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argued that it stands in direct antagonism to the their rest try to drive out of their minds their vospirit which has inspired the literature of Ger cation. Some of their experiences while dreaming many in the past. The ethical moment of that they have told. In their sleep fancy and imaginaliterature, to make a somewhat wide generaliza tion still have play. Suddenly they awake. tion, has throughout its entire history—from the They have thought out a plot of singular originalspiritual and moral "doubt" of Wolfram's “Parzi ity. Some few salient points they have retained, val" to the forebodings of "Faust," to the prob but generally, to their disgust, on cooler considblems of "Medea" or "The Nibelung's Ring" eration they find that the plot is absurd, commoncentered in the conception of tragic renunciation. place, and not worthy of a second thought. Rarely has the pæan of triumphant optimism Nevertheless there are musicians who have dreamed rung out in German literature as it once rang out of beautiful melodies, strange harmonies, and in the brighter literatures of Greece, of Italy, or have not only preserved them, but utilized them. Spain. The Titans of German poetry have always Mr. Andrew Lang says he is acquainted with a been hurled into the abyss; it is in the tragedy of popular novelist who once found a tale under his unachieved desire, of broken hopes, of renuncia name in a serial to which he had contributed, tion, that it has touched its highest point. What "who was paid for the tale, and who had no memthe future may have in store it is hard to say, but ory of writing a word of it or of posting his manuit is doubtful if the ethical spirit of at least 700 script." When men write a great deal they often years will be so easily dethroned as many of forget entirely what they have written. SelfNietzsche's admirers believe.

esteem, the laudation of one's self or of one's own of the purely ethical aspects of Nietzsche's work, may make some authors think well of teaching it lies beyond my province to speak. what they have written, but generally the effect Much has been said of the dangers of Nietzsche's of reading what was theirs and was printed some ideas, and dangers they undoubtedly have for the years before elicits rather a feeling of indifference. unripe, but, as Nietzsche himself says, "Alles It is rarely as good, according to their ideas, as it Grosse, znmal Neue ist gefaehrlich." The philos- should have been, and yet they question, strangely ophy of Zarathustra is a philosophy for the few, enough, whether they could do it as well to-day. for the exceptions: "Ich bin ein Gesetz fuer die Smug confidence in what a man has written is Meinen, ich bin kein Gesetz fuer Alle.” Nietzsche exceptional. wrote not for the "slaves" but for the “masters" whose “Wille zur Macht" has sprung from a deep

An interesting book included in a catalogue experience of the meaning of slavery; his ethics

recently issued by an English bookseller is Horace stand in no such strong contrast to Goethe's ris

Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting in England." ing on our dead selves to higher things, or even to

Walpole's introduction to the book states that the the Hegelian "die to live,” as some of his prophets

notes were collected by Vertue, and were digested would have us think.

and published from his original MSS. But WalThe eternal value of men like Nietzsche is that

pole did more than this would suggest, for Vertue's they go through their age like ploughshares; they

notes, for which he gave one hundred pounds, tear up the weeds of conventionality and expose

were apparently in such a confused and imperfect fresh soil to the air. They force men to think the

condition that Walpole had to practically rewrite vital thoughts of life all over again. Nietzsche's

them. Besides for the numerous fine portraits last work was to have been entitled “Die Umwer

with which the book is illustrated, it is interesting tung aller Werte,” but no better collective title

as one of the best of the comparatively long series could be found for all his work, from the "Geburt issued from the 'Officina Arbuteana.” Walpole der Tragodie" onwards. Here lies his most ob

Here lies his most ob- always spoke of Strawberry Hill as the place he vious importance as an intellectual force; he was

"loved best of all," and it was here that he busied

himself with the hobby of printing during the an "Umwerter aller Werte.”—Cosmopolis.

last years of his life. The first three volumes of

the "Anecdotes," commencing with 1762, followed Andrew Lang repeats the well-known story of one another in rapid succession, but the last did not how Coleridge composed "Kubla Khan” in a appear until 1780. Such was the general appredream, but that dream was brought about by

ciation of the work that the fourth volume was

looked for with a considerable degree of impaopium. Coleridge tells it. He had a quarrel with

tience, and a second edition was speedily demanded. Lloyd, and he went to a farmhouse near Porlock The output of the private press at Strawberry Hill and took opium to compose his irritated nerves. was remarkable, considering tliat its staff of operaMaybe he had been reading Marco Polo, and so tives never at any time exceeded a man and a the glorious verses were dreamed. But the strange

boy. Of the first work published, the “Two Odes

by Mr. Gray,” one thousand copies were printed, thing is how he retained the lines when he was

while the first edition of the “Anecdotes,"

