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was decided that some fitting memorial should be Chaucer's "Tales," Pynson (1463), Grenville copy, provided to perpetuate a name which stood so im perfect, £200.
high on the roll of Australian writers, and in a Grolier's copy of Justin, Paris (1559), £92. short time the necessary funds were subscribed Statues of England, London (1480), Macblinia's
and a monument erected. The catholic spirit
thus shown is worthy of remark; it recognizes press, £275
the fact that fiscal and political differences beAlfred Crampton Library. Sold June 3-4, 1896.
tween diverse colonies have nothing to do with Browning's "Pauline, morocco, by Bedford, with
matters of the mind. note by author on fly leaf, £145.
Clarke's pictures of prison life in Tasmania
under the convict system set forth in awful vividShelley's Oedipus Tyrannus" (1826) morocco, by
ness the horrors of the old methods of discipline, Bedford, £130.
and it is probable, as Mr. Wybert Reeve said in June, 1892.
unveiling the monument, that their graphic deByron's "Waltz,” (1813), original wrapper, £86. scriptions did much to arrest the injustice perpeHubbard's "Narrative," Boston, 1677. £II. trated by those entrusted with criminal rule, and
that they awoke slumbering humanitarianism to a Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury Library. Sold. sense of what was due even to the most degraded July 2 to 6, 1896.
of humanity. Lord Rosebery, when in Adelaide Smith's "General History," 1625, with four maps,
in 1884, said: old calf, £204.
“Australia has been during the last forty years November, 1896.
the theater of two great geniuses--Marcus Clarke, "De Generatione Christi," (1471), block book, one
the author of that description of the most appalleaf in facsimile, £320.
ling of human experiences, because it was founded December, 1896.
on fact, “For the Term of His Natural Life," and Vespucius's “Muudus Novus,” 1504, (8% by 6%), Lindsay Gordon, the poet, who, I believe, lived in
this very colony, and was, I believe, a member of £176.
your Parliament, whose poems are instinct with June, 1896.
the very passion and thunder of the gallop-and Milton's "Lvcidas," nearly uncut, £101
I venture to say of both these authors that in December, 1896.
their own peculiar lines they cannot be surpassed Walton's "Angler," original sheep, 1653, (558 by in the older world." 3/4), £415.
In his letter to Clarke's wife, dated 1884 and May, 1897.
published in "The Marcus Clarke Memorial Shakespeare's “Merchant of Venice,” (1600), J.
Volume," Lord Rosebery further says, “It is rare Roberts, modern morocco, (778 by 572), £315. June, 1897
that so young a country has produced so great a Second Folio, old calf, (1372 by 9 3-16), £250.
literary force.” and expresses his opinion that
Clarke's works are insufficiently appreciated in Feb. 7, 1898.
Great Britaip : Kilmarnock Burns, original covers, uncut, £ 572 5s
Long ago she says] I fell upon “His Natural Life" by accident, and read it, not once or twice,
but many times, at different periods. Since then MARCUS CLARKE.
I have frequently given away copies to men
whose opinions ( valued, and have always re“For the Term of His Natural Life." That is ceived from them the same opinion as to the the simple inscription which visitors to the Mel- extraordinary power of the book. The reader bourne Cemetery read on a monument which has
who takes it up,
though he cannot but
be harrowed by the long agony of the story and just been erected there under very remarkable
the human anguish of every page, is unable to lay circumstances. To an English tourist conversant
it down; almost in spite of bimself he has to read only with the books he finds reviewed day by and to suffer to the bitter end. To me, I confess, day in his morning paper the words might convey
it is the most terrible of all novels—more terrible little meaning. To an Australian they mean a
than “Oliver Twist” or Victor Hugo's most start
ling effects—for the simple reason that it is more great deal; for they not only recall one of the
real. literary masterpieces of his country, but they
Clarke's preface to the poems of Adam Lindsay mark an epoch in civilizing reform.
Gordon is also a fine piece of literary photogThe bones of Marcus Clarke, whose tombstone
raphy; it carries a presentment of the weirdness pow bears the title of his best-known book, lay
and silent solitude of the Australian bush which for seventeen years, with no memorial to mark
alone would entitle its author to fame. His other their resting-place, in the cemetery of Melbourne,
work is hardly of a lasting character. the city where he lived and worked. But Marcus
"His Natural Life" has been dramatized and Clarke was a writer of more than local fame, and played throughout the United States, and several the neglect of his memory touched a chord in the editions of the book have been published here. hearts of the literary people of Adelaide. A At least one has been shamefully abridged, and meeting was accordingly held at the University in the only complete edition now obtainable is pubthat city early this year, under the presidency of lished by Laird & Lee, in paper covers and in the Lieutenant-Governor, Chief Justice Way. It cloth.
