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not be duplicated, as it contains every print one could ever wish to acquire. The two volumes of "Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant" cost Mr. Daly $2,000; this work was specially illustrated on the margin of the text by David Edward Cronin, with 255 original pen-and-ink and water-color sketches, representing scenes in the life and history of Gen. Grant, and inserted in the work are numerous autograph letters of Gen. Grant.

As was to be expected, Mr. Daly had a grand collection of Shakespeare's works, among which were the four folio editions, the Halliwell-Phillips set of Shakespeare, editions by the various editors, and the Henry Irving Shakespeare, large paper, in eight volumes, extended to 45 volumes by means of some 3,000 additional illustrations collected from all sources, and all the known sets of Shakespeare plates issued by themselves or in the various published editions of Shakespeare. This work cost about $6,000, and was used by Mr. Daly as a working copy.

His collections of stage biography embraced hundreds of works; in fact, everything he could obtain that gave particulars of the lives of all connected with the stage was to be found in his library, as well as all works on the history of the stage. This was unusually valuable and very complete and numbered hundreds of volumes. Another valuable set was works that had been written for and against the stage, "Pro and Con" as Mr. Daly called them. They were numerous and covered the last 200 years, and showed that opinions were about equally divided for and against the stage. Another important illustrated book in the library of Mr. Daly was his "History of London," 36 vols., imperial folio, which gives an excellent pictorial history of London from the earliest to modern times.

His copy of the "Memorial to George Holland" was extended to two volumes, with over 200 prints. Other works that were illustrated with an exceptionally choice collection of rare plates are "Sketch of Edwin Booth," "Life of Richard Brinsley Sheridan," Campbell's "Life of Mrs. Siddons," Chambers' "Book of Days," extended from two to 12 volumes; Arthur Murphy, author of "Johnson and Garrick,” James Boswell's "Life of Samuel Johnson," in six volumes.

Mr. Daly also extra-illustrated two copies of Cunningham's "Story of Nell Gwynne," one of which is in one volume and the other, which is by far the most remarkable copy in existence, is extended to four volumes folio. Spooner's "Biographical History of the Fine Arts" is extended from two to four volumes. "Hawkins' "Life of Edmund Kean"; this was extended to 14 volumes. Percy Fitzgerald's "Life of Garrick," which contains many valuable autographs, as well as the first will of Garrick; this work is in fifteen

volumes. Boswell's "Life of Johnson" is in ten volumes; Doran's "Annals of the English Stage" was extended to 25 volumes. Colley Kibber's "Apology for His Own Life" was extended to three volumes, with over 500 portraits. Hugh Kelly's "Thespis: A Critical Examination into the Merits of the Performers Belonging to the Drury Lane Theater," contains 200 prints and portraits.

Mr. Daly also extra-illustrated Ridgeway's "Memoir of Mrs. Billington," "Henry Irving," "Charles Kean," "Barney Williams," "Fanny Elssler," "Mr. and Mrs. John Wood," "Coquelin versus Irving." It was Mr. Daly's custom to privately print all the new plays that he put on the stage, and the greater part of which he extraillustrated; such as "The School for Scandal," "The Country Girl," "As You Like It," "Midsummer Night's Dream," "Merchant of Venice," "The Critic," "She Would and She Wouldn't," "Love's Labors Lost."

His copy of "The Record of the New York Stage from 1750 to 1860," by Joseph N. Ireland, which was published originally in two volumes, was extra-illustrated with over 10,000 illustrations, water colors, drawings, pen-and-ink sketches. and autographs, playbills, etc., and numbers over thirty volumes. "The Life of Peg Woffington," written by Mr. Daly, was extra illustrated and extended to two volumes. The margin of the book itself is well illustrated in water colors by Eugene Grivaz, who also treated many of Mr. Daly's books in the same manner.

Mr. Daly also had an uncut copy of Balzac's works, the Roberts Brothers of Boston edition, translated by Mrs. Wormeley, in 40 volumes. This was extra-illustrated, and in illustrating the plates were taken from two different French editions. In addition to this set of Balzac, Mr. Daly had a collection of various books that had been written about Balzac, some of which were extraillustrated with portraits and autograph letters.

Mr. Daly had an excellent collection of books, illustrated, showing the different costumes of all nations from the earliest period up to the present time. time. In addition to this he gathered together everything on the subject of costume it was possible to collect. These he had arranged chronologically and had done up in eight large quarto volumes. By doing this Mr. Daly saved considerable time, as he could see at a glance the different costumes that were in vogue at any one period.

