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until the middle of the eighteenth century, by among the pots and pans behind. The houses, which time it had become a mark of ill breeding to as I have stated, are not regularly in line; they empty it at the first essay, to blow out the cheeks stand at different angles, according to the fancy in drinking, to gurgle loudly, or to set the beaker of the builders; the shop is protected from the down with a snort of satisfaction.
weather by a narrow pent-house, while glass Lastly, the Civilite exhorts the man of polish covers the upper part, and the lower balf lies not to scratch himself in company, not to snuff open to the wind, if not to the rain. There is a the candle with his fingers, not to blow in his "pentice" in case of very bad weather. The soup, not to return the meat to the dish after sound of work rolls and echoes from house to smelling it, not to talk with his mouth full, and house, but not unpleasantly, along the narrow not to pocket the fruit at dessert.-Tighe Hop- way; the tap of light hammers, the roar of a furkins in Literature.
nace, the grinding of a saw, the voices of those who speak when they must, not for pleasure or
for discourse. PATERNOSTER Row.
The street is wholly without pavement; one Let us take a walk, gentle reader, up and down walks upon the bare earth, covered only with the that ancient street known indifferently as Pater refuse, and offal, and sweepings of all the houses. noster Row, Paternoster Lane, or Paternostre't, There are ordinances, it is true, which forbid the any time since the 13th century, and, for all I throwing of things into the street; every one is know, long before.
told to keep the front of his house clean, on penWherever there was a cathedral, a monastic alty of half a mark; there are to be no pigsties house, a place of pilgrimage, or a shrine with an in the street, and no pigs are to run about loose. image, a holy rood, or relics of saints, there must You sniff? Humph! Unless our senses greatly needs arise, close beside it, a quarter or a street deceive us, those wise regulations of the late occupied by the humble craftsmen who made and Edward, first of the name, have been forgotten, or sold rosaries and beads for the use of those who the Alderman of the Ward has not visited the row were faithful according to their lights--that is to of late. But we are not without street scaven
the whole people. In what gers, for the kites are at work undisturbed while call early days all the folk of the
they turn over the heaps of rubbish and carry trade occupied the same quarter; this was away the offal. I fear that you find the atmospartly for the convenience of the craft, as phere oppressive; it is a common complaint with for the general use of furnace, anvil, or tools, the strangers. They complain of the smell and the purchase of raw materials, the regulation of pro closeness of the streets. There are, in fact, lanes duction and that of price; partly, also, for the such as Stinking Lane by the Shambles, or convenience of buyers, who, in this way, always Thames Street by the River, where the air is knew where to go for what they wanted. In charged much more heavily than this with decay. London, therefore, the Paternostrers, as they ing evidences that man lives not alone on bread, were called, settled down in a convenient place but also on fish, and flesh and fowl. Perhaps, close to the Cathedral, and on its north side; here also, Paternoster Row hath a purer air than those they established their workshops and their stalls, other quarters where they make soap and tallow at first without any attention to order and align- candles, or those where they tag and dress ment, but gradually settling down into a narrow leather. I assure you that you might in those lane of shops, and here they remained until the streets remember with regret even the air of Reformation destroyed their trade. I want you Paternoster Row. Our trade, at least, doth not to visit this lane at a time before the scattering of offend the nose. Come here on an evening in the people who made the Paternosters.
