens, Henry Herbert,
Broadway and Great Jones street. Dr. Parsons, “hardly yet accredited . his due
The old Society Library was one of the first laurels of song"; Whipple, Dr. Holland and
associated attempts to provide books for New Whitman, who "never saw suffering without him
York, while in Philadelphia the Franklin Instiself suffering, 'if he gather coarse weeds into his
tute (founded in 1821) was in good condition, the Leaves of Grass,' we forget and forgive it, when
Philosophical and Library Company being much
older. The Redwood Library in Newport was he doffs his cap in reverent and courtly fashion to My Captain.'"
flourishing, while in the South the old CharlesMr. Mitchell proposes laying his notes away,
ton Library, founded before the Revolution, had and listening to the "younger and keener talkers;
after various ups and downs, reached a period of these may bring to the work a larger familiarity
considerable prosperity. The city of Chicago with the subject, or fuller knowledge; but not
was hardly more than Fort Dearborn and a small surely a more earnest love for things and men
trading post, the whole being almost entirely unAmerican, or a sharper resolve to tell only the
known to the generality of people. truth." Indeed, it would seem hard to find this The account of the early days of George Ban"keener talker," and one can only hope Mr.
croft is most interesting. He was graduated at Mitchell
be induced to use his notes once Harvard in 1817, studied abroad for two or three more, and give us the third volume we should all years, and afterward founded, in connection with be so glad to have.
Dr. Joseph Green Cogswell, the celebrated Round The present record opens at the beginning of Hill School at Northampton, which was beautithe third decade of the century, when Monroe's fully situated on top of a peculiar round hill, its "era of good feeling" was passing, when the
grounds embracing about fifty acres, overlooking purchase of Florida had given us the control of
the Connecticut river and valley. Here a boy the Gulf shores from Key West to the Sabine
might have a garden if he wished, or a carpenRiver; when our politics boasted such names as
ter's bench should his taste run in that direction. John Quincy Adams, General Jackson, De Witt Native teachers were imported for Italian, French Clinton, Calhoun and Martin Van Buren, and and German, as well as an English master of dewhen our young industries and the tariff were in portment. Carving and the other arts and graces the hands of Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. of the table were taught, and boys from the best The burning of the Capital and its books in 1814
families all over the country were on its rolls. had been followed by the purchase of Jefferson's
But the school had no endowment and the excollection-the nucleus of the present Congres penses were very heavy. Bancroft and Dr. Cogssional Library.
well did not wholly agree in their views as to its In 1822 Philip Hone, at one time Mayor of New management, the former withdrawing much York City, purchased a house with large grounds poorer in pocket, and seven or eight years later on Broadway, opposite the present Postoffice,
Dr. Cogswell himself failed and the school had to be where he entertained largely, sharing with Dr. given up. The doctor was then nearly fifty years Hosach, the author of the memoirs of De Witt of age; had been unsuccessful as a lawyer; had Clinton, and Hortus Elginensis, who had a beau- directed other schools in the South, and for a time tiful home in Chambers street, the social leader
had edited the old New York Review. To Dr. ship of the city.
Cogswell's efforts, more than to those of any other