William Winter's book on Ada Rehan he had enlarged to quarto size, extra-illustrated, and extended to two volumes. This work contains nearly every portrait that has ever been published of Miss Rehan, and in itself is a splendid portrait gallery of one person. Mr. Daly had a very good collection of books illustrated by Cruik

shank; also a complete set of the publications of the Grolier Club. The publications of the Kelmscott Press are well represented here and worth to-day considerably more than he ever paid for


There are original editions of Harrison Ainsworth's historical novels, also the works of Bulwer Lytton, sets of Victor Hugo and Moliere; and the library also coutained many of the original editions by Moliere, as well as a copy of the rare edition of one of Moliere's works that was presented to Mr. Daly by the noted French actor, Coquelin.

One of the nuggets in Mr. Daly's library was a folio called "Pass Two," a series of passes, signed by the great actors and actresses of the last century and the commencement of this. The works of Boisgobey, Paul de Kock, and Gaboriau are also well represented.

Of the first editions of modern authors, Mr. Daly's library, while not complete, was more perfect than a great many collections; among them are all the works illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, who had a style of his own, and whose works will ere long be more sought after than great many illustrators. Eugene Field's works are excellently represented, many of which were limited and large paper editions. This collection also included Field's "Model Primer," with Trow's imprint, and possibly this is unique and more valuable than the Denver edition, which in reality was the original issue. Bunner's works were very perfect, and the collection included a a splendid set of Andrew Lang's works, many of which were limited editions and on large paper. Edwin Arnold's works were very full, as well as the works of Austin Dobson. Riley's works were complete. William Winter, as may be expected, was well represented, The works of Tennyson were not complete, but were fairly so. Longfellow wanted some of the eariier volumes to make it perfect; many of the rarest earlier works by Longfellow were to be found among his collection. The various editions of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam were very full, and there were a few of Lewis Carroll's works.


This collection of first editions, as Mr. Daly called them, was gathered within a very short time, and in connection with them it is only a few weeks ago that Mr. Daly wrote me asking me to be on the watch for first editions of the FitzGerald's "Omar" and Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland."

Mr. Daly's collection of the first editions of Thackeray's works. was something wonderful. Everything that he had written and published was here; newspapers and journals that contained Thackeray's articles, no matter what they were, were to be found in the collection, as well as several duplicate copies of The Snob

and Gownsman. Mr. Daly also had an exceedingly valuable gathering of original letters by Thackeray, as well as pen and ink sketches and drawings that Thackeray made, many of which have never been published; and there were also portraits of Thackeray that Thackeray made himself, and if many of the popular magazines of to day could only get hold of this matter it would give considerable of the life of Thackeray that has never appeared in print.

Mr. Daly's collection of first editions of Dickens was remarkably complete. Mention has already been made about the collection of letters in Dickens' autograph. His collection, however, of Dickens letters, I should judge, numbers not far short of 500 letters written by Charles Dickens, and a great many of which relate to the earlier life of Dickens, and give considerable insight into Dickens' early successes; and in the collection are quite a number of letters written by Charles Dickens' father to the various publishers that Charles Dickens had dealings with, asking for certain favors. The greater portion of the Dickens manuscripts were used in extra-illustrating Forster's "Life of Dickens," three volumes, inlaid to quarto size, and extended to eight volumes. This work alone cost Mr. Daly over $5,000. About five years ago Mr. Daly secured at auction in London the original drawings that Seymour made for the first number of "Pickwick," some of which were issued and some were not. The collection included a privately published pamphlet on the subject and a few letters that passed between Seymour and Dickens. This cost Mr. Daly £500, or $2,500.

Quite recently Mr. Daly secured the original title deeds of the house in Pall Mall that was presented to Nell Gwynne. These deeds had Nell Gwynne's initials, "E. G.," and written by herself. It is said that in addition to this there is only another autograph of Nell Gwynne in existence, both of which were in Mr. Daly's possession.

His collection of prompt books of all the plays that he ever put on the stage is very large, and with each play there are newspaper clippings, taken from the newspapers at the time, as well as the programmes and other matter in connection with the play. He had a magnificent collection of playbills belonging to this country and to London. Mr. Daly had a complete file of all the programmes he issued in connection with his theatres in New York and London. He had also all the contracts that he made with his people from the time he took the management of theatres up to the present time. Of subscription books in sets, and those issued in one or two volumes, folio size, he had a great gathering.