June, when the furnaces are out and the anvils It is five or six hundred years ago; we are in are silent; come when a soft summer rain has the 14th century, the century of the three Ed. carried the contents of the swimming down Ave wards. Look around you—we are standing at the Maria Lane, and so by the slope of Ludgate Hill east end of the row; behind is Chepe-we must to the Fleet below, and you will be astonished to not stop to look back, for there are many admir find the place as clean and sweet almost as any able things in Chepe. A narrow lane stretches country lane. out before us; on either side stand small houses The houses, you think, are small. As yet the built as to the lower part with stone walls, but tall frame houses of the Tudors have not come in; having upper chambers of wood and roofs of we have not yet learned to make bricks; rather, wooden tiles. These are the houses of the Pater the craft has been forgotten. Even the greater nostrers; the ground floor contains the shop houses, unless they are castles, as Bayard Castle, where the craftsman with his 'prentices works are low in elevation; besides, you are looking at and sells his wares, while his wife is engaged street of craftsmen; there no nobles
in the Row, though many have their houses into the Precinct of St, Paul's, which was then close beside it. Within these small and mean walled round, with gates west, north, south and houses you would be astonished to find east, there stood a cross called Broken Cross, amount of comfort which you would hardly, per erected on this spot by the Duke of Gloucester in haps, expect. These people are rich in feather the reign of Henry III. The great Cross of Chepe beds, pillows, blankets, curtains, fur-lined caps stood farther east. Round these crosses were and gowns, the wife has her hood lined with "stations" or stalls, hired chiefly by women, who lambskin, and even with gros vair, as if she was sold here small articles. Towards the end of the a gentlewoman, in spite of the sumptuary laws; 14th century this cross--I suppose because it was the husband has his arnis and armor, his haketon broken-was taken down, and the "stationers” and his headpiece, his bow and arrows and his removed their stalls into Paternoster Row. The dagger, besides his fur gown for winter, and his narrow street then became like the lane of an oldcape and hood and doublet of warm burrell. fashioned fair, with stands and booths down the
They work all day long, but you must not think middle, and its stalls along the side; or like a that they have no holidays; they keep their Sat modern street market, say that of Whitecross urday afternoons. In our time we have only street in the evening, with a continuous babble of restored the Saturday half holiday which all the many voices, and the never-ending noise of selcrafts enjoyed up to the Reformation; they also lers and customers chaffering and bargaining: keep many holidays, including the great day of We can catch glimpses, here and there, of the their Gild. Their wages would seem small to actual residents of this street, the place where you, but then a penny goes farther than a shil they made the rosaries. They should have been ling in your time, child of the nineteenth century. a quiet and God-fearing folk, but they were not. If you looked behind the shop you would find an In 1381, one Godfrey de Belstred was assaulted array of cooking vessels which would surprise by three "Paternosters" of this parish, whether for you-pots and pans, iron spits and ovens, couvre purposes of robbery or in a quarrel does not apfeus, wooden cups and wooden trenchers; they pear, he was picked up wounded and carried off mean for every day meals—substantial meals, to die. In the same century we find persons owndinners and suppers of the plenty and solidity for ing houses in this street; one William de Ravenwhich the London craftsman has always been stone, almoner of St. Paul's, leaves by will a famous. On the shop bulk and hanging from the house in Paternoster Row. Did his functions perpentice are the wares for which the Row is mit him to live outside the precinct which shelfamous; the "paternosters" in pairs; the rosaries, tered such a goodly company of ecclesiastics? beads and crucifixes, even, but these are not About the same time William Russell--surely the shown; the charms and the amulets; the little earliest mention of that illustrious name-besilken bag, which, worn round the neck, will save queaths his house in the Row; Garter King-ata girl's sweetheart from the murderous fight of arms has a house there; John de Pykenham, the arrow; the ring which is sovereign against Paternostrer, leaves various tenements to his wife, fever and plague; the bracelet which preserves who claims as one of them a house in the Row. the traveler among robbers; the caul which saves William le Marble, a vintner, has a house there; the sailor from shipwreck. But these things are the name shows that a man might by this time sold secretly, because the Bisbop lives but a short leave the trade of bis father and take to another step from the Row, and it is well known how he without changing his surname, just as the name treats those who have to do with magic and of Chaucer, who never belonged to the "gentle spells: the men he drags on hurdles to Smithfield, craft,” means shoemaker. There are other inwhere he hangs them; the women, more miserable stances of “Paternostrers," all of whom belong to still, he carries in carts to the same place, where the parish, if not to the Row, which formed the he burns them.
most important part of it. These craftsmen live in the very heart of the The street, in fact, belonged to two parishes; city; they sleep under the shadow of the great one of these was the Parish of St. Faith under church; their work is for the church; and the Paul's, a church whose services were held in the church, not the workshop, is the very heart and four aisles immediately below the choir of Old St. life of the city. It is as yet a time of profound Paul's. The crypt of the modern Cathedral is still faith. Lollardry has not yet begun; no invidious called St. Faith's, but the parish church is now comparisons have yet been drawn between the St. Augustine's, Watling street, St. Faith's parprofession and the practice of Franciscan or of ish includes Paternoster Square, the Row, and Benedictine; there is no question yet as to doc Ivy lane, with little fringes, or strips, on the north trine; the church rules all, compels all, directs all, and south. The east end of the Row is in the for these craftsmen and their families.