CHOPIN AND POE
certainly failed to form habits, and, while the In music, Edgar Allan Poe's counterpart has
delicacy of the Pole prevented his indulging in been discovered in the person and genius of the night-side Bohemianism of the American, he Frederic Francois Chopin, so declares James nevertheless contrived to outrage social and ethical Huneker in his book, "Mezzotints in Modern canons. Music.” There is such a striking similarity in
Mr. Huneker admits the difficulty of knowing temperament, personality, and genius between just what sort of a man Poe was, but he is sure the American poet and the Polish composer that,
there were two Poes—the one a winning, poetic to understand either of them, they should be personality, a charming man of the world, electric studied together.
in speech and with an eye of genius, creature Poe and Chopin were born only a few weeks
with a beautiful brain the other, a sad eyed apart and died within a week of each other, yet wretch with a fixed sneer, a bitter, uncurbed neither was conscious of the other's existence. tongue that lashed alike friend and foe, a sot, a But it was a curious coincidence-two supremely libertine, a gainbler-and some people knew both melancholy artists of the beautiful lived and died these men. Mr. Huneker's father knew something almost synclironously.
of both Poes, for he had occasion in Philadelphia Mr. Huneker says there are important points at to see Poe when he was sober, and when he was which it will not do to compare the two artists, made a demon by one glass of brandy. But, like but there are parallels in their soul-lives that may Chop'n, Poe was always disposed to a certain be drawn without extravagance. The roots of melancholy hauteur and readiness to pose. Chopin's culture were more richly nurtured than Mr. Huneker considers that America, with its Poe's but Poe was in the truest sense born a poet, complete absorbtion a half-century ago in traffickand, like a spiritual air plant, derived his suste ing and pioneering, was an unpleasanı place for nance none knew how. Chopin was carefully artists and especially for Poe, who ought to have trained by the faithful Elsmer, but who could have gone to Paris. Mr. Huneker says: taught him to write his opis 2 and the variatious "One is filled with horror at the thought of a over which Schumann rhapsodized, or even that kindred poetic nature also being cast in the prosaic gem, his E flat nocturne?
atmosphere of this country: for is Chopin had not The individualities of both these men were as bad success at Prince Valentine Radzewill's soiree sharply defined in the outset as their limitations. in Paris in the year 1831, he would certainly Poe never made more exquisite music in his later have tried bis luck in the New World; and do you years than in his verses "To Helen," written in not shudder at the idea of Chopin's living in the his teens. Chopin opus 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, his United States in 1831? earliest effusions, are perfect of their kind. They “Fancy those two wraiths of genius, Poe and were written before he was twenty. Both men Chopin, in the city of New York! Chopin giving died at forty, a period when most men are in their piano lessons to the daughters of the wealthy prime; yet years before both began to show de aristocrats of the Battery; Poe encountering him cadence and deterioration. Chopin's polonaise at some conversazione—they had conversaziones fantaisie opus 61 with its hectic flush-in its most then-and propounding to him Heine-like quesmusical, most melancholy cadences, gives us a pre
tions. Are the roses at home still in their flamemonition of death. Composed three years before hued pride?' 'Do the trees still sing as beautifully he died, it has the taint of the tomb about it. in the moonlight?' Read Poe's "Ulalume" with its hunting, harrow "They would have understood one another at a ing harmonies and you will hear the same note glance. Poe was not a wbit inferior in sensibility of death.
to Chopin. Balzac declared that if Chopin Poe then, like Chopin, did not die too soon. drummed on a bare table, his fingers made subtleMorbid, neurotic natures, they lived their lives sounding music. Poe, like Balzac, would bave with the intensity which, Walter Pater declares, felt the drummed tears in Chopin's play, while is the only true life. “To burn always with this
“To burn always with this Chopin in turn could not have failed to divine the hard, gem-like Alame," writes Pater, “to maintain tremulous vibrations of Poe's exquisitely strong this ecstacy, is success in life. Failure is to form pature. What a meeting it would have been, but habits."
