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this condition of his existence, belong impulse, the love of his country. Nor
In the third stage of human society his home, and become primary elements man becomes a tiller of the ground. To in that strong, beneficent and virtuous
which the sweetest accents of the Psalm as natural appendages, unity of permaist, and the sublimest strains of the nent habitation, unity of conjugal assoprophet resound the goodness of their ciation, unity of religious worship. To God—the image under which the Sa- this condition also belongs the most exviour of the world presents himself to tensive and perfect establishment of indithe reverence and affection of those vidual property: The hunter has no perwhom he redeemed by His blood. manent possession of the soil. Separate
Yet is the pastoral state only the second property is incompatible with his condistage in the progress of human society; tion; he is but the joint tenant of the while it softens the soul to tenderness, forest with the beasts destined to be his and raises it to contemplation, from the prey. The shepherd has no possession natural tendencies of the human mind to of the soil. His cattle are his only proexcess, its tenderness wanders into poly- perty; and all his claim upon the earth gamy, and its contemplation degenerates is for its spontaneous productions. But into idolatry. That nightly survey of the tiller of the ground bestows his labor the heavens in which the system of the upon the soil. That it may effectually be universe seems marching in majestic pro- bestowed, the ground must be enclosed ; cession before him, irresistibly leads the and the intrusion of others must be exmind of man to the inquiry into its cluded. As the ground must be cultivated
But he sees that system in its by a succession of labors, he needs a permultitudes and not in its unity. He ima- manent dwelling-place near the spot upon gines causes without discerning a cause. which he toils. The seed-time is followTo the resplendent orbs that gleam as ed by the harvest, and the harvest needs they pass before his eyes, he naturally garners for preservation from season to ascribes intelligence as he observes their season.
The foot of man becomes thus apparent motion. He deems them self- fastened to the earth. He constructs his created; each instinct with a separate dwelling place to outlast his own existsoul. He soon discovers that his exist
passes as a heritage to his chilence upon earth, and the constitution of dren. By the labor of the husbandman, the earth itself, is indissolubly dependent the means of subsistence are multiplied ; upon the sun, and that as he rules the as the earth yields its increase, population day, the moon and stars rule the night. thickens. The ties of mutual dependence His observation presents to him effects between man and his neighbor gain only upon the earth, and causes only in strength. The kindly affections first the skies. From observation proceeding awakened in the bosom of the shepherd, to conjecture, from the influence which for the cattle of his flock, not only conhe sees and feels, he infers other influ- tinue to warm the heart of the husband. ences which he cannot discern. He fan- man, they extend their influence even to cies a Deity in every star.--He believes the inanimate nature that surrounds him. that these inhabitants of the skies are the The roof that sheltered his infancy, the arbiters of his destinies upon earth; his fireside at which he has listened in comunderstanding sinks into the grave of fort and security to the howling of the superstitious terror, and he worships the winter's blast; the lawn at the cottage whole host of heaven. By a progression door, the streamlet that courses through alike founded on his physical organiza: the neighboring vale; the trees planted tion, combined with his existing condi- by his hands, which as they rise and tion, his physical wants—satiated with flourish, and yield their delicious fruits, unremitting plenty, his mind absorbed in or spead forth their refreshing shades, meditation, and his heart softened into seem like children grateful to parental tenderness-his affections upon earth, like care; the mountain that borders the horihis contemplation of the heavens, divergezon, immoveable and unchanging in the into multitude instead of concentrating in lapse of years, and insensibly leading the unity. His love becomes intense with mind from the transient objects of time out becoming delicate. It is sexual and to the boundless ages of eternity, all not individual. Rival interests and con- silent witnesses of the first emotions of flicting passions are planted in the bosom infancy and the dearest joys of youth, of his family, and they produce a harvest grappled to the soul by ever multiplying of discord, strife and wretchedness. recollections, chain the heart of man to
is it in this respect alone that the tillage primitive reason for the institution of the
man is the only being always stimulated In this unity of habitation, and this by the desire of bettering his condition. unity of conjugal association, may also This impulse operates upon him not less be found fruitful sources of that unity of as a member of society than as an indivi. religious worship, which, having been dual. In each of the stages of society, forsaken in the wanderings of the pastoral man is capable of enjoying all the felicistate, returns in all its majestic simplicity ties, incident to its preceding state. Asto animate the devotion of the husband. sociated as shepherds, a nation may still man.