Of that class of literature that we have seen so much of in this country of late, such as The Chap

Book, The Lark, Four o'Clock, What to Eat, The Poster, Red Letter, Lotus, Clack-Book, Echo, Baton, he had complete files. These he called his Topsyturvy Literature. Of the works of Sir Walter Scott Mr. Daly's library contained a full and complete set in full levant, as well as another set in boards as issued. This latter set, however, lacks the first three volumes of "Waverley." Of miscellaneous books, rarities, ancient and modern. Mr. Daly's bookcases-and he had several-were just overflowing, and if a bookseller was to start in business with these books he could issue a catalogue that would be remarkable for secondhand booksellers in this country.

Mr. Daly had a complete set of William Hazlitt's works in original editions, and the same could be said of the works of Charles Lamb. Notwithstanding that Mr. Daly had such a collection of books, he had them so arranged that he could find at once anything he wanted. One room at his residence contained only extra-illustrated books, another his dramatic books, another his miscellaneous books, and when he wanted a certain book he had only to go to a certain room and get just what he wanted. In his office at the theatre he kept his prompt books and his books on costumes and a miscellaneous lot of works that he needed in his business. He also had a room in the rear of the entrance to the stage door; this contained his magazines, his newspapers, and some of the larger books that took up too much room at his residence.



Mr. Daly's first library was sold October 14, 1878, and following days, by George A. Leavitt & Co. of this city as "the valuable and interesting collection formed by a prominent American playright, consisting of an unusually choice and desirable assemblage of books relating to the drama, including many extra-illustrated and unique copies." There were 1,117 lots in the auction catalogue, and the sale is said to have realized over $10,000. Mr. Daly's name does not appear in the catalogue, but it was widely known at the time that the collection was his. The pref

ace itself disclosed the fact when it is said that the collection had been used during a career that scored a hundred successes as the working library of a practical playright. Here would be found, it went on to say, a score of authorities, suggestions, histories, documents, and general hints collected for the express purpose of theatrical management. Here was an astonishing quantity of superb art works, of books of costume, of historic ornament, of architecture. Here was pictorial matter enough to shadow with the dream scenery of the artist the most stupendous stage, and actors enough to fill it, and professional gossip enough to set the coulisses ringing.

Many of the extra-illustrated books in the 1878 collection had not been extended by Mr. Daly, but were from English collections. One of the highest prices of the sale was the $572 paid for a copy of Knight's edition of Shakespeare, extended to 44 volumes by the insertion of 3,700 plates. At Bangs' the same copy was resold for $231 on February 24, 1898. Another interesting book was Spooner's "History of the Fine Arts" in four volumes, with 1,000 extra plates, which fetched $200. The book that excited the most competition, however, was the copy of Ireland's "Records of the New York Stage," which Mr. Daly had extended from two to ten volumes, adding 2,000 plates. The sum of $1,100 was paid for this work, which was probably the best extraIllustrated Ireland that has been sold at auction.

Among other prices of interest were the following: Boswell's "Life of Johnson," 6 volumes, 600 plates, $168; Chambers' "Book of Days," 12 volumes, $234; Cunningham's "Nell Gwynne," 156 plates, $70; Dr. Doran's "Annals of the English Stage," 5 volumes, 700 plates, $175; a book on "Human Longevity," 5 volumes, many plates, $192.50, and Spence's "Anecdotes," with 3 works. relating to Pope, in three volumes, 220 plates, $240. At the recent Cox sale in New York, the later was resold for $129.

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There is a small village in the western part of New York State, called East Aurora. It has a population of little more than 1,500. Four years ago it was almost unknown; scarcely anyone had ever heard of it. So when a tiny literary magazine, sailing under the name of The Philistine, made its appearance, bearing on its title page the name of East Aurora as its place of publication, many readers believed that this was but an imaginary place, the name chosen to indicate its character as "the rising light or roseate glow of early morning in the eastern [literary] sky." Had it been but an imaginary name, none could more aptly have been selected as the birthplace of this new magazine. He was a bright, saucy, little chap, this self-styled Philstine; not afraid to speak his mind, to stir up wasps' nests, to act the "enfant terrible" of literary Philistines, arrogant jeunes who hide their impudent mediocrity under the mask of a feigned superior exclusiveness and mysticism, and self-satisfied old fogies whose blood had become stagnant under the influence of fattening egotism, and whose big heads were half hidden under the nightcaps of indolent and obstinate conservatism. The father of this valiant young knight was Elbert Hubbard, now lovingly called "Fra Elbertus" by his numerous friends and disciples. This congenial man, who has made the obscure village of East Aurora famous on two