parish of St. Michael le Quern. This little parish, At the east end, opposite to the north entrance whose church is now St. Vedast's, Foster lane, in
cluded no more than 250 feet of the Row with College, Cambridge, or Christ Church, Oxford. that part of Chepe west of Foster lane, and the Beyond Warwick is a modern building which buildings on the north west of the Cathedral pre might be a monastery, or a college, or a close, so cinct. If you stand now on the site of the church, quiet, retired and venerable it is. At this place you will find it difficult to understand how there the Row formerly came to a sudden end with a could be room for a parish church and a grave house built against London wall. On the south yard on the little space between the Row and the side, however, there was here another great west end of Cheapside. By measurement, how house, built originally by the Earl of Richmond, ever, you will ascertain that a line drawn from brother of Edward II and grandson of Henry III. the end of the Row to the corner of Cheapside is From him it passed to John Hastings, Earl of 130 feet in length, while a line drawn perpendic Pembroke; thence to the Nevilles, Earl of Aberular to the buildings is 110 feet. Now, the media gavenny, from whom it went to the Stationers' val builders were ingenious in cramming churches Company. It fell in the great fire, and was rebuilt and halls into small areas. I have described the as it now stands. church as it might have been; and I put the pres Again, in Lovell's Court, now a narrow and ent statue of Peel at the crossing of the transepts dingy place, once stood the Inn of the Lovels. In if it was a cruciform church. I do not think, a time when fidelity and loyalty were everywhere however, that it was cruciform, but that it con conspicuous by their absence, where the leaders sisted of a nave and chancel only, with a small changed their sides and the lesser men followed burial ground on the north, and a tower on the for private gain or imaginary wrong, when pereast side. The fire of 1666 left it roofless, broke jury was a practice regarded almost as honorable, its windows, melted its glass, calcined its marbles, the last of this house remained faithful to a king and destroyed its wood work. It also burned up whose hands were as red with the blood of the the coffins with their contents in the vaults. The innocent as those of his brother Edward. Visparish was poor and small; the "Paternostrers" count Lovel, Chamberlain of the Household to existed no longer; the parishioners decided not Richard III, fought for that king at Bosworth rebuild the church; they amalgamated their par Field, where he had the good fortune to escape ish with another; they widened the way that led with his life. He found an asylum with Margaret from Newgate street into Cheapside; and the Duchess of Burgundy, the sister of Richard. He bones of the dead, which were now so much gray came over again, however, unfortunately for himpowder, were trampled in the mud and dust of the self, joined the Earl of Lincoln, fought at the street.
bat:le of Stoke, and once more escaped with his Perhaps the most characteristic feature of old life. What became of him afterwards was never London, as distinguished from other cities, was learned with certainty. According to Lord Bacon, that the princes and nobles who had town houses he was drowned in trying to cross a river: in the centuries before the 16th made no separate but there is another story about him. Acquarter for themselves. It was a most fortunate cording to this version, he made his way to a accident, if it was an accident. Nothing could place of concealment in his own house of Minster contribute more forcibly to the breakdown of Lovel! (not the house of Lovell's Court), and castes or to the prevention of castes. London was there, either by neglect or by treachery, he was a city of palaces, without a street of palaces; the starved to death. In 1726 a subterranean chamnobles built their houses among the craftsmen; ber was discovered in the house, where they found they planted among a community of families, all a man sitting at a table with a book, pen and working at the same trade, and belonging to the paper before him. This was supposed to be the sawe Gild, and separated from the rest of the citi skeleton of Lord Lovel. zens, because all crafts were exclusive, a great We have seen that the "Stationers” migrated house with courts, halls, stables, refectories, kitch from the stalls of Broken Cross to Paternoster ens, cellars, and dormitories, capable of holding Row. With the Reformation came a great many hundreds of followers. There is nothing to show, changes to the city of London, apart from those beyond an occasional brawl, that there was any changes of doctrine and teaching which the Ritjealousy or ill-feeling between my Lord's follow ualists of the present day so strenuously try to ers and the craftsmen around them. Thus, at the minimize. They are changes which have been other end of the Row, Warwick lane ran into it generally disregarded as unworthy the attention from Newgate street. In Warwick lane stood the of the historian, involving only the ruin of thouinn of the great King Maker, who rode into Lon sands of poor folks. Among other things, the don when he came there with 600 men at arms whole population of the Row went out of work. following in his livery. This was a very great What became of their piles of rosaries and beads house. If you want to know what Warwick's Inn one knows not. The people who secretly rewas like, and how great it was, visit Trinity mained in the old faith kept their own, no doubt,
which they treasured; but new rosaries were no St. Paul's—but the greater number had their longer in demand. What the unfortunates took shops, being booksellers as well as publishers, in up for their livelihood under the changed condi the Row. No longer did the coaches rumble along tions is one of the many insoluble questions which the narrow street; posts placed across forbade the we put to ourselves and then pass over.