The husbandman has less time have among them numbers of individuals and disposition for idleness than the who still resort to the forest as hunters. hunter--less for meditation and repose In a people of husbandmen, there may than the shepherd; but excepting in the still be found multitudes of shepherds. regions of the torrid zone, the changes of But at this third state of society, the huntthe seasons bring to the life of the hus- ing condition is reserved only as a pas. bandman a succession of alternate labors time to the wealthy, and that of the upon the field and within the dwelling. shepherd sinks into the drudgery of serUnceasing labor is not suitable to the vitude. nature or condition of man. Hours of The fourth stage of society, may perrelaxation and repose are necessary to haps better be considered as a necessary relieve the labors of every day. Intervals appendage to the third, than as by itself of entire days are not less congenial to a separate and distinct condition. The his wants, and this was doubtless the congregation of men in cities, which forms
the basis of civilized life, naturally fol. parental affection, that the foundations of lows from their assemblage as husband society are laid. men. By the tillage of the ground, the In the hunting condition, the conjugal wants and the powers of men multiply bonds are not necessarily either permain progression scarcely less rapid than nent or exclusive. Chastity is not conhis numbers. By the tillage of the sidered as a virtue obligatory upon either ground every individual produces the sex. The affections of husband and wife means of subsistence in quantities more are neither ardent, nor jealous, nor durathan sufficient for his wants. The fami- ble. The condition of the woman is dely united under one roof constitutes a graded and despised. The dependence community. The distribution of labor of the child upon the parent is equally dictated by the vicissitudes of the seasons feeble. All are frequently pinched by and by the adaptation of the two sexes want, to a degree which swallows up all to different kinds of toils insensibly leads social feeling in the selfish cravings of to its division. The construction of the physical nature. When the parent of the dwelling place and the fabrication of rai- savage falls into the infirmities of old age, ment become exclusive occupations to instead of ministering to his wants, or resome individuals of the family, while the lieving his helplessness, he puts him to others amply suffice to cultivate the soil, death. Stunted thus at its birth, the nafor the supply of the whole family. The tural and domestic society of the savage mechanical arts originate. Iron, the most can never shoot forth oiher than puny abundant and the most useful of metals, and sickly branches to form the society is detected in the bowels of the earth, and of neighborhood, or the general commubecomes the most powerful of instru. nion of the tribe. The relations of the ments in the hand of man. Other metals hunter with his neighbor are few, and are disclosed in succession, and are found have little fascination; those with his adaptable to various uses. The principle tribe can be neither numerous nor comof dividing labor spreads from individuals plicated. The principle of society, thereto families. The wants of one, are the fore, must always remain weak and insuperfluities of another. They are mu efficient in the hunting condition, and that tually exchanged in barter. From barter condition itself must, from that cause the transition is natural and easy to traf. alone, for ever remain the least of all fic. The trade of merchandize becomes adapted to the promotion of human bapitself a distinct profession. From the ex- piness. changes between neighbor and neighbor, The principle of society is much more traffic strikes its roots, and spreads out powerful and influential in the pastoral its branches from region to region. The state. The flocks and herds of tame animeans of transportation are supplied by mals furnishing steady means of subsistthe facilities of water communications. ence for increasing multitudes, the assoOn the margin of a river, the village ciation of shepherds is far more numerous thickens to a town: on the borders of than that of hunters ever can be. Woman the ocean the hamlet swells into a city. is no longer doomed to the degradation
This review of the condition of man in of servile labor, and to the neglect of inthe several stages of his progress to civi- difference; but she becomes a precious lization, has been taken with reference property to be purchased. Chastity is only to the principle of society. No re- imposed upon her as a duty, rather than gard therefore has been had to the opera- inculcated as a virtue—as a duty exclution or effect of government upon it. Let sively applicable to the sex, and in no me now be indulged in some inquiries wise binding upon man. It is in the with regard to the influence of Society pastoral state that originates hat odious upon these several conditions of human discrimination between the sexes, which existence.