continents-at least among book lovers and literateurs-is in wider circles known as the author of the charming "Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Men and Women." He has also written some novels, though these are his minor efforts. His literary strength and originality, bowever, has full sway in the columns of his tart little Philistine. Its origin was obviously caused by the appearance of that memorable little magazine, The Chap-Book, which, like its numerous imitators, is now dead. The Philistine, of all these miniature magazines, which at a time had become a veritable literary craze, is the only one still alive, and as brisk and as bright as ever. What makes it so beloved by a host of readers is the sincerity of its tone and feeling, the strong morality of purpose in exposing philistinism, vanity, ignorance and indifference. Mr. Hubbard wields a virile pen; he is fearless and aggressive; yet as a writer he always holds himself in check and never becomes vulgar or offensive. Whatever he writes is poetry in prose; tenderness of feeling is blended with a delicate sense of humor; art and refinement are the keynotes of his literary mind; yet he always strikes whatever he aims at; his sarcasm and wit flash ever and anon, purifying the air as does the lightning in nature, for there is always a good reason for his attacks. In one of the recent numbers of The Philistine there was a little preachment entitled "A Message to Garcia," Mentioning in a few terse words the famous deed of dauntless Rowan, who went fearlessly through the enemy's lines to deliver the President's message to General Garcia, he uses this incident as the preacher uses a text from Scripture. He draws a parallel, applying this deed as an object lesson to modern life. In an announcement in a later issue he calls it modestly an insignificant article; it is, however, in its simplicity so significant and strong that it could not fail to make a deep impression. The edition of that number was soon exhausted; the article was quoted throughout the country; it was reprinted in pamphlet form, as well as in an edition de luxe, and sold to the extent of many thousand copies.

It is in this particular branch of brother Hubbard's achievements, namely, in the making of books, veritable editions de luxe, that he has gained the reputation of an "American William Morris." The press where The Philistine is printed is called "The Roycroft Shop," and the books which have emanated from this press are known as "Roycroft Books." That name has for some time come to mean to every book-lover and collector the embodiment of all that is most exquisite and elevated in taste and refinement in the high art of bookmaking. In type, press work, binding and general appearance these books are a delight to the eye. They are almost too pretty

for profane, daily usage; they want to be cherished as art-treasures. Though issued in but small, limited editions, and by no means cheap books, they are eagerly bought up by lovers of fine books, who feel a justifiable pride in owning these beautiful volumes. The list of the Roycroft publications includes some of the masterpieces of literature, such as the "Rubaiyat of Omar Khay. yam," the "Sonnets from the Portuguese," the "Confessions of an Opium Eater," the "Essays of Elia," "In Memoriam," "The Deserted Village," "The Ancient Mariner," etc. Aside from these there are also some modern works written in the spirit of The Philistine. Among these are a collection of essays by Elbert Hubbard entitled "As it Seems to Me," "Sermons from a Philistine Pulpit," by William McIntosh (Doctor Phil), “Hand and Brain," a symposium of essays on socialism by William Morris, Grant Allen, George Bernard Shaw, Henry S. Salt, Alfred Russel Wallace and Edward Carpenter. To these books there has recently been added another exquisite volume containing a collection of bookish verse by Irving Browne, entitled "The Ballads of a Bookworm." Many of these poems have already appeared in print in Duprat's "Book Lover's Almanac," in The Philistine, and in various magazines and newspapers; some are new. The author died in February of this year at Albany, N. Y., but his verses stand as a living monument of the poet and of his love of books, a love that finds an echo in the hearts of all who know how to appreciate the Roycroft Books. All of them show loving care in their maker, far above the manufacture of ordinary books, which is governed more or less by commercial considerations. They are all beautifully printed in bold type, with deep dark ink, on hand-made paper, initialed and illumined by hand, and bound with characteristic taste either in soft chamois leather with silk lining, or in plain, rough pasteboard, no less artistic in its effect.

