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feed, in which the people watch the old Tirsau Queen. The world has very positive knowledge gorge himself for ninety minutes, and a most as to what kind of a

woman Queen Elizabeth labored description of a parade, in which the was. She was a great friend of the players. If Tirsau is the venerable and imposing figure. this reasoning had referred to Cromwell's time The chief interest of the people in this story there might be some force in it, but it is simply seems to be such things as vivisection, sewage and absurd when applied to Queen Elizabeth or King making composts. Bacon did not finish it. His James. Bacon's essay on "Love" was probably historian, Rawley, explains why, by saying: a thousand times more fatal to him in the Queen's "Bacon's desire for collecting the natural bistory mind than to have been known as the author of diverted him, which he preferred many degrees the plays which she enjoyed so much. I imagine before it."

that the thing he needed most to gain the royal If a story that contains a laboratory, dissecting favor was just that gift which his admirers are room, dyehouses, observatories, and in which they are trying to conceal. He did not like love. He manufacture thunder, lightning, and composts, called it the "child of folly,” said it did “great and generate frogs, flies and worms, does not sat mischief,” and “rarely found entrance in an open isfy a would-be scientist's longings in such re heart,” and “great spirits do keep out this weak spects, what must be thought of an attempt to passion.” Can any one suppose that was the attribute to him such works as “A Midsummer kind of sentiment that would gain him favor with Night's Dream," "Comedy of Errors," "Much Ado the Queen ? About Nothing,” and “The Merry Wives of I wonder how the Baconites account for Bacon's Windsor"?

appearance, voluntarily-in the Essex trials, The only verses that Bacon wrote were his when the playing of "Richard II.” was part of versification of the One Hundred and Fourth the indictment for treason. Can it be imagined Psalm. Let any one who thinks of crediting him that Bacon would prosecute, convict and have with Shakespeare's works read that. It has never men executed for treason for acting a play that appeared or been mentioned in any Baconite pub he had written and no word or hint of such fact lication. It was not written in Bacon's youth, but ever be mentioned by Shakespeare, when one of when he was mature, and the plays were all in the prisoners, Southampton, was his benefactor, existence. Why do not the Baconites show their and it was Shakepeare's company that gave the idol's power by publishing the verses that we all play. If Bacon had written the play or had had know he did write. Bacon's historians have pub- any connection with it he would naturally have lished them and commented upon them. They been in constant dread, and common prudence speak of them as "flat effects," "bad lines," would have kept him out of the contest, Instead “ ridiculous failure,” and “low order.” This versi of that he thrust himself forward and accomfication is too long to quote here, but the four- plished the conviction of his benefactor, Essex, teenth and fifteenth verses are specimens:

and Shakespeare's benefactor, Southampton. If Causing the earth put forth the grass for beasts,

he had been the author of the plays it is not posAnd garden herbs, served at the greatest feasts,

sible that the fact would not have come out at And bread that is all viands' firmament,

that time. Such a revelation would have com. And gives a firm and solid nourishment,

pletely silenced Bacon and would have been most And wine, man's spirits for to recreate,

welcome to Shakespeare and those accused. And oil, his face for to exilarate.

If Bacon wrote the plays, certainly Shakespeare The first thing for the Baconites to do, is to never knew it, and Bacon's historians never susprove that Bacon never wrote these lines. Until

pected it. It is singular that the question of the that is done no one can honestly believe him to dead languages should have any part in this dishave been a poet. There is no other evidence so

cussion. It has no weight whatever. There were positive and conclusive against the Baconites' translations at that time of everything that was theory as a study of Bacon. People generally of use to Shakespeare in his writings. The have a very erroneous estimate of bim. Queen knowledge of those languages was very general. Elizabeth knew him well, and Shakespeare also. Every schoolmaster and every monk was conShe never thought Bacon wrote the plays. versant with them, and Bacon in his works comShe has left her estimate of Bacon on record.

plained that English was neglected and too much She said: “Bacon hath great wit and learning, time given to the study of Latin and Greek in the but in law he showeth to the uttermost of his

schools. knowledge, and is not deep."