supposes one of them to have been created It was observed at the threshold of this merely for the pleasure of the other. Rediscourse, that man was by nature a social striction, seclusion, ignorance, incompebeing. His happiness upon earth depends tency to any exertion of useful industry, in an eminent degree upon communion consequently mark the destiny of the with others of his kind. The foundation female, whose adherence to the duties of all human society is in the union of the enjoined upon her is secured, not by the sexes. This, however, is one of the pe. gentle ties of moral principle, but by bolts culiar characteristics of man. It is in the and bars, by the Mohamedan code-in permanency of the conjugal union and of fine, by all the detestable engines that
despotism can devise; which prescribes confidence springs from a mutual recipro. a law of unnatural reserve to the woman, cation of kind offices. The children of while it gluts the sensuality of the man, the family are all children of the same and peoples the harem with wives of a parents. She is the common mother of day, and widows of a year, to the pallid them all. She has over them all the auand satiated wantonness of a single man. thority, she has for them all the affection,
The principle of society is here poison- of a parent; and they are all bound to ed at the fountain. Clashing interests, her in filial reverence and submission. rival passions, envy, jealousy and hatred, In this condition alone can woman enjoy are planted in the bosom of every family. the blessing of liberty; in this condition The affections of the husband for his alone can she share with her husband the wives, dispersed among a variety of wo- exercise of the prerogative of reason. men, lose all the charm of sentiment. Marriage is but a pander to the senses of “That love intense which sensual joy sur.
vives, the man, and the minister of servitude to the woman. The children of the same which with its partner in affection strives,
Founded on duty and the nuptial vow, father are born and bred the natural ene
Beams in the eye and gladdens on the mies of each other; and as parricide is brow : among the virtues of the hunter, incest That love, which even on affliction thrives, and fraternal murder are the natural Which pain and agony themselves endow; growth of that polygamy which origi- That love intense, which, pillowed in the nates in the pastoral stage of human ex skies, istence.
On a next world of brighter bliss relies. It is then in the tillage of the ground, “ That love, with virtue's purest ardors in the permanent appropriation of the warm, soil, in the fixed and immovable habita On .blameless lives and faithful hearts tion, and the exclusiveness of the mar
which stands, riage bond, confining one to one for life, Which greets the sunshine, and defies the that the genuine foundation of human storm, society is laid. This alone can deserve
Which time but strengthens, and which
death withstands; the name of marriage, and from this root spring all the comforts and all the virtuFirst of the social charities that form ous enjoyments of which human life is That love, with wedlock's rays alone can
Parental, filial, and fraternal bands; susceptible.
shine; Its first and immediate overruling in Its source, its ends, are deathless and fluence is upon the condition of the female divine." sex. Formed by the Author of nature in a mould more delicate and refined, By this institution, the foundations of made for sufferance rather than for action, society are laid in domestic harmony and in every form of human society woman peace; the brothers and sisters of a famimust live in a state of dependence upon İy, are neither enemies, strangers, nor riman. In the hunting and pastoral states, vals to each other. The lines of separathis dependence is absolute and unquali- tion are distinctly drawn, between the fied. Woman is the only domestic ani- conjugal and kindred affections. The mal of the savage: she is but the first of principle of society radiates from the cendomestic animals to the shepherd. As tre to the circumference. Families are the wife, the only wife, of the husband- separated from the rest of mankind by man, she recovers her dignity by the the distinctive ties of blood; they are exercise of her appropriate powers. The connected with other families by the condependence is no longer exclusive, but junctive links of marriage. The laws of becomes reciprocal; no longer the slave inheritance to which the tillage of the or the plaything of her husband, she be- earth gives rise, the intercourse of vicicomes the companion and partner of his nage, which becomes more frequent and life. Mistress of an undivided household, more intimate, as population crowds withpossessor of the undivided heart of its in a smaller space, the links of mutual inowner, her own bosom is exempted from terest, and of reciprocal want and supply the racking torture of unceasing rivalry between the country and the town, form and jealousy. The affections of both the ligaments of association which conparties, concentrated upon one object, are stiute a nation. purified and refined. The love of each Civilization is, from the derivation of forms the happiness of the other; mutual the term, that condition of the human so-
ciety, which naturally follows the con The borders of a river or of the sea pregregation of men in cities. In the an sent the most convenient sites for a cient languages, the words used to ex market, and the market soon becomes a press the idea which we convey by the city. I pursue these inquiries no farterm nation, were two. Gens and civitas ther than as they are connected with the were the Latin words; the first of which principle of society. As the city grows had reference to the origin of the nation in numbers, and the market teems with in one family, and the second to their variety of supply, the twin arts of navicommon habitation of a city. From the gation and of shipbuilding spring to birth. same derivation every individual member The hunter, in the first stage of society, of the community was called civis, a cit- imagines devices for floating in safety on izen, a term which, in the English lan- the bosom of the waters; but his invenguage, as used in Europe, has been re tion extends no farther than as it is stricted to its primitive and narrow sense prompted by his immediate wants.
