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DR. JOHNSON AND HIS CENTURY. show of rhetoric (witness his famous advice as to

the "purple patches" in Robertson's historical University prize essays are not greatly sought works), in his utter incapacity for speculative after by an indifferent public, and the public 'is thinking along with his deep capacity for moralprobably right, though we cannot forget that both izing, in his strange blend of Conservatism in Oxford and Cambridge have given to the world thought with Radicalism in action ("Here's to the works of this nature which have deserved to live next revolution in the West Indies !") He stood and have even occasionally done so. We have firmly on his foot four-square to all the winds that found in the Oxford Chancellor's English essay blew, resolved to admit no sovereignty over his for 1899 an interesting theme, treated in a not life that was not a moral power, looking the world uninteresting way. The theme is “Dr. Johnson boldly in the face, an insular, choleric, but mercias a Representative of the Character of the Eigh- ful free born Englishman. As such he is typical teenth Century," the author is Mr. W. R. Barker. of the nation for all time, perhaps as typical a (London: F. E. Robinson & Co.) It is hard to say figure as could be found; but was he specially anything new of Johnson, and Mr. Barker scarcely typical of the 18th century? The 18th century succeeds in doing so, but his estimate is in the

like many other generalizations, is a misleading main exceedingly judicious. One asks with him term. There are two 18th centuries--that of arid what it is about Johnson that has made and kept logic and prosaic common-sense, and that of him an English hero. He was certainly not a romantic "sensibility" and enthusiasm for the great thinker, for we cannot forget his famous

simplicity of nature. The first we trace in Pope, "refutation" of Berkeley, which showed that he Locke and (spite of his brilliant persiflage) in did not comprehend what are the root problems of Voltaire. The second is mirrored in Richardson, philosophy. He was not a learned man, for his

Rousseau, Sterne, and Cowper. As a matter of Greek was elementary, his knowledge of the East

fact—though it is often convenient to assume that and of the Middle Ages almost non-existent, he

the century has a whole and continuous tissuehad not the faintest idea that in his own time a that is not the case in reality. As a matter of new literature and philosophy were springing upin fact, most of the great world-events and moveGermany, he knew little or nothing of Italian, not ments like the discovery of America, the Reformaa very great deal of French literature, and though tion, the French Revolution, the American he was well up in his Latin, he knew the authors Revolution, the rise of the new spiritual poetry in of that tongue rather as Fox knew them than as England, have come toward the ends of centuries, Bentley did-knew them, that is to say, as a man and surely the signs of the latter end of the 18th of general culture rather than as a scholar. Mr.

century are very strangely different from those of Barker points out that there is no indication what

the early Georgian days. If, however, we are to ever of any intellectual growth in Johnson; he strike a mean-omit the Revolution and its vol. wrote in 1740 just as he wrote in 1780. His theory canic upheaval on the one hand and the beginof the world was simple, his ideas were all “given” ning years of the century on the other—what, on to him when still young, and he relied on them the whole, do we get? with dogmatic confidence until he died. Why. We get, in the first place, a certain conventional then, do we find in Johnson such a great figure? view of life and society based on optism, which The answer is that we find him such because

might be intellectually expressed in the doctrine Boswell had the genius for making him so. But

of “pre-established harmony"—the doctrine Boswell could not create a great man oiit of poth tersely stated by Pope that "whatever is is right." ing, or, like the learned German, “out of his moral Now this doctrine, in Pope's sense, was certainly consciousness.” Despite his obvious limitations, not held by Johnson, whose life was passed, like there must have been in Johnson some remarkable that of Cowper, under the shadow of a great apand representative qualities which have struck prehension. Johnson was not to be ip veigled by the imagination of England. These qualities Mr. any brilliant epigram from looking in the face the Barker finds in the "genuine characteristics of the stern and menacing facts of life, which, to him, Englishman in the 18th century," which "will

was far from being a May-day. It would be remain as long as the nation preserves its separa wrong to call him a pessimist, for he had a strong ate identity."

