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are referring, been translated to a better life. Eusebius, the propagator of impiety, little regarding the regulations to which, only a short time previously, he with the other bishops had agreed, quitted Nicomedia to take possession of the see of Constantinople, in direct violation of that canon which prohibits bishops and presbyters from going from one city to another. But that those who carry their infatuation so far as to oppose the Divinity of the only begotten Son of God, should likewise violate the other laws, cannot excite surprise. This is not either the first innovation that he had made ; for he had left Berytus, although he had been appointed bishop in that city, and had assumed the superintendence of the church of Nicomedia. He was thence expelled by the synod, when his impiety became known, as was likewise Theognis, bishop of Nice. This is related in the letters of the emperor Constantine ; and I shall here insert? some extracts from the latter part of it in explanation of the circumstance. These letters were written to the Nicomedians.
CHAP. XX.--EPISTLE OF THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE AGAINST EUSEBIUS AND THEOGNIS, ADDRESSED TO THE NICOMEDIANS.
“Who has taught these doctrines to the innocent multitude ? It is manifestly Eusebius, the co-operator in the cruelty of the tyrants. For that he was the agent of the tyrants has been clearly shown; and, indeed, is proved by the slaughter of the bishops, and by the fact that these victims were true bishops. The relentless persecution of the Christians may
be considered as furnishing another indubitable proof. I shall not here give an account of my own wrongs, the seditions excited, or the spies employed against me ;3 for, indeed, they scarcely refrained from raising troops against me. Let not any one imagine that I allege what I am not prepared to prove. I am in possession of clear evidence ; for I have caused the
Socrates and Sozomen, however, place the date of Alexander's death after the accession of the emperor Constantius. Valesius supports Theodoret's opinion.
2 This letter is preserved by Baronius in his Annals, A. D. 329, though, as Valesius remarks, not at the correct place.
3 He means the presbyters and deacons sent by Eusebius to Constantine at the beginning of his war with Licinius, in order to keep a watch upon his designs.
bishops and presbyters belonging to his retinue to be seized. But I pass over all these facts. I only mention them for the purpose of making these persons ashamed of their conduct, and not from any feeling of resentment. There is one thing which grieves me, and that is, to see that you have formed criminal associations with them ; for you are influenced by the doctrines of Eusebius, and have thus been led away from truth. But you will be soon restored if, after obtaining a bishop who holds pure and faithful doctrines, you will but look unto God. This depends upon you alone ; and you would, no doubt, have thus acted long ago, had not Eusebius come here through his then powerful adherents, and overturned all discipline. As it is necessary to allude to Eusebius, you must remember that I was present at the council held in the city of Nice, (to which attendance I was compelled by conscience,) and that I was actuated by no other motive than the desire of producing peace among all, and of exploding the errrors which originated from the infatuation of Arius, and which have been fostered and increased by the absurd and pernicious wiles of Eusebius. But, beloved and much-honoured brethren, you know not with what assurance Eusebius, although convinced by the testimony of his own conscience, infamously persevered in the support of false doctrines, both by sending different persons to me to petition on his behalf, and by personally entreating my assistance in preventing his being ejected from his bishopric; although his crimes had been fully detected. God, whom I trust will continue his goodness towards you and towards me, is witness to the truth
I was then myself deluded and deceived by Eusebius, as you well know. In everything he acted according to the desire of him whose mind is full of evil. But, omitting the relation of the rest of his misdeeds, it is well that you should be informed of the crime which he perpetrated in concert with Theognis his accomplice. I had sent orders for the apprehension of certain individualsin Alexandria who opposed our faith, and who had excited disturbances. But those good and excellent bishops, who, by the clemency of the coun
'Baronius thinks that the Melitians are here intended, but Valesius refers these words, with greater correctness, to the Arian party.
? Eusebius and Theognis, who had sided with the Arians at Nice, but were exempted from the full operation of the sentence, by the favour and intercession of Constantine.
of what I say.
cil, had been admitted to penitence, not only received them under their protection, but also participated in their evil deeds. Hence I came to the determination of banishing these ungrateful persons to some far distant region. It is now your duty to look unto God with the eyes of faith, even as you have already done, and as it is right that
should do ; and let us rejoice that orthodox and philanthropic bishops have been now appointed. If any one should make mention of those destroyers, or presume to speak in their praise, let him know that his audacity will be repressed by the authority which has been committed to me as the servant of God. May God preserve you, beloved brethren!”