passage of coach or cart; it became the most quiet However, the next stage in the history of the street in all London. Gradually another change Row shows it to have been occupied by mercers, fell upon the place; the booksellers' shops disapsilkmen and lacemen. It was the principal mar peared, and with them the throng of scholars who ket for those merchants in the early 15th century; had been wont to meet and talk among the the street was so thronged by coaches that foot books. The Row became a wholesale place, passengers
unable to walk through. whither the "trade" came to buy; printers, bookAfter the fire, according to Strype, the binders, and paper-makers came, hat in hand, in mercers migrated to Covent Garden, Hen the hope of picking up a guinea. rietta Street, and King Street. According to I have before me a book called “Travels in Defoe, the Row was rebuilt after the fire for the Town,” written in the year 1839. The author, convenience of these trades; "the spacious shops, speaking of the output of books, boldly states that back warehouses, skylights, and other conve they had all to pass through Paternoster Rowniences made on purpose for their trade are still certainly an exaggeration, but by far the greater to be seen." He goes on to say that the other number had to do so. He says that the output of trades were then dependent on the more import books, which he places at an annual average of ant shops; lacemen were in Ivy lane, button 150 in the 17th century, had in the 18th actually shops at the Cheapside end, shops for crewel and decreased to the annual average of 100, and had fringe in Blowbladder street. He says that this again in 1839 mounted to 1500-a fourth part of continued for 20 years after the fire, and that the the number issued every year at the present day. mercers began to migrate then to Covent Garden, He says that in 1800 the number of new books wbere, however, they did not remain many years. averaged about 350; that in 1810 it was 500; in They then returned to the city and established 1828 it was 842: rising rapidly, as we have seen, themselves on Ludgate Hill.
to 1,500. The busiest day in the month In 1720 again, according to Strype, a great mix Magazine Day, when the new magazines were ture of trades existed in the Row, including some sold to the trade. About 400,000 copies left the mercers and silkmen, and many tire-women; "at Row that morning. When we consider the nature the upper end some stationers and large ware of these magazines- the Gentleman, Tait's, the houses for booksellers, well situated for learned New Monthly, the Metropolitan, Blackwood's, Fraser's, and studious men's access thither, being more —there can be no doubt that among the better retired and private.”
class of readers the magazine occupied a much This is the first mention of the Row in connec more important place than it does at present. If tion with the sale of books. The book trade, like we take the modern magazines, about a dozen in all others, had its favorite quarters. At first number, corresponding to these old favorites, I booksellers, stationers and printers found a place do not think that more than an eighth part in St. Paul's Churchyard, where many first edi of that number is now taken up by the trade on tions of sundry poems and plays of Shakespeare the day of issue. On the other hand, of the cheap were printed.
literature which is now so plentiful and someAfter the fire many of the booksellers, whose times so good and wholesonie, and, good or bad, stocks had been consumed in that disaster, re so widely read that its circulation is now nummoved to Little Britain, where they flourished for bered, week by week, or month by month, by nearly 80 years. At the end of that time they millions, there was in 1840 none at all, or very began to take up their quarters in Paternoster little. Row. A few, however, were left both in St. The Row kept up its character as the headPaul's Churchyard and in Little Britain. One of quarters of the book trade for many years. When the former, Newberry, published Oliver Gold the Edinburgh publishers came to Londonsmith's “Vicar of Wakefield; another, Johnson, Chambers and Blackwood-they took offices in published Cowper's “Task” in 1784.
the Row. Murray, it is true, was never tempted From the manufacture of paternosters to the within the sacred lane; on the contrary, he expublication and sale of books is a long step. The changed Fleet street for Albemarle street. But Row, however, gradually lost all its mercers, lace other changes have set in. There now are as men and silkmen, and became the home of books, many outside the Row as in it; we find publishers old and new. Other booksellers there were in about Covent Garden and Charing Cross; bookother parts, but not many-Dodsley, for instance, sellers there are, of course, everywhere. The in Pall Mall, Murray in Fleet Street, Newberry in “Directory” gives a list of over 400 publishers, of
whom not more thar forty or fifty need be taken already among the immortals. There are such into account. Of the 400, however, the Row still circles at this day; they form groups and coteries; numbers thirty; while of booksellers, stationers, they lay down the law; they are severe, contempand other persons connected with the book trade tuous and supreme.
