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who are our adversaries. Another way has been pointed out by our Saviour. A better and more lawful line of conduct is inculcated by our holy religion. Let us with one accord walk therein, my much-honoured brethren, studiously avoiding all contact with so evil a people. They boast that without their instructions we should be unable to commemorate the festival properly. This is extremely absurd: what truth can be held by those who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, have not been guided by reason, but by the deceitful aberrations of their own mind ? In that very point they have so far lost sight of truth, by always acting according to their own misguided opinions, that they celebrate the Passover twice in one year.
What motive can we have to follow those who are thus led astray by error, for we could never judge it right to celebrate it twice in one year. But, even if all these facts did not exist, your own sagacity would prompt you to watch with diligence and with prayer, lest your pure minds should become defiled by intercourse with a people soutterly depraved. It must also be borne in mind, that a difference of opinion upon so important a point as the celebration of a religious rite is unlawful. One day has been set apart by our Saviour for a commemoration of our deliverance and of his most holy sufferings; he decreed that his catholic church should be one, and that the members, though dispersed throughout' various parts of the world, should be one in spirit, and should be directed by the same Divine command. Do exert your usual sagacity, and reflect how evil it would be, and how improper, that days devoted by some to fasting, should be spent by others in convivial feasting: and yet this is, in fact, the case. During the paschal feast, some are rejoicing in festivals and relaxations, while others are bowed down by long fastings. That this impropriety should be rectified, and that all these diversities of commemoration should be resolved into one form, is the will of Divine Providence, as I am convinced you will admit. Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have anything in common with the parricides and the murderers of our Lord. An orderly and excellent form of commemoration is observed in all the churches of the western, of the southern, and of the northern countries, and even in the eastern ; this form being universally commended, I certified your readiness to adopt it likewise. Receive, then, willingly the one regulation unanimously adopted in the city of Rome, throughout Italy, in all Africa, in Egypt, Spain, Gaul, Britain, Libya, Greece, in the dioceses of Asia, and of Pontus, and in Cilicia. Reflect, that the churches of the places above-mentioned are not only greater in point of number, but also that their common mode of procedure rests upon accurate and well-founded arguments, and that we ought not to have anything in common with the perjured Jews.
“I now proceed briefly to recapitulate the whole of the preceding. The judgment of all is, that the holy paschal feast should be held on one and the same day; for, in so holy a matter, it is not right that difference of custom should prevail. It is the more commendable to obey this decree, because it precludes all association with error and with sin. This being the case, receive with gladness the heavenly gift and sacred command ; for all that is transacted in the holy councils of the bishops is sanctioned by the Divine will. Therefore, when you have made known to all our beloved brethren the subject of this epistle, you will be bound to conform to the regular observance of this holy day, so that when, according to my long-cherished desire, I shall be with you, I may be able to celebrate with you this holy festival upon one and the same day; and that I may rejoice with you all in witnessing the cruelty of the devil, through Divine grace, destroyed by our efforts, and in perceiving that faith and peace and concord are everywhere in a flourishing condition. May God preserve you, beloved brethren.”
CHAP. XI.-THE DAILY WANTS OF THE CHURCH SUPPLIED BY
THE EMPEROR, AND AN ACCOUNT OF HIS OTHER VIRTUES.
Thus did the emperor write to those who were absent. Those who attended the council were three hundred and eighteen in number; and to these he manifested great kindness, addressing them with much gentleness, and presenting them with gifts. He ordered numerous seats to be prepared for the accommodation of them all during the repast to which he invited them. Those who were most worthy, he received at his own table, and provided other seats for the rest. Observing that some among them had had the right eye torn out, and learning that this suffering had been undergone for the sake of religion, he placed his lips upon the wounds, believing that blessing would thence result. After the conclusion of the feast, he again presented other gifts to them. He then wrote to the governors of the provinces,' directing that money should be given in every city to orphans and widows, and to those who were consecrated to the Divine service; and he fixed the amount of their annual allowance more according to the impulse of his own generosity, than to the exigencies of their condition. The third part of the sum is distributed to this day. Julian impiously withheld the whole ; his successor conferred the sum which is now dispensed, the famine which then prevailed compelling him to do but little. If the pensions were formerly triple in amount to what they are at present, the magnanimity of the emperor can by this fact be easily conceived.
I do not account it right to pass over the following circumstance in silence. Some quarrelsome individuals wrote accusations against certain bishops, and presented this catalogue of crime to the emperor.