though troubled faith in the Divine; but assurNow, we do believe that Johnson stands on so edly he felt deeply the woes and sufferings of high a pedestal because he is so representative an mankind, and he was not captivated by theories of Englishman, but we doubt if he ought to be called progress. All governments were the same to him, representative of the 18th century. Johnson was few public causes were worth human effoït. a typical Englishman in his sturdy individualism, Resignation to the Divine will, rather than conin his suspicion of “foreigoers,” in his hearty fident faith and unclouded hope, was his charachatred of all humbug, all pretence, all glitter and teristic. In considering human life he usually

more

arrives at a sombre conclusion, and will no

AUGUSTIN DALY'S BIBLE. admit airy chatter as to the "progress of the species” than will Carlyle. But he is even farther Its Expansion to Forty-Two Volumes Cost Many Years and removed in another respect from his century, in

Thousands of Dollars. that he is always and profoundly religious. If we strike the balance of the century, as suggested

Since the death of Augustin Daly some refer

ences have been made to his remarkable expanded above, we find it represented by a certain hard,

copy of the Bible, but no account has been given clear, excellent commion-sense, ranging from the

--indeed, it would be scarcely possible to give religious common sense of Butler to the non-reli.

one-to show what a wonderful work it really is. gious common sense of Gibbon, and including all varieties of opinion marked by the same spirit of

The account which is here given appeared in the reliance on purely intellectual analysis and sepa

New York Tribune, and was furnished by Henry

Blackwell, who mounted all the pages, arranged ration from mysticism and idealism. This is cer

the plates and bound the volumes. tainly not the spirit or attitude of Jobpson. He was religious through and through with the fer

Mr. Daly spent many years in collecting the vor, and often with the extreme credulity, of a

plates which were to accompany, or, rather, were

chiefly to make up the work. He then turned mediæval devotee. As Carlyle said of his devotions at St. Clement's Danes, "Samuel Johnson

them over to Mr. Blackwell to be arranged and worshiped in the era of Voltaire." His worship,

bound. It was a tremendous piece of work, and too, was the absolute prostration of a troubled and

while Mr. Blackwell was about it Mr. Daly frecontrite soul before its just and awful God. Few,

quently sent him more plates, while the binder

collected a considerable number himself. There if any, writers of the time, whether flippant or cheerfully pious, give us any such impression of a

were in the end about 8,000 plates, and in deep and fervent piety as does Johnson. He

sorting and arranging these Mr. Blackwell derather suggests and foreshadows Newman and

clares he spent no less than 1800 hours before a Pusey than represents the mind or disposition of beginning could be made with the actual binding. his own age.

This took all of his spare time for two years. Spite of his Toryism, his common

In the course of his work he read the whole of sense, his obstinate prejudices, we catch in him something more than a gleam of the spirit of the

the Bible through four times, and he thinks that years to come, yearning to mix itself in life.” when he got through he could have passed a good Under his little brown wig and gray coat the soul

examination in theology. He arranged the plates of a romanticism ready to blaze out in Scott, and

by subjects, and when he found so many of a a spirit which was to stir in its depths English single subject that he did not care to place them religious belief, were scarcely concealed. The

altogether he scattered some of them about, placman who poured forth his soul in prayer for his

ing them at passages containing more or less refdying friends, and who gave to young Thrale his

erences to the subjects. benediction on his starting on a youthful career,

The next care was the text. The Douai (Cathwas not altogether of the main stuff of which the

olic) version was used, and the edition was one 18th century was made. He was more nearly re

printed in Dublin something over a hundred years lated, in some respects, to the Jacobine and Caro

ago. Two copies were used, because every line minds, and he had, as Mr. Barker admits, page had to be mounted by itself on special some points in common with our time. Had his paper, so that one side of each leaf was lost. power of expression been ampler and more deli Some of the pages were much soiled. In order cate, and had his formative period been somewhat to get them all clean, and uniformly so, Mr. Blacklater than it was in date, Johnson might have