The bishops above-mentioned were deposed and banished. Amphio was intrusted with the church of Nicomedia, and Chrestus with that of Nice. But the exiled bishops, with their usual artfulness, abused the benevolence of the emperor, renewed the previous contests, and regained their
CHAP. XXI. THE ARTFUL MACHINATIONS OF EUSEBIUS AND
HIS PARTISANS AGAINST THE HOLY EUSTATHIUS, BISHOP OF ANTIOCH,
EUSEBIUS, as I have already stated, seized the diocese of Constantinople by force. He acquired great power in that city: he visited, and often familiarly entertained, the emperor ; and hence he prepared to injure by his artifices those who were foremost in the support of truth. He at first feigned a desire of going to Jerusalem, to see the celebrated edifices there erected : and the emperor, who was deceived by him, allowed him to set out with the utmost honour, granting him the use of the royal carriages, and other privileges. Theognis, , bishop of Nice, who, as we have before said, was his accomplice in his evil designs, travelled with him. When they arrived at Antioch, they put on the appearance of friendship, and were received with much honour. Eustathius, the great defender of the faith, treated them with fraternal kindness. When they arrived at the holy city, they had an interview with those who were of the same opinions as themselves, namely, Eusebius, bishop of Cæarea, Patrophilius, bishop of Scythopolitamus, Actium, bishop of Lydda, Theodotus, bishop of Laodicea, and others who had imbibed the Arian sentiments; they made known their designs to them, and went with them to Antioch. Their pretext for thus journeying together was, that due honour might be rendered to Eusebius ; but their real motive was to attack the truth. They bribed a woman who was a professed prostitute, to say whatever they might desire : they then repaired to the council, and when all the members were assembled, they introduced the wretched woman. She held a babe in her arms, of which she loudly and impudently affirmed that Eustathius was the father. Eustathius, conscious of his innocence, asked her whether she could bring forward any witness to prove what she had advanced. She replied, that she could not: yet these equitable judges received her testimony, although it is said in the law, that by two or three witnesses every word must be established ; and although the apostle says, that an accusation is not to be received against an elder unless there be two or three wit
But they despised these Divine laws, and admitted the accusation against this great man without any witnesses. When the woman had again declared upon oath that Eustathius was the father of the babe, the judges condemned him as an adulterer. The other bishops, who upheld the apostolical doctrines, were ignorant of all these intrigues. They openly opposed the sentence, and advised Eustathius not to submit to it. The originators of the plot promptly repaired to the emperor, and endeavoured to persuade him that the accusation was true, and the sentence just; and they succeeded in obtaining the banishment of a man of rigid piety, and of great wisdom, as an adulterer and a tyrant. He was conducted across Thebes to a city of Illyria.
CHAP. XXII.-BISHOPS OF HERETICAL OPINIONS ORDAINED
IN ANTIOCH AFTER THE BANISHMENT OF ST. EUSTATHIUS.
EULALIUS was first ordained in place of Eustathius. But Eulalius surviving his elevation only a short period, it was much desired that Eusebius, bishop of Palestine, shquld be translated to this bishopric. Eusebius, however, refused the
1 Valesius shows by a reference to Eusebius, Life of Constantine, b. iii., that Theodoret is mistaken here, and that Eusebius was advanced to the see of Antioch immediately on the deposition of Eustathius.
appointment, and the emperor forbad its being conferred on him : the dignity, therefore, fell upon Euphonius, who died after the lapse of only one year and a few months, and was succeeded by Flacillus. All these bishops secretly clung to the Arian opinions. Hence it was, that most of those individuals, whether of the clergy or of the laity, who valued religion, left the churches and formed assemblies among themselves. They were called Eustathians, although it was after the banishment of Eustathius that they held their meetings. The wretched woman above mentioned was soon after attacked by a severe and protracted illness; and she then avowed the imposture in which she had been engaged, and made known the whole affair, not only to two or three, but to almost all the priests. She confessed that the accusation itself was untrue, but yet that her oath was not altogether false, as Eustathius the coppersmith was the father of the babe. Such were some of the crimes perpetrated in Antioch by that faction.
CHAP. XXIII.-THE CONVERSION OF THE INDIANS. Ar this period, the light of faith was for the first time shed upon India. The courage and the piety of the emperor had become celebrated throughout the world; and all the barbarians had learnt, that to be at peace with him was more desirable for them than to carry on war against him. Being thus able to undertake other enterprises, many persons set out on long journeys; some for the desire of making discoveries, others from a spirit of commercial enterprise. A philosopher of Tyre about this period, desiring to penetrate into the interior of India, set off for this purpose with his two nephews. When he had accomplished the object of his wishes, he embarked on board a ship to return to his own country. This ship being compelled, by scarcity of water, to touch at a port to obtain a fresh supply, the barbarians fell upon her, drowned some of the crew, and took the others prisoners. The philosopher was among the number of those who were killed. His nephews were conducted to the king. The name of the one was Edesius, and of the other Frumentius. The king of the country perceiving, in course of time, that they possessed ta
This name is indifferently written Placitus, Placentius, and Flacitus.