4 vols, awake. Those who are habitual workers with

quarto, and fully illustrated, consisted of no less their peps, as romance makers, when they take than six hundred copies.



or quaint titles were resorted to. The Puritans
especially, knew the great value of a catchy title

and made the best use of the language to attract

the attention. Thus we find Baxter calling a

book, "Hooks and Eyes for Believers' Breeches," "What's in a name?” asked the Bard of Avon, and another divine, calling the attention of the and James Murray, the English publisher, asked

public to “A Spiritual Pepper Box to make the in a letter to Lord Byron, “A book well named is a

Soul Sneeze." book quick sold.”

Dumoulen wrote a book entitled “The Waters In a critical Review published in London, a let

of Siloam, to Extinguish the Fires of Purgatory," ter appeared saying that "books were multiplied

which called forth a reply with the title "The so fast that there would be no sale for the ma

Burning Furnace and Reflecting Stove, to Evapjority if it were not for the 'catch title.'”

orate the Pretended Water of Siloam." It is true that one of the greatest difficulties an

A well-fed priest wrote "The Sweet Marrow author has to encounter is the naming of the child

and Tasty Sauce of the Savory Bones of the of his brain. No fond father or mother ever puz

Saints in Advent,” which was not a cook-book but zled more over the name of a baby than the

one of spiritual advice for the season of Advent. author over the nomenclature of his book.

"A Bullet Shot into the Devil's Camp by the Sometimes, after weeks of brain-twisting, the

Cannon of the Covenant," an attractive name is decided by accident and often proves a ‘hit.'

name, but another issued the same year called "A Sometime ago Charles Frohman, the Napoleon of

Spiritual Pillow, necessary to Extirpate Vice and the American stage, imported a farce without a

Plant Virtue," was a peculiar jumble of meaningname. He was puzzled over the title, for he real

less jargon, for a pillow is not necessary to "exized the value of a name. After hours of agony

tirpate vice," nor could a pillow plant anything. he threw down the manuscript and declared that

Baxter's "Hooks and Eyes" was plagiarized in "Never again would he accept a play without a

the name, “Buttons and Button Holes for Believname," and a friend repeated the words, "Never

ers' Breeches.” Another Puritan tried to rouse Again.” Frohman adopted those two words as

the curiosity of the multitude by issuing a religthe title of his play and the piece was a suco ious brochure, entitled "A Spiritual Syringe for

Books have been named in just such manner, Souls Steeped in Devotion.” but generally the title is a matter of much thought.

A very good Romanist wrote and published, The writer once heard Charles Dickens say

"The Little Dog Barking at the Errors of Luther," that there were three things which worried him

and later "The Little Pocket-Pistol which Fires at more than anything else, first, the opening para Heretics." graph of his story; second, the last paragraph,

In the present time Spurgeon tried to convert and lastly, but a greater worry than all the rest,

his neighbors by issuing "A Check Book on the what to call the story. After keeping the pub

Bank of Faith," and then seasoned their devotions lisher waiting to the last possible moment he gen

with his "Salt Cellars." erally named his books after his hero. An author

One of his predecessors published a book of must be well known to risk such nomenclature,

Meditations, called "High Heeled Shoes for those unless the name conveys something more than the who are Dwarfs in Sanctity." personality of the hero, as, for example, "Hugh Dunton, who with Daniel Defoe, published a Wynne, Free Quaker.''

newspaper called “Dunton's Ghost,” wrote a Every author and publisher must remember that

political satire entitled “The She Club, or Sixty thousands of books are sold, not because of merit,

Maids at Confession,” and another called “A Cat though they may be great, but simply through May Look at a Queen or a Satire upon Her the catchy title.

Present Majesty," "The Triumph of Death" would sell, because

A newspaper appeared in London in the year it deals with the mysterious, and anyone looking 1706 with the name "Jesuita Va pulans, or a Whip at the shelves of a book shop would have his curi for a Fool's Back and a Gag for His Foul Mouth.” osity aroused by "The Damnation of Theron The "Morning Mercury" had for its second title Ware."