His of the mere inhabitant of a city, but to canoe, fashioned from the bark of a tree, which we, in these United States, have suffices him for crossing the river, and restored its Roman dignity, by using for enabling him to fish in waters beyond it as the designation of a free inhabitant his depth. Here his ingenuity finds its of the Union, possessed of political rights. term. But the inhabitant of the city,
Civilization, however, is not the mere stimulated by all the wants, and aided by assemblage of men in cities. It is, as I all the energies of civilization, proceeds have endeavored to show, a complicated from art to science, and heaps invention state of human society, in which one upon discovery, till the plants of the forportion of the community are tillers of est, descending upon the ocean, bear the the ground, and another dwell in cities. productions of every babitable spot upon The town and the country are indispens the globe to every other. able to each other. The mere tillage of Civilization is thus the last stage of the ground produces subsistence, and human society, and it consists of a comeven superfluity of supply, to the first munity dwelling in fixed and permanent wants of animal nature. But different habitations, and divided into the two great regions produce different articles of sup classes, husbandmen and merchants, the ply to human wants. One portion of the first of whom produce, and the last exearth yields corn, another wine, a third change, every article which the labor of oil. Flax is the production of one soil, man can raise from the bosom or the and cotton of another. The forest not bowels of the earth, for the support, comonly continues to yield the tribute of its fort, or enjoyment of human existence. game, but even as it falls before the hand To these two primary divisions, in the of the husbandman, administers to his progress of society, numberless others wants, by its timber and its fuel. Man are subsidiary. The mechanic arts, and cannot live on bread alone. The flocks the division of labor multiply to an indeand herds which constituted the only pos- finite degree the occupations of men. It sessions of the shepherd, are not less ne is the theoretic principle of this stage of cessary to the condition of the husband society, that all the powers of the body man. While the fleece and hide still sup- and all the faculties of the mind of every ply him with raiment, and the cow with individual, from the cradle to the grave, milk, the ox not only subserves all the should be exercised to the utmost extent purposes for which he was used by the of which they are capable, in improving pastoral man, but becomes his most ef- the condition of his kind. The duties of fective instrument for the tillage of the man consist in alternate action and mediearth. The tillage of the ground there. tation, mutually aiding and relieving each fore produces a superfluity of one article, other; and both, directed with undeviaand a want of many others. But the ting aim, to the progressive improveexcess of one farm is the want of another ment of himself and his fellow creatures. and the supply for both must be found in Heaven has given him in charge, to proexchange. This can be effected nly by mote the happiness and well-being of transportation, the labor and difficulty of himself, his wife, his children, his kinwhich is proportioned to the distances of dred, his neighbors, his fellow citizens, the necessary carriage. This distance is his country, and his kind; and the great divided, by a common place of deposit, problem of legislation is, so to organize to which both parties to the exchange the civil government of a community, may resort to accomplish the exchange. that this gradation of duties, may be