Mr. Hubbard, before entering the book field,. was a stock-breeder--hence probably his animosity to the Chicago pork-barons. A man of fine education and literary propensities, he spent much of his time in the company of books and when he found in his little village of East Aurora an enterprising printer of a congenial mind, he interested himself practically in the making of books. He had made a special study of the Italian art of printing during the Renaissance, and from his large collection of specimens of fine old printing he chose initials and head and tail pieces, or had them especially designed after these samples. His wife proved a valuable helper, as it was she who illuminated by hand all initials and ornamentation of the first publications. Now the Roycrofters number about twenty in all, working together in harmony in the artistic atmosphere of


the Roycroft Shop, which has its home in a quaint HOW MUCH WE REALLY KNOW ABOUT chapel-like brick building in Gothic style. Most of Mr. Hubbard's co-workers are young ladies of East Aurora-among them his particular "edition de luxe," is his daughter. To this colony of artistic bookmakers belongs also Will Denslow, the young Chicago designer; St. Gerome Roycroft, a clever young sculptor; "Ali Baba," an old man in years, but not in mind, who is full of quaint sayings, bright talk and interesting reminiscences.

Mr. Hubbard is not what is generally called a genius; that would be stretching friendly admiration too far. But he certainly is an artist in modern bookmaking art; he has done more, perhaps, than any other American in fostering the love of fine books and the appreciation of art in letters. As a writer he is original, vivid, lucid, stimulating, entertaining and always interesting. EDUARD ACKERMANN.


A monarch died and left his heir

A thousand camel-loads of scrolls.
A hundred Brahmins had their care-
Grave, learned men, with patient souls.

Philosophers the books had writ

Who every realm of thought surveyed,
And all the wealth of human wit

Was here assembled and displayed.

The new-made king, who loved not toil,
But valued wisdom, gave command,
"Convert this sap to sugar! Boil
Till not a drop its bulk expand."

In smaller scope, with labor vast,

His wise men pressed the volumes' lore,
Till all, when twenty years had passed,
A train of thirty camels bore.

With scant approval in his looks,
The king beheld the laden train.
"What! thirty camel-loads of books?
I will not read them! Boil again."

The Brahmins packed the volumes' thought
In terser style. It came to pass
That all, when ten years more they'd wrought,
Was burden for a single ass.

Engrossed amid the cares of state,

The monarch mocked their learning's spoil,
And thrust them from his palace gate.

"No asses here! Go back and boil."

The Brahmins burned their parchments white
And threw away their horns of ink,
And did what few men dare who write;

They bravely set themselves to think.

Returned at length, "A single word

The sum of human knowledge wraps,
Oh, mighty king,” they all averred.
Then on his fan they wrote, "Perhaps."

Bacon could no more have written
have created this planet.-Carlyle.

One "W. R. W." wrote recently in the New York Times attacking Shakespeare and belaureling Bacon. This resulted in the rejoinder which follows:

"Hamlet than he could

There were many men in Shakespeare's time far more capable of approaching his genius than Bacon, and there probably was no other literary man who had as strong a dislike for the stage and all its connections as Bacon. His writings abound in abuse of it.

If "W. R. W." knows of anything of a "damaging nature" in Shakespeare which would discredit him as the writer, then how about Bacon? He was a man totally devoid of a sense of honor. Pope said he was the meanest of mankind. Macaulay says as a Judge he accepted bribes from both sides. His treatment of his benefactor, Essex, who had given him Twickenham Court, which was so beautiful that he called it Garden of Paradise, is one of the basest instances of ingratitude and shamelessness in history. He hesitated at no cruelty or meanness in his servile pursuit of Court favor. He hunted the poor old man Peacham to death and presided at his torture in the Tower. He was convicted of taking bribes and banished from the precincts of the Court, and while he was in such disgrace he lived in great pomp and extravagance and begged the Government to pay his pension in advance, and to do it promptly, as the treasury was very low and there were other claims against it. His mother and brother Anthony paid many of his debts out of pure shame of the way he defaulted on his promises. He died £22,000 in debt. He is credited as a writer of moral essays, but there is very little morality in them. His essays on "How a Person Should Behave When He Has Incurred the Displeasure of His Prince," where he advises the offender to "prudently transfer the blame upon It is others," is the plane of his whole career. reasonable to me to suppose that Shakespeare had him in mind when he wrote:

Let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp,
And crook the pregnant hinges of the knee,
Where thrift may follow fawning.

Certainly the plays cannot be credited to Bacon and denied to Shakespeare on the ground of something of a "damaging nature" being suspected of the latter.

Bacon's only attempt at fiction or fancy is his "New Atlantis." No one would ever suspect Shakespeare of having written it. It is a picture of the kind of a community that suited Bacon's There taste. There is no thought of a theatre. are no amusements, except, perhaps, a feast or a

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