well took the books all to pieces and boiled the been more truly entitled “a great moralist” than he actually is. As it is, his life reflects the inner

pages, just as a washerwoman would boil clothes. tragedy of a time when an old world was dying Then he hung them on the clothes line in the and a new world was being born. It may be said of back yard and sat smoking his pipe while they him as of another and far greater man of letters: dried, the other members of his family and the “He grew old in an age he condemned;

neighbors being all the time filled with due horror
He looked on the rushing decay
Of the times which had sheltered his youth, at such a treatment of a valuable book.
Felt the dissolving throes

But the pages came through the process sound
Of the social order he loved."

- The Spectator.

and clean, and then came the work of mount

ing them, and finally of binding. They were Adolphe d'Ennery, the French dramatist, had a bound into 42 volumes, in half white levant, ready and pungent wit. One of his rivals once

with vellum sides. Sometimes there is a considremarked: "This d'Ennery is a true Jew: that is

erable amount of text in a volume, and sometimes why he never produces a play without interest." “Ah,” replied d'Ennery, "what a good Christian there is extremely little, according to how many

plates have to accompany it. The Gospel of Mat

you are!"

thew, for instance, takes three or four volumes, 4 and 5 P. M. she becomes “Miss Braddon," writ. and the Lord's Prayer alone takes a whole vol

ing as steadily and evenly as if she were taking ume. This volume, of course, contains only one

the words down from dictation. At dinper time

she becomes Mrs. Maxwell again. leaf of the regular text of the book, but it also

It mighi even be said that “ Miss Braddon" and contains the prayer in 150 languages, besides the Mrs. Maxwell do not exactly get on well together. many plates.

At any rate, Mrs. Maxwell does not like to talk Each of the volumes has a title page with a

about “Miss Braddon's " povels, or hear others water-color drawing by Eugene Grivas. Mr.

talk about thein, while “Miss Braddon” betrays

slight interest in Mrs. Maxwell's many social Blackwell estimates that the whole work must

duties. have cost Mr. Daly not less than $25,000.

Mrs. Maxwell particularly objects to seeing

"Miss Braddon's " picture in the papers, and reSOME AUTHORS AND THEIR HOMES.

joices that the only one ever printed was from a photograph made so long ago that no one recog

nizes the original of it to-day when she goes MISS BRADDON.

traveling, a diversion of which she is particularly Mrs. Mary E. Braddon. Maxwell, like Mrs. Eliza fond. beth Stuart Phelps Ward, is one of the authors “ Miss Braddon” lives in a glorious old mansion who, having won their fame before their mar

in Richmond, London's most beautiful suburb. riage, have continued their authorship under their

Its great rooms are filled with evidences of luxury

and good taste, and the walls of its drawing-room maiden names as pseudonyms. "Miss Braddon,"

are almost concealed by paintings. The author for whom is claimed the distinction of being the spends most of her time in this home-Litchfield most voluminous of English novelists, was born in House it is called-and divides the rest between Soho Square, London, in 1837, and is therefore

another home in the country and foreign travel. now in the sixties. Her father, Henry Braddon,

Probably no woman writer ever made so much

money from her books as “Miss Braddon," and a solicitor, was known as a contributor of sporting judging by the prices she receives, her novels are articles to the magazines under the pseudonyms increasing in popularity. She usually gets $20,of “Gilbert Forresterand “A Member of the ooo for the English book rights alone of her later Burton Hunt." The tradition runs that in her

novels, and a correspondingly large sum for the early life she took for a while to the stage, and

serial rights--thanks, in part, to the business abil.

ity of her son, who looks after ber affairs. It is certain it is that by the time she was twenty-three estimated that over 3,000,000 copies of her books a comedietta by her, entitled “The Lover of Arca have been sold in the cheap edition alone. dia," had been performed at the Strand Theater,