again what inevitable misery for the Polish poet!" Certainly Chopin and Poe fulfilled in their Both men were born aristocrats; purple raiment short existences these conditions. They burned became them well, and both were sadly deficient with ihe flame of genius, and that flame devoured in genuine humor. Irony both possessed to a their brain as surely as paresis. Their lives, in superlative degree, and both believed in the the ordinary Philistine or Plutus-like sense, were rhythmical creation of lyrical beauty and the failures. They were not citizens after the con charm of evanescence. jugal manner, nor did they accumulate pelf. They Both artists have left a host of imitators. Poe
has influenced the art of almost every country but
CHARLES DICKENS. his own. In Europe he has founded a school. The modern theorists who explain genius by Chopin's influence has been far less direct. But
"heredity” may own themselves puzzled in the Liszt would not have been a composer, at least for
case of Charles Dickens. The old plan of detectthe piano, if he had not nested in Chopin's brain. ing submerged intellect in the mother is refuted And Wagner profited greatly by Chopin's dis by the circumstance that Dickens' mother lent coveries in chromatic harmonies, discoveries with
her traits to the immortal Mrs. Nickleby. More out wbich modern music would yet be in diatonic elaborate research seems to have thrown no genswaddling-clothes
ealogical light on the mystery. Mr. Foister's But at one important point these two artists
biography of his friend does not begin with "an were as wide a part as the poles. Poe was a man ell of genealogy." Mr. Carlyle's pedigree has without a country. He had no sense of patriotism. been traced, through unliterary peasants, back to
Although he wrote in English, you could better the Lords Torthorwald, "who never saw pen and locate his imagination in the moun. Chopin, on ink," and so to a period preceding the Norman the other hand, is patriotic; he is Poland, although Conquest. Nothing of the kind has been done Poland is not Chopin. But both bad the supreme for Dickens. On the other hand, his kindred were passion for the beautiful, both possessed great in-' not remarkable for hysteria, lunacy, a poplexy, tensity of expression. Both had the power of expressing the weird, the terrific, though Chopin
consumption, or any of the other disagreeable rose to sublimer heights than ever Poe did. Chopin,
constituents out of which genius is believed (by like Bach and Beethoven, will last as long as the Lombroso) to be composed. They were very voice of the piano is heard throughout the land. normal representatives of the middle classes. If
Dickens inherited a turn for composition from his
father, the original of Mr. Micawber, he certainly BOOKS AND BOOKS.
did not inberit the casual and shiftless character
of that hero, being a remarkably keen man of By SHARLOT M. HALL.
business. Thus it is certain that though, to an allMy Love in book lore's very wise,
knowing mind, the inherited constituents of She cons the ancient classics o'er,
genius in the author of "Pickwick" must be visAnd talks of the “Immortal Four"
ible, it is equally sure that they evade the invesBut never talks of making pies.
tigations of human industry. Dickens was the She raves of Spenser's "Fairy Queen,"
child of himself, and of his own works. And Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales;"
The study of Dickens' early environment Says modern verse beside them pales- throws much light on his bent of mind. Born at
But mentions not the rare baked bean. Landport, in Portsea, on February 7th, 1812, Euripides and Socrates,
Dickens might just have remembered, as a childOvid and Homer, all, she quotes;
ish impression, the battle of Waterloo.
His boy. Is busy with her, "Browning notes"-
hood was spent in the years of dissatisfaction But not a note on biscuits sees.
and reaction which ensued, but we know Of books I know not overmuch.
from his own remarks that he then heard of RadiBut oft I with my darling plead,
cals only as evil men, who thought the Prince And beg that she will sometimes read
Regent too fat, and were banded against that Some books I value-they are such
constituted authority from which Dickens pere,
as a clerk in the navy-pay office, received an inAs Juliet Corson's "Cooking School,”
come inadequate to his expenses. While Dickens "Buckeye Cook Book," "How to Live!"
was growing up to be twenty, the Reform Bill On half enough a week, and give
was passed, the charter of his own middle class, Three square meals daily, cooked to rule.
but it awoke no enthusiasm in his ardent nature. I cannot rave of Sappho's wit,
He had seen too much of popular misery, and of But Miss Parloa well I know,
Parliamentary proceedings, to believe in the new And Marion Harland's worth can show,
panacea, and became naturally a Radical himself, And Mrs. Lincoln quote a bit.
much as, in totally different circumstances, his Their works are equal, I maintain,
great predecessor, Scott, became a Tory. Dickens To all the best of ancient books,
was thus, from his very first essays, a voice in the For men are civilized by cooks,
great murmur of modern discontent, an impulse in More than by Learning's gentle reign.
the movement which makes towards an end unSuccess is work, and hungry men
discerned, but he never had a system of thought Few battles win or poems write;
about the object which chiefly occupied his The well-fed mortal wins the fight
serious hours. He bore a lasting grudge against In this old world, with sword or pen.