This occurring before the restoration of concord, he received the lists, formed them into a packet to which he affixed his
seal, and put them aside. After a reconciliation had been effected, he brought out these writings and burnt them in their presence, at the same time declaring upon oath that he had not even read them. He said that the crimes of priests ought not to be made known to the multitude, lest they should become an occasion of offence or of sin. He also said, that if he had detected a bishop in the very act of committing adultery, he would have thrown his imperial robe over the unlawful deed, lest any should witness the scene, and be thereby injured. Thus did he admonish all the priests, as well as confer honours upon them ; he then exhorted them to return to their churches.
I shall here insert the letter respecting the faith, written to Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, as it describes the effrontery of the Arians, who have not only despised our fathers, but have rejected their own; and as it also contains a convincing proof
Valesius, however, understands here the Prefects of the Prætorium to be meant, rather than the governors of provinces.
Nearly the same story is given by Ruffinus, Eccl. Hist. b. x. ch. 2.
of their violence. They certainly honoured Eusebius, because he had adopted their sentiments ; but yet they opposed and maligned his writings. He wrote this epistle to some of the Arians, who had accused him, it seems, of treachery. The preceding narrative will be more readily comprehended, and will be rendered clearer, by means of this letter.
CHAP. XII.-EPISTLE OF EUSEBIUS, BISHOP OF CÆSAREA, CON
CERNING THE NICÆAN FORMULARY OF FAITH.
“It is likely that you have learnt from other sources what was decided respecting the faith of the church at the general council of Nice ; for the fame of great transactions generally precedes the accurate detail of them : but lest rumours not strictly founded in truth should have reached you, I think it necessary to send to you, first, the formulary of faith originally proposed by us, and, secondly, the additions appended to it by the bishops when setting it forth. The following is our formulary, which was read in the presence of our most pious emperor, and which was fully approved by all :
6. The faith which we hold is that which we have received from the bishops who were before us, and in the rudiments of which we were instructed when we were baptized. It is that which we learnt from the Holy Scriptures, and which, when among the presbytery as well as when we were placed in the episcopal office, we have believed and have taught ; and which we now believe, for we still uphold our own faith. It is as follows:
““I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, the Maker of all things, whether visible or invisible ; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of light, Life of life, the only begotten Son, the First-born of all creatures, begotten of the Father before all ages ; by whom all things were made: who for our salvation took upon him our nature, and dwelt with men. He suffered and rose again the third day, and ascended to the Father; and he will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. We also believe in one Holy Ghost. We believe in the existence of each person ; we believe that the Father is in truth the Father ;
" Tò Xoutpòv traußávouev. Literally, “we received the laver," i. e. of regeneration, alluding to Tit. üü. 5.
that the Son is in truth the Son ; that the Holy Ghost is in truth the Holy Ghost ; for our Lord, when sending out his disciples to preach the gospel, said, 'Go forth and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' We positively affirm that we hold this faith, that we have always held it, and that we shall adhere to it even unto death, condemning all ungodly heresy. We testify, as before God the Almighty and our Lord Jesus Christ, that we have believed in these truths from the heart and from the soul, ever since we have been capable of reflection ; and we have the means of showing, and, indeed, of convincing you, that we have always during all periods believed and preached them.'
“When this formulary was set forth by us, no one found occasion to gainsay it; but our beloved emperor was the first to testify that it was most orthodox, and that he coincided in opinion with it; and he exhorted the others to sign it, and to receive all the doctrine it contained, with the single addition of the one word-con-substantial. He said that this term con-substantial implied no bodily affection, for that the Son did not derive his existence from the Father either by means of division or of abscission. “An immaterial, intellectual, and incorporeal nature,' said he, cannot be subject to bodily operations. These things must be understood as bearing a divine and mysterious signification. Thus reasoned our wisest and most religious emperor. The omission of the word con-substantial was adopted as the pretext for composing the following formulary
« • The Articles of Faith maintained by the Council..We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, the Maker of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only begotten of the Father; he is begotten, that is to say, he is of the substance of God, God of God, light of light, very God of very God, begotten and not made, being of one substance with the Father: by whom all things both in heaven and on earth were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and took our nature, and became man; he suffered, and rose again the third day; he ascended into heaven, and will come to judge the living and the dead. And we believe in the Holy Ghost. -The holy catholic and apostolical church condemns all