She has lost count of the number of editions and also that, while she was yet in her 'teens, she

through which "Lady Audley's Secret" has gone,

but it is known that there are at least fifty. had contributed positive sketches to the lesser journals and magazines. Her first book of verse

MRS. HARRIET PRESCOTT SPOFFORD. was “Garibaldi and Other Poems,” which ap

Deer Island, in the Merrimac River, is a gem. peared in 1861, and her first novel, “Lady Lisle," Its rocky sides slope gently in some places to the which followed soon ; but her reputation was set

water's edge, while in others they rise straight as up by her“ Lady Audley's Secret,” in 1862, and a precipice, but adorned with graceful festoons of established by her “ Aurora Floyd " in 1863. It wild vines which hang from its brink. The island was the reputation, however, of a "sensational is partially covered with majestic pines, beautiful novelist,” to which term Miss Braddon gave a dis as they ever are. There are also lovely oaks near tinct meaning. In fact, it may be said with truth the house where lives Mrs. Harriet Prescott Spofand in more senses than one, that Miss Braddon ford, one of America's gifted writers. The house is the first sensational novelist of her time. In is rather a plain one, surrounded with a flower justice to her it must also be said that her later garden containing lovely plants, and from the work has risen to a higher level than her earlier, windows others hang on swinging shelves. A and escapes much of the reproach that was cast piazza adorns it, on which on sunny days the upon the writings that made her famous. A note owner may be seen talking with her friends. Of

the oaks, above mentioned, Whittier sang: the past week to the Boston Advertiser has brought

The Hawkswood oaks, the storm-torn plumes to America these interesting, fresh particulars

Of dark pine forest kings, concerning the personality, the habits, and the

Beneath whose century-woven shade,

Deer Island's mistress sings. home of this distinguished figure of the Victorian

Here Mrs. Spofford pens her verse, while the Age:

flowing river sings its song. Newburyport is not Evidently “Miss Braddon" is going to break all far distant, and altogether it is an ideal home. Is it a records. She has published her both successful wonder that amidst such environment have been novel, and no other English woman ever did that. woven the spells which make“ The Amber Gods" She is as vigorous at 62 as she was 37 years ago, and later romances the delight of readers the when “Lady Audley's Secret" made her famous. world over? Amesbury Mills, the home of Whit

Throughout the day, until tea time, this novel tier for many years, is but a few miles distant. ist is Mrs. Mary Maxwell. Somewhere between Merrimac, Mass.

J. B. M. WRIGHT.

CONSIDERATIONS OF PLAGIARISM BY appearing on sensible, sober bushes of established

kinds. WRITERS.

These shoots are called “sports.” Dean

Swift was a sport on the human rose-tree. Mr. Mr. Hall Caine stolidly declines to say anything Caine appears not to be one. But that is not his in answer to the charge that in “The Christian "

fault. he bodly used a paragraph written by Dean Swift; A man is the product of two forces-heredity but a friend of his says that before the publica- and environment. In the ordinary scheme of tion of this book, Mr. Caine, in an interview in

things there is little to draw conscious attention tended for publication, declared that he had in to what is born in us. On the contrary, nearly several places used the thoughts of other writers.

every tendency is to suppress individuality and Mr. William L. Alden, writing in the New York produce a harmonious average through the operaTimes, says it is inconceivable that Mr. Caine

tion of extraneous forces. Nature seems to have should have been guilty of conscious plagiarism, excellent reasons for this. Now and then the and suggests that an author may unconsciously

scheme receives a violent wrench-a Dean Swift use passages that have impressed themselves

is born, to grow plumes of a new and brilliant strongly upon him, and thus become a part of his

sort, and to shed them. He comes forth with a habit of thought.