the memory of his famous early sufferings: hut
one cannot agree with Mr. Gissing, in his most mind, which dwelt lovingly on things uncanny. interesting study, in holding that Dickens "strove The Waverley Novels began to appear before to found his title of gentleman on something more Dickens could read, and ceased when he was substantial than glory.” One fails to see that about twenty. We know that he admired them, he ever thought ior a moment about the title of but we do not know whether they were the joy gentleman. Commercial by instinct, he wished of his boy hood. His early reading, which really his genius to receive the material reward which was the chief literary sustenance of his mind, was its due; he wanted to live largely, liberally went back to the eighteenth century. Feudalisın and generously. His tastes and his beneficence and the Catholic and historic past had no charm needed money, and the making of money by labor for him; he was, in fact, rather a child of the last in his art probably tended to become, uncon age than of his own in literature. Against that sciously, an end in itself. He never could bear to age, with all his radicalism, he was not wholly in yield to age, to resign his endeavor, to leave his reaction. The true division between past and portentous energy unoccupied. Like Scott, he present-the railway cutting-was made after might have said, "No rest for me but in the Dickens was formed as a genius; he belongs woolen;" he could not withdraw, like Shake. essentially to the old coaching days, and his speare, to country quiet. His native bent was as heart, if not his judgment, was on the side of much toward the stage as to fiction, and he wore Merry England. His judgment ran otherwise, himself out untimely in working the theatrical for it was prematurely humanitarian. He loved side of his nature, in his readings. The desire to the jolly publicans and coachmen, the tavern life, be conspicuously before the world which idolized the punch, the red faces and red waistcoats; the him :may have been as potent as the need of broad-blown merriment which accompanied crumoney in spurring the energy of Dickens to its elty of punishment, and indifference to popular
suffering. Cruelty and indifference and oppresIt is to these circumstances, extraordinary sion were detested by Dickens above all things; energy, craving for employment, a half-suppressed yet, in the constitution of society, humor had genius for the stage, need of money, and need of been coeval with hardness of heart. We all are, publicity, that we trace these defects of Dickens'
or ought to be, tender-hearted now; but where work which are due to surplusage. He did too are our bumorists? A work on recent Victorian much, with the inevitable consequences. He read humorists would be a scanty and glooniy compilatoo little. His nature was all for literary action; tion. Dickens was able to combine the old jollity not for study, criticism and reflection. The results with tbe new humanitarianism; his age, educawere these blemishes with which he is reproached tiɔn, observation and natural temperament all in that age of reaction which ever succeeds to a combined to this result. The scanty taste for career of vast popular success. Criticism, in books, the absence of the literary quality, the deed, was not lacking, even when he was best native rhetoric of one who had not painfully accepted. It is quite an error to think that reflected on style, were to prevent him from Dickens' literary contemporaries did not see the puzzling the widest public, but, in turn, were to motes where a younger generation is apt to see make him most distasteful to the later precieux and the beams. At present we do not find it easy to precieuses. His quality has become his defect. estimate the genius which, even in its errors, so Brought up in slums and shabby streets, famildelighted our fathers. A natural loyalty must not iar with the workroom of the blacking factory, blind us to defects, nor should the complacent with the pawnbroker, the dun, the bailiff, the superiority of a more recent generation be allowed debtors' prison, Dickens “was making himself all to lead us yet further astray.