In regard to the scribbling on Bacon's manuThe only ground put forward by the Baconites script I think that passages from Shakespeare to explain why Bacon did not acknowledge the and even Shakespeare's pame have been found, plays as his own is, I think, that he feared it but they were proved not to be in Bacon's handmight injure his chances of preferment by the writing. He had an immense number of notes

that he jotted down for future use. Mrs. Pott “Discoveries" and elsewhere; also what Hembased her Promus on them. Bacon called them inge and Condell say of him. These two men his “apparatus of rhetoric, doors, windows, stair. spent seven years after Shakespeare's death colcases, and backrooms to be skillfully contrived." lecting and publishing his plays. It was purely Is there any ground for the belief that Bacon a labor of love. He should also remember that wrote the plays because some of these words or the sonnets have not been claimed for Bacon that expressions bore some resemblance to passages in I have ever heard, and if Shakespeare wrote the plays? Is it reasonable to suppose that a them, why not also the plays ? He should rememman who never wrote anything that could be ber that Shakespeare's authorship was not quescalled poetry under his own name, one who con tioned until more than 200 years after his death, demned the stage and sneered at love, should in and then the claim was made by Elizabeth Salter reality be the greatest poet that ever lived? Or Bacon, probably on account of her pame. is it not more reasonable to suppose that certain Fleay gives a connected history of Shakespeare's expressions caught his attention as a spectator at connection with the theatre from 1587 until 1610, the representations which were being constantly and his association with some of his fellow-actors given and that he followed his usual custom and until his death in 1616. Instead of little being jotted down a few of them?

known of him, his lifetime association with his A book has been written to show that Ben Jon- fellow-actors presents one of the most remarkable son wrote all of Bacon's works. He did assist records of friendship known, especially in a callBacon to put them into Latin. Bacon thought ing that naturally provokes the most extreme the English language would not survive.

tests of patience and indulgence; it is on all sides If “W. R. W.” thinks little is known of Shake an indication of sturdy and steadfast character. speare, he should read E. Gard Fleay's life of

CHARLES F. STEEL. him, what Ben Jonson has said of him in his

LINES ON AN OLD VOLUME OF ELIZABETHAN PLAYS. Thou musty relic of the long ago,

What scents ambrosial these lines pervade! That once in richly paneled calf didst shine,

What sweets nectarean these lovers sip! That once the curious binder's care didst know

What ardu rous vows of constancy are made! How wretched is this present state of thine!

What amorous kisses Ay from lip to lip!

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THE ROMANCE OF BOOK COLLECTING. . without demur, because at the time all the other

Johnson catalogues were in mufti, and it had

struck no one to exhibit them, and also because it

was, under the circumstances of the case, a very CHAPTER I.

desirable memorial to present to the society which IN EULOGY OF CATALOGUS.

flourishes on the fame of the great lexicographer. There are plenty of people--in fact, they are Here, at any rate, is one exceptional instance of an in the great majority even among bookish men old catalogue possessing a distinct pecuniary value who regard antiquated sale-catalogues in the light up to £2, and though the noise this discovery of so much rubbish, and yet, when inteiligently made in certain circles led to a general search and consulted, these memorials of a bygone day not the rescue of other copies, the circumstances are only have their uses, but are positively interest not in the least affected on that account. ing. Truly enough, they are not popular, like From a literary or even a sentimental standthe last new novel which, for one reason or an point a long story, full of speculation and roother, has taken the town by storm, and it would mance, might be written on Dr. Johnson's longnot pay to reprint a single one of them, even the forgotten catalogue. We might, for instance, best or most important that has ever held the fre trace, by the aid of Boswell, many of the books quenters of auction-rooms spellbound.

