Roads and Highways: Communicated to the Editor of The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia

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A. Balfour & Company, 1824 - Edinburgh encyclopaedia - 12 pages
 

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Page 2 - Diminish the expense of carriage but one farthing, and you widen the circles, you form as it were a new creation, not only of stones and earth, and trees and plants, but of men also, and what is more, of industry and happiness.
Page 1 - Next to the general influence of the seasons, upon which the regular supply of our wants and a great proportion of our comforts so much depend, there is, perhaps, no circumstance more interesting to men in a civilized state than the perfection of the means of interior communication.
Page 8 - Scotland," says Mr. Stevenson, " and even as far south as the approaching sources of the rivers Tees and Ribble, good roadmetal is generally to be met with, containing the numerous varieties of granite, greenstone, basalt, porphyry, and limestone. South of this boundary, as far as the Trent and the Dee, in Cheshire, the formation is chiefly coal, sandstone, and the softer varieties of limestone. In the southern counties, chalk and gravel soils chiefly occur, affording flint and gravel, both of which,...
Page 6 - My acquaintance with the muscles by no means enables me to explain how a horse should be more fatigued by travelling on a road uniformly level, than by travelling over a like space upon one that crosses heights and hollows; but it is demonstrably a false idea, that muscles can alternately rest and come into motion in cases of this kind Much is to be ascribed to prejudice originating with the man, continually in quest of variety, rather than with the horse, who, consulting only his own ease, seems...
Page 6 - ... not compensated by the descents ; and in the latter, we find that it is contradicted by the structure of the horse. The question was submitted by Mr. Stevenson* to Dr. John Barclay of Edinburgh, " no less eminent for his knowledge, than successful as a teacher of the science of comparative anatomy," and he made the following reply : — " My acquaintance with the muscles by no means enables me to explain how a horse should be more fatigued by travelling on a road uniformly level, than by travelling...
Page 3 - ... across the road. The Swedes have long had the character of being excellent road engineers. Good rock is very generally met with in Sweden, and they spare no pains in breaking it small ; their roads are spacious and smooth. Where the country has been opened in Russia the roads are formed on scientific principles, but there are few of them. In the United States of America the roads have latterly been much improved; the principal lines are similar to the generality of English roads.
Page 8 - Mr. Stevenson, in the article ' Road ' in the ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia,' states the distribution of road materials in the British islands to be partial and irregular. ' Throughout Scotland, and even as far south as the approaching sources of the rivers Tees and Ribble, good road-metal is generally to be met with, containing the numerous varieties of granite, greenstone, basalt, porphyry, and limestone.
Page 4 - ... common amongst them for pasturage and farming, and all the poor were at liberty to fish in the ponds and lakes, a right that was denied to the lower orders in feudal countries, where the mass of the people were vassals and slaves. The peasants of China, therefore, appear to have been at that period in a better condition than those of any other part of the world, working for themselves, and paying taxes to their respective princes, who by that means raised the tribute which the emperor claimed...
Page 8 - ... binding or gravel should be used ; the angular sides of the metal soon lock into each other, and form a smooth surface. In the selection of road-metal, we prefer the several varieties of green-stone. The best kinds of these are less friable than granite, when broken into small pieces. It is, however, often necessary, for want of better materials, to use sandstone, common limestone, and chalk, even in districts where there is a great deal of traffic ; in some instances, where coal is abundant,...
Page 6 - ... over a like space upon one that crosses heights and hollows ; but it is demonstrably a false idea, that muscles can alternately rest and come into motion in cases of this kind. The daily practice of ascending heights, it has been said, gives the animal wind, and enlarges his chest. It may also, with equal truth, be affirmed, that many horses lose their wind under this sort of training-, and irrecoverably suffer from imprudent attempts to induce such a habit.

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