the while,” like Scott among the glens of LiddesThe education of Dickens, as he has described dale. Odious and detested as were his surroundit himself, was only a trifle better than that which ings, they only fostered his sympathy with the the wisdom of the elder Mr. Weller devised for dis possessed, the unknightly disinherited. The his son. From a very early age Dickens' knowl. genius of the world selected for him this gloomy edge of shabby London was, indeed, extensive apprenticeship, that there might be a new voice, and peculiar. After acquiring the elementary and a new tale for it to tell among men. Bora arts of reading and writing, he was fortunate whatever rank, educated in slums, or at Charterenough to fall in with a little neglected collection house and Trinity, Dickens must have been an of the great novelists of the last century-Field- observer, a teller of tales. He has remarked on ing, Smollett, Sterne, Defoe—some volumes of the instantaneous keenness of his own observatravel, and the "Arabian Nights." On these he tion, and on the rapidity of his inferences, even made himself; and probably the popular tales in his earliest years. These things were free with whiclı bis nurse, Mercy, used to frighten gifts of his genius, and he naturally delighted in him, nourished the more romantic part of his their exercise, as in his long nocturnal prowls in
poor neighborhoods. He was born to note each in Mr. Herbert Spencer's sense of that ambigunmarked trait, each eccentricity, and to lend his uous word. In the opinion of many philosoeyes to the mass of us unobservart spectators of phers, early man, and simple, natural men, and life. Fortune placed him early in Thackeray's children, regard all nature as animated. Wbether "dreadful poor man's country;" born in Thack they attain this idea by virtue of a process of eray's class, he would have observed that, too, as, peopling nature with "spirits," or whether, within fact, he never actually did. To the study of out conscious theory, they mentally transfer to all the well-to-do, of the contented and well-bred things in the universe the vitality of which they class, Dickens brought older eyes and a grain of are conscious themselves, or whether their mode prejudice. It might have been wiser in bin to of thought is merely playful, is not a question enter society as Lockhart did, considering it as a which we need discuss here. Whatever the oritheater where "the dresses and actresses” were gin of Animism, thus understood, it is a mark of prettier than in any other. But he did not choose savage and popular invention, as displayed in to become really familiar with a world which he myth and fairy tale. Now, the early form of often chose to satirize; hence the frequent failure human fancy, the form conspicuous among backof such satire. Perhaps a man can
never write ward races, peasants, fishers, and children is his best outside of the sphere of his early and undeniably the source of all the civilized poetry most poignant impressions. He would have been and romance. The genius of Dickens was a rein society, not of it, an intelligent stranger, like lapse on the early human intellectual condition. the Chinese of Goldsmith, or the Huron of Vol. He sees all things in that vivid, animated way, taire. He did not like the idea of that position and inanimate objects play living parts in his not a matter for marvel; bis “Dedlocks” and his books more frequently than in any other modern "Cousin Feenix" are decidedly sketched from a works, except Hans Andersen's fairy tales. distance. But it was not his especial business to “Hardly a form of matter without a living qualdraw them.
ity; no silent being without its voice.” This The observation of Dickens was as peculiar in manner was perfectly natural to Dickens, who, kind as minute and sleepless in exercise. Every we may presume, had not reflected much on Ani. human being, of course, down to the semi idiotic mism, or the survivals of the primitive in the landlord of the inn in "Barnaby Rudge," sees civilized intelligence. But the manner tended to existence at an angle of bis own. We look at life become a macnerism; like all other mannerisms, each through our personal prism. But the prisni was easily imitated, and degenerated into a of Dickens, if the phrase is permissable, was weariness, peculiarly prismatic. It lent eccentricity of color Dickens himself leaves it certain that his imagand of form to tbe object observed. It settled on ination, at times, went back to what is probably a feature, and exaggerated that. Now, to look at the primitive condition of actual hallucination. things thus is the essence of the art of the carica. Faint perceptions of trees, or other objects, in a turist. A very good example may be found in dim light, became recognizable illusions, reprethe amusing charges of Mr. Max Beerbohm. He senting persons absent. He awoke once, and saw shups or omits everything but that which he con his father sitting by his bed, when his father was siders essential for his purpose of diverting, and at a distance. His dreams were wonderfully dishe insists upon that. It has been denied that tinct and coherent; sometimes they seemed to Dickens' work is caricature, and to say that it is slip the bond of time and become actually prealways caricature would be vastly unjust. Nev- monitory. At other times, he himself could not ertheless, the insistence on Carker's teeth, Pancks' say whether the dream was onar or hupar, in snort, Skim pole's manner, Jarndyce's east wind, Homeric phrase-an illusion of sleep or a waking and Rigaud's mustache, to take only a few cases, vision. All this side of genius, all its manifestais exactly what we mean by caricature; and it is tions and experiences of the "subliminal” or caricature in the manner of Mr. Carlyle. The subconscious self, form a topic hitherto very little historian, like the novelist, was wont to fix on a studied, but obviously deserving of the care of single trait or two-in Robespierre, St. Just, or psychologists. Dickens himself was interested in whoever it might be, and to hammer insistently the theme, but subordinated his interest, for fear
It a ready, if inexpensive, of being carried beyond the reckonings of commethod of securing a distinct impression. Both mon sense. Here it must suffice to say that his Dickens and Carlyle overworked this method, experiences of this kind were on a par with those which becomes, in the long run, a stumbling block of Goethe, Shelley, Alfred de Musset, Alexandre -to Monsieur Taine, for example.
Dumas, Scott, George Sand, Socrates, Herschel, Connected with the vividness of Dickens'ob
Stevenson, Napoleon, and even Thackeray. In servation (which becomes, in effect, a recreation
this place we may be content to remark on them of the object) is what one may call his Animism, merely as common notes on the exaltation of