mentioned in it to the very hand of the master Sometimes a "parcel” will be sold for what it himself. We might conjecture the use he made will fetch, and on investigation may prove to con of this volume or that in his “Lives of the Poets," tain a few simple-minded pamphlets on subjects of “The Vanity of Human Wishes,” or in the ponno importance, "ard others,” the latter consisting derous Dictionary that cemented his fame, and by of book catalogues of the last or the earlier por way of interlude beguile an hour occasionally by tion of the present century. This happens suffi- contrasting the character of the books he affected ciently often to make it possible for a bookish with the quality of those on the shelves of some enthusiast of an antiquarian turn of mind to lose modern Johnson, assuming, of course, that his himself with marvelous rapidity in a maze of old counterpart is to be found. Then we might look time dispersions. But the enthusiast, unless very at the prices realized, and compare them with determined indeed, knows better than to choke those ruling at the present day. Some books then his library with such material. He is aware that in fashion, we may be sure, now despised and rean exhaustive index is indispensable to the jected, others have not been appreciably affected proper appreciation of such literature, and to by the course of time, while others, again, are now make that would occupy his nights indefinitely. sought after throughout the world, and are hardly

And so it comes to pass that old sale-catalogues to be met with at all. There is no old catalogue of books are consigned for the most part to the whatever which is not capable of affording conrubbish heap, or perhaps sent to the mills, to reap siderable instruction if we only read between the pear later on in another guise. They may be lines. scarce in the sense that, if you wanted a particu Then, again, there is one speculation that no lar one, it could only be got with great difficulty true book-lover can stifle; it haunts him as he and at considerable expense (here the art of sell passes the barrows with their loads of sermons ing to advantage comes in), or perhaps not at all. and scholastic primers, and it is this: "Time works This, however, makes no matter, for the fact re wonders.” Some day may not this heterogeneous mains that such things are not inquired for as a mass of rubbish produce as fine a pearl as ever a general rule, and that an occasional demand is in diseased oyster was ever robbed of? May not sufficient to give them any kind of status in the fashion go off at a tangent and dote on lexicons or world of letters.

what pot ? There have been men-Rossie, for Some five or six years ago a member of the example, who was so saturated with the suspicion Johnson Club, a literary society which meets at that fashion might change any moment that the intervals in various parts of London, but more stalls which he passed were “like towns through particularly in Fleet street, discovered a catalogue which Attila or the Tartars had swept, with ruin of the sale of the old doctor's library, neatly in their train"-who would buy any book whatmarked with the prices each book had brought. ever, whether they wanted it or not, on the bare Whether this was a sale post mortem or a casual chance of some one else wanting it, either at the interlocutory dispersal at the instance of some time or in the days to come. soulless creditor, I do not know. In any case the Such may be the outcome of a too eager perusal relic was a find-a fact which the bookseller who of catalogues, focussed till it produces an absorbbought it was not slow to appreciate, for he at ing passion, which only departs with life itself. once assessed its value, to the society man, at After a time, discrimination, naturally enough, something like forty shillings. This was paid becomes impossible, and whole masses of books

As a

Did you

are bought up for what they may become, not for

after their long sleep, but not for us. what they are. This may appear to be an ignoble corollary to this eulogy of catalogues, let us sort of pastime, but in reality it is far otherwise, take a few of them and see where the booksince wholesale purchasers of this stamp are in man's steps are leading him. In his wanderings variably well read, and know more about their abroad he must many a time be painfully conauthor than his mere name. I personally was scious of the fact that his own quest is that of acquainted with a book worm who absorbed whole

everyone else whose tastes are similar to his own. collections at a time. His house was full of books; Let a first edition of the immortal “Angler" so they were under the beds, in cupboards, piled up much as peep from among the, grease and filth along the walls, under tbe tables and chairs and