Sad it is to think that to there are another thirty in the Row. So the old these circles, as well as to that of the Chapter literary atmosphere hangs about the place and, Coffee House, Time will apply the sponge and though most of the great publishers are gone, efface their names and their sayings from the there are enough left to keep up the traditions of memory of the world. Yet while they live they the past.
And north of the Row, in Paternoster have their imaginary importance, which is their Square and the courts and lanes, other publishers solace and their reward. The poet who is desand booksellers are found who lend their name tined to live, mostly sits apart and is silent; the to make the Row and its vicinity still the head writers who have neither imagination nor fancy, quarters of new books.
who have no message, and are but workers by Let me add a note on the social side of the Row. rule of thumb, mostly make the noise. Let us It once boasted two places of resort where nien leave the Chapter and the Row, closing the door could meet and dine, or sit and talk. The first of upon the contentious Walker, "the rhetorician," them was Dolly's Chop House. This house was and the great Alexander Chalmers, and Johnson, built in the time of Queen Anne for a certain the "king of booksellers.” cook named Dolly. It is said to have stood on the
WALTER BESANT. site of an ordinary kept by Tarleton, the Elizabethan mime. If this is true, there was probably,
THE FAILING BOOKS. according to the conservative habits of the people,
They say our books will disappear a tavern kept up on the spot continuously. It
That ink will fade and paper rotwas not the custon in the early years of the 18th
I sha'n't be here century to create a new tavern, but to carry on
So I don't care a jot. an old one. However, Dolly's remained a place
The Best of them I know by heart,
As for the rest they make me tired: of great resort for more than a hundred years. It
The viler part seems to have been famous for its beefsteaks. I
May well be fired. wish they had suffered the place to stand.
Oh, what a hipocritic show The other, a more important place, was the
Will be the bibliomaniac's board! Chapter Coffee House. This place was in the 18th
Cheat as hollow century the resort of the booksellers; here they
As a backgamon board. met for the sale among themselves of copyrights,
Just think of Lamb without his stuffing,
Aud the iconoclastic Howells, and for the sharing of any new enterprise in new
Who, spite of puffing, books. Here also met many of the wits and
Is destitute of bowels. writers during the last half of that century
'Twould make me laugh to see the stare Goldsmith, Johnson, Lloyd, Churchill, and many
Of mousing bibliomaniac fond others came here to sup and to talk. Chatterton
At pages bare found his way here, sitting in a corner and think
As Overreach's bond. ing himself already admitted among the acknowl
Those empty titles will displease edged poets of the day. One wonders what they
The earnest student seeking knowledge-,
Barren degrees thought of the boy. In the early part of this
Like those of Western college. century the coffee house was frequented by a
That common stuff, "Excelsior," knot of writers of some importance in their own
In poetry so lacking, day. I wonder how many of their names will be
I care not forrecogvized by the readers of these pages. For
'T'is only fit for packing.
IRVING BROWNE-"Ballads of a Bookworm." example, there was Alexander Stevens, Dr. Buchan, the Rev. W. Murray, the Rev. Dr. Berd
THE WEAVER. more, Walker “the rhetorician”—you remember
Like those of old who wove the Gobelin, him, of course-Dr. Towers, Dr. Fordyce, Johnson,
The sable line the pen weaves 'cross its loom, called in his day “king of the booksellers,” Phil
The page, it is the patient weaver's doom lips, editor of the Monthly Magazine, Alexander
No glimpse the fair effect thereof to win.
Still blindly following the design that's been Chalmers, Macfarlane, and others whose names Set for him by his Age, until the tomb are well-nigh forgotten, who yet thought them
Brings night, he toils within his little room,
Weaving bright threads of thought, now out, now in, selves no mean citizens, and formed a
group How slight a variance might set all awry which came here every night and talked. They The seeming tangled web! Whose work shall be
in palaces, most careful art must ply. all sat together; people came to hear them talk; Not lost his pains, though he may never see it was a literary center. They considered them
The woof's right side. He leaves, though Fame may die,
A perfect fabric to Futurity. selves great lights of literature, and perhaps
-CHARLES ELMER JENNEY.