“A Farce for Fools." "Vanity Fair" had doubtless a greater sale than The value of a good second title is known to if it had been named "Becky Sharp."

novelists and appreciated by their publishers. Two centuries ago, authors knew the value of The late Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southwortb almost made book titles. The people had to be tempted to a science of this double naming of her stories, for read, it was not a reading age, men almost looked each title was designed to catch and rivet the atwith contempt on the reader. Education was for tention of a different class, as for example, "The the few, therefore to catch the masses sensational, Missing Bride,” which would rouse the curiosity

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of many a young girl, but there would be many and published in his review as original, was from who did not care about a “missing bride," but the writings of Honore de Balzac. would be caught by the second title "or Miriam In La Revue des Deur Mondes of May and the Avenger."

June, 1896, appeared a series of letters said to Some authors used proverbs, notably Charles have been written by a girl to an officer of the Reade, with his “Never to Late to Mend,” “Put Etat-Major. They were called “Roman d'une InYourself in His Place" and "Love me Little Love connue,” and have since been published in book me Long."

form and translated into English as well. They Wilkie Collins loved mystery and the casual found many readers not only in France, but in looker at the bookseller's window is sure to be England and America, and were variously comfascinated by the “Woman in White” and “No mented on, but particularly praised for their Name." But for the attractiveness of title his paturalness and naivete. But not one of the “Man and Wife" and "New Magdalen” stand pre many readers recognized, not the hesitating style eminent.

of a sentimental and impressionable girl, but the Dickens was rugged in his choice of names, but trained hand of one of the greatest French sty. “Oliver Twist” was sure to attract attention, and lists that ever lived. But the fact was there "Barnaby Rudge” could not be passed by without nevertheless, and now the secret is out in spite of a thought as to what the book was about.

M. Brunetiere's positive statement as to their "Strathmore," Ouida's best novel, commends authenticity: “The following letters fell into our itself by its stately name, while "Airy Fairy Lil hands in a way which we are not at liberty to ian" tells of love of the kind that the “Duchess" state." delighted in.

O, the humiliation of it all! Not only for M. Thackeray chose one word names, “Pendennis,” Brunetiere, but for the admirers of the author of "Newcombes" and the "Virginians," while Marryat “La Comedie Humaine,” who assert that the humorously called his books by two names, “Peter whole of Balzac's one hundred and twenty volumes Simple,” Jacob Faithful” and “Midshipman Easy." are more thoroughly read by the French of to-day

How many thousands of purchasers became so than by those of any other period. through reading the title of Roe's book, "He Fell For two years an unconscious public paid in Love with his Wife.” Black did not hesitate homage to the “Roman d'une Inconnue," and to arouse curiosity by his "Beautiful Wretch." never mistrusted that the gems of the effusions

Haggard could not have found a more taking were taken word for word, even page by page, title than "She," and it was not to be wondered at from the “Lys dans la Valle.” It is all very that a writer should have finished a triology by astonishing and deplorable for M. Brunetiere and putting on the market "He" and "It," which com for the friends of the “father of French realism;" manded immepse sales.

not for Balzac, however, for he has been made to "Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow" appeals at surmount the painful indifference with which once to a large class of readers, and every one had begun to be regarded. wanted to solve the mystery of “Three Men in a Boat, to say nothing of the dog." "Justice to the Jew" is a fetching title, and

INFLUENCE OF A LIBRARY. there is something fascinating in the "Daughters of Babylon."

Apy library is an attraction. And there is an inSo perhaps there is more in a name than Shake describable delight-who has not felt it that despeare dreamed of and many a rose would be left serves the name of scholar-in mousing at choice to wither on its thorny stalk were it not for the among the alcoves of antique book-shops esperare periume which attracts attention.-Book cially, and finding the oldest of these sometimes Notes.

newest of the new, fresher, more suggestive than

the book published and praised in the reviews. AN ASTONISHING FRENCH PLAGIARISM.

And the pleasure scarcely less of cutting the

leaves of the new volume, opening by preference Publishers are often imposed upon by unscrup at the end rather than title page, and seizing the ulous authors, and when we take into account the author's conclusions at a glance. Very few books immense amount of literature published, it is in repay the reading in course. Nor can we excuse deed surprising that more plagiarisms do not oc the author if his page does not tempt us to copy cur. The latest Parisian scandal of this sort is passages into our common places, for quotation, the more astonishing when we consider that the proverbs, meditation or other uses. A good book publisher imposed upon was no less a personage is fruitful of other books; it perpetuates its fame than M. Ferdinand Brunetiere of La Revue des from age to age, and makes eras in the lives of its Deux Mondes, and that the material he accepted readers.-A. Bronson Alcott.


THE BOOK-LOVES OF STATESMEN. ophy, Morals and Religion; reading treatises on

Astronomy, Chemistry, Anatomy, Agriculture, BY FRANK G. CARPENTER.