of a rag-and-bone shop, and a magnetic current even on the rafters under the roof. If you walked travels at lightning speed to the homes of a score without due care, you would, more likely than cr more of pickers-up of unconsidered trifles, who not, tumble over a folio in the dark, or bring down forthwith race for the prize. How they get to a wall of literature, good, bad or indifferent, on know of its existence is a mystery. Perhaps some your head. This library was chaotic to the gen strange psychological influence is at work to eral, though the worm himself knew very well prompt them to dive down a pestilential alley for where to burrow for anything he required, and, the first and last times in their lives. what is more to the point, would feed for hours ever see a millionaire groping in the gutter for a on volumes that few people had ever so much as dropped coin ? His energy is nothing to that of heard of. The monetary value of his treasures the book man who has reason to suspect-why, he did not trouble him, though one of his favorite knows not--that here or there may perbaps lie anecdotes related to the hunting down of a fourth hid and un recognized a volume which fashion has folio Shakespeare which, after much haggling, he made omnipotent. And his energy is not confined purchased for a song from a poor woman who to himself alone, for one decree of a naughty lived in an almshouse. When the delight of the world changes not-it is ever the same. What chase was over, he recompenses her to the full

many men want, more men will search for; what market value, thereby proving that, in his case at one man only has, many will want. The path of least, a greed for books does not necessarily carry the book-hunter is trodden fat and hard with with it a stified conscience. Sad to relate, this countlesss footsteps, and this is the reason why it bibliophile died like other men, and the collection is so unsatisfactory to look specially for anything of a lifetime came to the inevitable hammer. valuable. Most of his books then proved to be portions of We may take it, therefore, that, though hunting sets. If a work were complete in, say, ten vol for books may be a highly exhilarating pastime, umes, he would perhaps possess no more than it is seldom remunerative from a pecuniary point five or six of the full number in various bindings of view. There are,

no doubt, hundreds of and editions, while others, though complete, were good and useful volumes which can be bought at imperfect, and many were in rags. Yet among any time for next to nothing; but they have no the whole there were some pearls of great price. halo round them at the moment, and so they are Even in his day the fashion had changed in his abandoned to their fate by the typical collector, favor.

who insists not only on having the best editions Now, this changing of fashion which is always in exchange for his money, but that his books going on cannot be prophesied at haphazard, or sball be of a certain description—that is to say, perhaps at all; but if there is a way of forestall of a kind to please him, or which for the time ing it, it is by the careful comparison of prices being is in great demand. realized for books of a certain kind at different And men are pleased at various times by books periods of time, and this can only be accomplished of a widely different character, as the old cataby a study of catalogues. The bookman likes to logues tell us plainly enough. In 1676, when think that history repeats itself in this as in other William Cooper, bookseller, dwelling at the Sign matters, and that what has happened once will of the Pelican in Little Britain, held the first aucprobably occur again in process of time. Nay, he tion sale ever advertised in England-that of the might, without any great stretch of credulity, library of Dr. Lazarus Seaman-works of the persuade himself that it must occur, if only be Fathers and Schoolmen; learned and critical vollive long enough. That's the rub, for half a dozen umes of distressing profundity, appealed to the lifetimes might not be sufficient to witness a re comparative few who could read and write suffiturn to favor of, say, the ponderous works of the ciently well to make reading a pleasurable occuFathers, which were in such great demand a pation. Poetry is absent entirely. Shakespeare couple of centuries ago. As of them, so of many and Milton are elbowed out by Puritan fanatics other kinds of books which are only read now by who fulminate curses against mankind. No the very few. Some day they will rise again doubt, if a bookman of those days had been asked

what kind of literature would be in vogue a absent friends. Still harping chiefly on theology, couple of centuries hence, he would have pointed as Polonius might say, these catalogues are to Seaman's collection and replied: "Books like crammed with polemics and books of grave disthose can never die. So long as learning hoids course. Anything which could not, by hook or its sway over the few, they will be bought and by crook, be dragged, as to its contents, within treasured by the many." In this they would have the circumference of the fashionable craze, was been wrong, for few people care nowadays for disposed of for a trifling sum. Even in 1682 the volumes such as these. The times have changed learned world, or at least our parrow corner of it, utterly, and we with them.