distinct-a consciously distinct-individuality. He The Caine incident is trivial, because Mr. Caine

impresses himself. Imitators spring up, perhaps can hardly be regarded as an author able to pre- thinking themselves original, genuine. But they sent great ideas without generous assistance from

soon pass and are forgotten. Only the genuine, the masters. As he writes for the massess and not

the original, endure. the critics, this exposure, if it be one, will not Plagiarism is somewhat different from that. To hurt his reputation, and his original guilt left no

say that Mr. Caine stole from Swift is not to state room for shame at its discovery. If he did say, his offense ; that may be done by saying that he in an interview, that in the book he had used the

used Swift's thoughts for the purpose of deceiving thoughts of others, a lawyer would probably re

the people and making them think he was as gard this as manufacturing evidence. His admis

great as Swift. sion at that time makes his present silence incon Another thing: If Mr. Caine should say any. sistent. Silence in such cases often implies dis

thing about the matter, the incident would be dain rather than dignity.

dropped, and he would lose the benefit of the adAccepting Mr. Alden's charitable view, we find

vertising that a keeping-up of the discussion that it makes out hardly a better case for Mr. brings his book. If he planned the whole inciCaine ; for if Swift's thoughts so impressed him dent to work out as it is doing, he could hardly as to become a part of his thinking habit, then he have devised a more useful one, or one more lacked the inherent force sufficient for his own in strictly in accordance with the ways of up-to-date dependent thinking. The real power of a person novelists. Authors are financially successful in is that which proceeds from within, after originat. proportion to the development of their business ing there, however closely it may resemble that

Mr. Caine is not a Swift, but this does not which has originated in and proceeded from other imply that he is a fool. He is seemingly a gentlepersons. There may be just as much originality

man of commercial ideas. in duplication as in singularity. But a thing As for the ethics of plagiarism-but why dismust be original to indicate the power from which cuss that? Its rewards are a more picturesque it proceeds; and no thinker, no creator, can have subject. The story of the ass in the lion's skin conspicuous force if the trend of his thoughts is

will have application so long as time endures. guided by what he has absorbed of the thoughts

The one who plagiarizes shows by that act alone of others.

that he cannot produce strong, original and harThe imitative faculty is one of the strongest monious work. What ever popularity he may with which nature has endowed us; and, as we

enjoy is not worth having. Conscience is essenare gregarious and social animals, it is one of the tial to enduring artistic fame. He who berrows most essential and useful that we have. If Mr.

the strength of others weakens his own; he who Caine manifests it in himself, that shows merely resorts to deception is a greater dupe than those that he is a normal unit of his species. It is a whom he deceives; he who writes chiefy for matter of endless wonder that there is ever any

popularity sin ks steadily and irretrievably in the

mire. If Mr. Caine is innocent of plagiarism, his individual differentiation-that

all do not

innocence is as deplorable as his guilt would have think and act alike. Nature resorts to curious been. The fact of plagiarism is always worse ways at times for abridging her slow evolutionary than its motive or its cause. --Argonaut. processes. Those who have studied the history of the rose, for instance, are aware that some of our

I love my books as drinkers love their wine;

The more I drink, the niore they seem divine. most brilliant varieties originated as distinct shoots

"My Books,”--Francis Bennoch,

sense.

we

THE PRESENT POPULARITY OF OMAR the flesh, “I was at a party of modern wits last KHAYYAM.

night that made me creep into myself, and wish Amid much else that is interesting, Mr. Edward myself away talking to any Suffolk old woman in Heron-Allen's beautiful book published in 1898,*

her cottage, while the trees murmured without.” contains a complete Owar Khayyam bibliography. One can but rejoice for his sake that he died beIt is a really singular piece of literary history.

fore he became famous. With what weariness Before FitzGerald arose, tbis Persian poet was and alarm would not the shy recluse of Woodonly known, in Europe, to a few Orientalists-in bridge have received shoals of letters from earndustrious Von Hammer Purgstalls, and the like.

est devotees—laudations, supplications for autoGarcin de Tassy rendered some of him into French

graphs-and seen his quiet abode besieged by prose in 1857. Edward FitzGerald's first publi- pilgrims from the uttermost States of America. cation was in 1859. He had then put together