Botany, International Law, Moral Philosophy and The American statesman of the stage differs Metaphysics. Religion, during these early mornmaterially from him of actual life. The popular ing hours, was to be considered under two heads, idea that stump-speaking, windy harangues, “Natural" and "Sectarian.” For information conadroit hand-shaking and baby-kissing make up cerning sectarian religion the student was advised the capital of our public men is no more true to apply to the following sources: Bible Commen: than that the Honorable Bardwell Slote, as de taries by Middleton in his works, and by Priestly picted in Florence's play, “The Mighty Dollar," in his “Corruptions of Christianity” and “Early is, a fair representation of the typical American Opinions of Christ,” and the Sermons of Sterne, Congressmau. Few of our statesmen have at Massillon and Bourdaloue. From eight to twelve tained prominence who have not been students, he advised Madison to read law and condense and the greatest among them have been widely cases, “never using two words where one will do.” read and noted for their learning. Benjamin From twelve to one he was to read politics; the Franklin made an international reputation as a books were Montesquieu, Locke, Priestly, Malscientist and as a man of learning, and every mem thus, and the Parliamentary debates. In the ber of Jefferson's Cabinet was a well-educated man. afternoon the student's mind was to be relieved

Albert Gallatin was highly educated. He was with history; when evening closed in, he might fond of science, and during his later years devoted regale himself with literature, criticism, rhetoric himself especially to the study of ethnology. He and oratory. No, not regale himself, but sit down wrote an essay upon the semi-civilized nations of to a hard and long evening's work, as Jefferson Mexico and America, and he has been called the did himself, keeping it up sometimes till two in father of American ethnology. He was fond of the morning. The student was recommended in Scott, and his favorite novel was “The Anti the evening to write criticisms of the books he quary,” which he read once a year. He believed read, to analyze the orations of Demosthenes and in reading for style rather than for story, and he Cicero, to read good English orations and pleadsaid that povels should be read the last chapter ings with the closest attention to the secrets of first, in order that the appreciation of the style their excellence, to compose original essays and to should not be lost in the interest excited by the plead imaginary causes with a friend. Hamerstory. He was an admirer of Jeremy Bentham and ton, in his “Intellectual Life," does not imagine he acknowledged himself indebted to him as his a mind which could stand such a strain. master in the art of legislation. He was

a thor

It is little wonder that Madison broke down ough Latin scholar, and at one time taught French under such cramming, and it would probably at Harvard College. He was a contributor to the have brought Jefferson to a state of nervous prosmagazines and he wrote many articles upon finan tration had it not been for his fiddle, his horses cial subjects.

and his farms. Jefferson became in after life one Daniel Webster was the best general scholar in of the most learned men of his time, and he was college at the time he was at Dartmouth. He was throughout his whole existence a student. He especially well up in Latin. At fifteen his read did not like Scott's novels nor Hume's History of ing included Addison, Pope, Watts and “Don England, and, it is said, he never ceased to hate Quixote.” He possessed wide information on a Blackstone's Commentaries. One of his grandnumber of subjects, and had a clear and retentive daughters says that he read Homer, Virgil, Dante, memory. His quotations were chiefly drawn from Corneille and Cervantes as easily as he read Shakespeare, Homer and the Bible.

Shakespeare and Milton. In his youth he loved James Madison was also a great Bible student. poetry, but in his old age he lost his taste for this, He remained at Princeton a year longer than except for Homer and the great Athenian tragenecessary for the sake of acquiring Hebrew. He dies, which he continued to the last to enjoy. He studied the whole history and evidences of Chris went over the works of Æschylus, Sophocles and tianity, and it was largely by his influence that Euripides during the year of his death. He was freedom of conscience was established by law in very fond of history, and studied it in all lanVirginia. His health broke down at college, and guages, preferring the ancients. He derived it was years before he recovered it.

greater pleasure from his knowledge of Greek Thomas Jefferson laid down rules of study for and Latin than from any other branch of literaMadison, Monroe and others of his friends, and ture. "I lave," says his granddaughter, “often these rules, which were the same as those he heard him express his gratitude to his father for adopted for himself, were as follows:

causing him to receive a classical education. I From daybreak until eight in the morning the saw him more frequently with a volume of classtudent should confine himself to Natural Philos sics in his hand than any other book. Still, he

read new publications as they came out, never Moore's songs; they are too sentimental by ball, missed a number of the Reviews, especially of the all ideal and above nature.” Edinburgh, and kept himself acquainted with Speaking of Moore, Randolph met him in the what was being done, said or thought in the House of Commons, and describes him as a spruce, world from which he had retired.”