was inhabited almost entirely by crop-eared PuriAt this same sale was a book which sold for less tans, with sugar-loaf hats on their heads and than almost any other, and it lay hidden away broad buckles to their shoes, and by philosophers. under this bald and misleading title, “ Veteris et True, Cromwell had gone to his account, and Novi Testamenti in Ling. Indica, Cantabr. in Charles II. held court at St. James' and elsewhere, Nova Anglia.” Simply this, and nothing more. but the king and his merry companions were not No statement as to date, condition or binding ap reading men-unless a profound knowledge of pears in Cooper's catalogue, and yet this Bible is “Hudibras,” that book which Pepys could not none other than John Eliot's translation into the abide the sight of, could make them so. The antiIndian language, with a metrical version of the Puritans patronized Butler and doted on Sir Psalms in the same vernacular, published at Cam Charles Sedley, the Earl of Rochester and a few bridge, Mass., in 1663-61. An auctioneer of the more, who scribbled love verses by day and gampresent day would print the title of this volume bled and fought and drank at night. But these in large capitals, and tell us whether or no it had worshipped Thalia and Erato only, with music the rare dedication to King Charles II., of pious and dancing and other delights, and knew noth: memory, which was only inserted in twenty copies ing of solid hard work by the midnight oil. They sent to England as presents. If it had, then this had no books to speak of, and the few they had book, wherever it may be, is now worth much were light and airy like themselves, and for the more than its weight in gold, for at Lord Hard most part as worthless. wicke's sale, held in London on June 29, 1888, On November 25, 1678, a great sale was held at such a desirable copy was knocked down for the White Hart, in Bartholomew Close. The £580.

books were “bought out of the best libraries Why this immense advance in price, seeing abroad, and out of the most eminent seats of that probably there is no man in England to-day learning beyond the seas,” or, more truthfully, who could read a single line of John Eliot's had been removed from the shops of seven Lonfree translation? The reason is plain. Since 1661 don book-sellers who had combined to "rig” the sleepy New England has vanished like the light market. Books of all kinds were dispersed at canoes of countless Indians, and in the busy this sale, which continued de die in diem till the United States there has grown up a great de heptarchy was satisfied. Were the members of mand for anything which illustrates the early this pioneer combination alive now, they would history of North America. Had such a contin weep to think that they gave away op that ocgency struck old Lazarus Seaman, he would have casion-practically gave away-scores of what made his will to suit the exigences of the case, have long since become aristocrats among books, and perhaps taken more interest in John Eliot Americana were there in plenty, and some of and his missionary enterprises than any one did these are now so extremely rare and valuable that at the time, or has done since.

they are hardly to be procured for love or money; It may perhaps be said that Seaman's library some few, indeed, have completely disappeared, must bave been of a special kind, one which such tossed lightly aside, probably, by disgusted pura learned divine might be expected to gather chasers, or carted back again to the shops from within his walls; but as a matter of fact this was whence they came, to be stacked once more till not so. Between 1676 and 1682, October to Octo they perished utterly of damp and neglect, mothber in each of those years, exactly thirty sales of mice and rust. books were held by auction in London, among On the other hand, our old friends, the Purithem the libraries of Sir Kenelm Digby, Dr. Cas tans, reveled in grim folios bought up at prices tell, the author of the "Lexicon Heptaglotton "; which, the change in the value of money notwithDr. Gataker, Lord Warwick and other noted per- standing, would hardly be exceeded now. Wal

The general character of all the seven ton's "Biblia Sacra Polyglotta" was an immense teenth-century catalogues which time has spared favorite, a distinction it doubtless deserved, and, for our perusal is substantially the same. Every indeed, deserves yet, though we can

see that one of them reflects the taste and fashion of the Walton must have "gone down” woefully in the day, as did Agrippa's magic glass the forms of last hundred years, whien we come to calculate


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