But FitzGerald was like unto a man who should seventy-five quatrains and offered them in vain to amuse himself with a box of matches by the side a magazine. Subsequently he printed copies, of a great heath, should set a little heather on fire kept some, and gave the rest to Quaritch's to sell.

to see how it would look, and then depart, unconAfter a reprint in 1868, the third edition, with scious that the whole would break into fame. great improvments and containing the present 101

FitzGerald was curiously led towards his main stanzas, appeared in 1872. This edition as I re achieyment. In 1853, when his friendship with member, could still be bought five or six years later Prof. Cowell first brought him on to the track of in Cambridge bookshops. Probably every book Persian poetry, he was 44. Since he had left Camreading undergraduate can now declaim a qua

bridge he had lived the contemplative life, eating train or two; but twenty years ago the poem was

no meat, with no fixed occupation, following no known only to an initiated few in the Courts of pastime, save in his earlier days, the hypnotizing Trinity, and that merely because one of the group

sport of summer fishing in the Ouse. His visits was the son of an old Cambridge friend of Fitz

to London were merely to hear music, see pictures Gerald. The next edition came out in 1879—the

and smoke pipes with his group of old Cambridge "final edition," as FitzGerald unprophetically

friends. The rest of his life was Suffolk, the termed it. The grand rogue did not begin till country which had inspired the poetry of Crabbe after his death in 1883; not really, indeed, till -poetry of surface cheerfulness and deep underafter the publication of his "Letters and Literary lying melancholy. Here he lived with slight variRemains,” in 1889, just thirty years later than the

ations and excursions—"a little Bedfordshire, a first publication. But the tide has steadily risen. little Northamptonshire, a little more folding of Messrs. Macmillan have issued reprints of Omar

the hands; the same faces—the same fields--the in 1890, 1891, 1893, and since then annually (twice

same thoughts, occuring at the same turns of in 1897) to the present date. In the United road," while the Afghan War was fought, and the States the first edition was published in 1878, and

Crimean, and the Punjab was conquered; while by 1894 there had been twenty-three reprints of fierce revolution filled with blood the streets of this, besides various popular editions, and editions European capitals, and, like Marmion's banner, de luxe, and one monumental work of collation and our dominion in India wavered, almost fell and annotation. "At present there are,” says Heron

rose again, "At Boulge," he wrote in 1841, "days Allen,"American reprints appearing almost daily."

follow days with unvaried movement; there is the Countless articles about the poem have appeared

same level meadow, with geese upon it, always in English and American magazines. It has been lying before my eyes; the same pollard oaks; rendered into Latin by an Oxford scholar, and set

with now and then the butcher or the washerto music by a London lady of talent. Its sound woman trundling by in their carts." The homel y has gone out into all the lands, and its fame into unexciting fields, the changing seasons, the sky, the ends of the world. The poem has had more

the tidal rivers with collier sloops and fishing lugthan a literary success: it is the foundation of a gers drifting up and down, sometimes the low cult. Mild men of letters, it is said, leave their coast and yellow sea; letters to friends, pipes blameless homes; decked with red roses they

with neighboring parsons, music in the evening; meet at a dinner, drink red wine, perform sundry

a little translating from Greek or Spanish; books mystic rites, offer parodies—alas! too easily made, above all, Shakespeare and Jeremy Taylor, Pluof the sacred book, and return westwards with a tarch and Thucydides, Homer and Virgil and feeling of lofty emancipation from the bonds Theocritus, the Greek tragedians, Aristophanes, which bind the dull and respectable. If FitzGer

Dante and Spinoza; a seat in the garden in ald could attend one of these banquets held in his

summer and by the fire in winter-such were the honor his ghost would say perhaps as he did in

elements of the life led by FitzGerald, and thus

the soil was formed into which the seed of Per* Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Translated by Edward Heron-Allen. Nichols. London, 1898.

sian thought was to fall. It is the kiŋd of exist

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