dapper little gentleman, who, upon acquaintance, When Jefferson was in love he was especially turned out to be a most fascinating and witty felfond of reading Ossian; Parton says that he spent low. Said Mr. Randolph, "I told him that I a great part of his honeymoon in reading these envied him more for being the author of tbe two poems to his wife. He became so infatuated with

satirical poems above spoken of than for all the them that he wished to learn Gælic in order that beautiful songs which play the fool with the he might study the poems in the original. He young ladies' hearts." Randolph passionately was all his life a great book-collector, and his admired Burns as well as Byron, but he said he library, which he sold to Congress for about one could not pretend to decide between them in point half its cost, or about twenty-three thousand dol of genius. John Randolph's religion was much lars, was so large that it made sixteen wagon loads affected by his feelings, and he chose those parts of three thousand pounds each.

of literature which verge upon the erratic and John Randolph of Roanoke quarreled with his insane. He was very near insanity himself durdoctor on his death-bed about the pronunciatiou ing a part of his life, and at one time he wrote of certain words, and both his letters and bis that he preferred “Lear” to all the rest of Shakespeeches are full of literary allusions. His duel speare's plays, and that in “Timon of Athens” with Clay arose from a comparison of Clay and only was the bard really in earnest. He read the Adams as a coalition corresponding to that of Bible also with care and diligence; the story of Bilifil and Black George in Fielding's novel "Tom his conversion describes his struggles as to its comJones," which Randolph referred to as a combina prehension. He could not understand the Epistles tion unheard of till then, of "The Puritan and the of St. Paul, but, he said, by the aid of Locke's Blackleg.” Randolph's whole life was made up “Paraphrase” he hoped to comprehend them. of lamentations of remorse, and for him the world Randolph did not like novels. He advised in every way went wrong. He lamented through- Harvey not to read any, concluding his lecture as out his life his rambling way of reading, but he cov follows: “When you go home, sir, tell your father ered nearly every field of English literature. that I recommended abstinence from novel-readBefore he was eleven years of age he had read ing and whisky punch. Depend upon it, they are Goldsmith's Roman History, “The Arabian

both injurious to the brain." Nights,” and Voltaire's “History of Charles the

John Quincy Adams was perhaps the hardest Twelfth.” He read “Don Quixote,” “Gil Blas,” student among American statesmen.

He began Plutarch, Pope's Homer, “Robinson Crusoe,” “Gul as a boy, and continued his studies throughout liver's Travels,” “Tom Jones,” “Orlando Furioso,” his long life, until he fell dead in the Capitol at and Thompson's "Seasons.” Shakespeare and “The Washington. He left a library of 12,000 volumes Arabian Nights” were bis idols. His letters and a chest of valuable manuscripts, original and abound in quotations from Shakespeare, and in

translated, prose and poetry. these letters he often discusses the books he is

His earliest letter in existence was written to reading. In a letter to Francis Scott Key, the

his father while he was yet under 10 years of author of "The Star.Spangled Banner,” he says

age. In this he says: "that no poet in our language, Shakespeare and Milton apart, has such power over my feelings as

“Mamma has a troublesome task to keep me

a-studying. I own I am ashamed of myself. I Byron, and I cannot yield his precedence to

I have but just entered the third volume of RolWalter Scott.

lin's History, but I designed to have got On his way to England, Randolph chatted with

half thro' it by this time. I am determined this Jacob Harvey about books. Harvey says at this

week to be more diligent. I have set myself a

stent this week to read the third volume half out. time Randolph's favorite author was Milton, and

If I can keep my resolution I may again, at the that he frequently gave readings from “ Paradise end of the week, give a better account of myself. Lost” to the company on shipboard. He did not I wish, sir, you would give me in writing some inlike Young, Thomson, Johnson or Southey. They

structions in regard to the use of my time, and were, he said, too artificial. Of the poems then

advise me how to proportion my studies and play, current he placed “Tom Cribb's Memorial to Con

and I will keep them by me and endeavor to fol

low them. gress” first on the list for its great wit and satire

“With the present intention of growing better, and "The Twopenny Postbag” next for similar I am, dear sir, your son, excellencies. Third came “Childe Harold's Pil

"JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. grimage,” for every variety of sentiment well ex. "P. S.-If you will be so good as to favor me pressed; "but," he concluded, "I cannot go with a blank book I will transcribe the most re

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