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pean intervention, and yet more decisive. Plata, to interfere in the affairs of this ly from the actual armed interpositon, continent for the maintenance of a fan. now in progress, by the combined French cied balance of power, or under any and British forces, in the affairs of the other pretext, derived confidence from La Plata—the responsibility must, it is the course of leading American politicians fearel, be traced in part to the flinching in the Panama Mission, it may be asof what calls itself the democratic party sumed, we apprehend, as the almost unifrom the legitimate consequences of the versal sentiment of this country, that the American policy declared by Mr. Mon- language of Mr: Monroe in 1823 and in roe. For when, in the succeeding ad- 1824, on this subject, does embody, its ministration of John Quincy Adams, that actual feeling and determination; and that, sound American proposed to send minis- whether in Oregon, in California, in Cuters from this republic to the congress ba, or in the River Plate, the United States of ministers from the other republics of will not see with indifference the attempt this continent, about to assemble at permanently to establish a European inPanama, there to discuss the general Aluence, much less a European colonyprinciples of public policy to be pursued nor fail to resist it, if persevered in, after with regard to European interference-as frank and friendly remonstrance. well as questions of mutual friendly and It is not in the spirit of, nor with a commercial
intercourse among each view to, territorial aggrandizement, that other—thus giving reality and substance, this course is indicated as that which the as it were, to what before was a signifi. nation should pursue, but simply as the cant but barren formula—the whole wise and necessary precaution of selfdemocracy rallied as one man against defence. In the existing relations of the the proposition, and Mr. Adams was re different governments and peoples of this presented as transcending his constitu- continent to each other, or to ourselves, tional power, in accepting the invitation we seek to effect no change. We neither of our American neighbors to meet them desire nor claim the right of interposing in friendly consultation about American in their domestic affairs, content to leave interests—in jeoparding our peaceful re- them, as we require ourselves to be left, lations with Europe-and in seeking, by to decide all such affairs as suits those entangling engagements with the new whom they immediately concern and are states, to erect an American confederacy, primarily to affect. If then we, belongas a counterpoise against the influence of ing to the same bemisphere, and in many the Holy Alliance of Europe.
respects identified with these American This chapter of our political history nations, abstain scrupulously from atmay be instructively re-opened and pe- tempts at influencing or coercing the rused at the present juncture; and we course or conduct of their governments, propose, therefore, in the next number we are entitled to expect and to require of this Review, to recall and examine it like abstinence on the part of distant Euin some detail. Suffice it here to say, rope. that, throughout the discussion-first, in So again, as to large portions of terrisecret session of the Senate on the ap- tory lying within the nominal jurisdiction pointment of ministers; and secondly, in of 'some of the other American governThe House of Representatives on the bill ments—either unsettled, or so sparsely making appropriations for the mission settled, as hardly 10 be considered under sentiments, the most offensive to the new the subjection of any authority-we seek American republics, were uttered, and ap- not to possess ourselves thereof, content prehensions, not the most manly, in- to leave to time and opportunity, and the dulged, of European resentment, if we character of their future population, the should aim to establish an American arbitration of their destiny. But we cansystem as a counterpoise to that of Eu- not, with due regard to our own safety rope, by the leaders of that party which and relative preponderance, consent that now, through its official organ, seems so the system of European policy--of full of defiance towards the Old World, European institutions--or of a baland so resolute that no European foot ance of power of European device and shall ever tread in sovereignty on any maintenance---shall be fastened upon part of the New World now emancipated those territories, thence to be radiafrom colonial dependence.
ted, it may be, to the derangement or the Whatever the justice of the conjecture overthrow of our systems. Europe has that the European pretension, and its ac her systems, in which America seeks not tual practical operation in the Rio de la to interfere: America should have her
systems, with which Europe might not of encroachments which, though clothed interfere.
with the pretext of necessity, or disguised The Whigs, in every event, and by all by arguments of expediency, may yet estabtheir antecedents, are bound to these doc- lish precedents, which may ultimately detrines; and we hope to see during this ses
vote a generous and confiding people to all
Er. sion some formal and authentic declara- hortations to disregard domestic usurp
the consequences of usurped power. tion proposed from the Whig side, to the ation until foreign danger shall have passed, effect that no European interference in is an artifice which may be forever used, the international concerns of this Ameri- because the possessors of power, who are can continent will be looked upon with the advocates of its extension, can ever creindifference by the United States. ate national embarrassments, to be succes.
Their power, as has been said before, sively employed to soothe the people into at present is solely a moral power. They sleep, while that power is swelling silently, must take heed that it be not in any wise secretly, fatally.” impaired in their hands, either by omission or commission. They must neither thers of the Republic, find a ready appli
These warnings, from one of the Fado nor advocate what is questionable in cation to the course of the Executive, in good faith and in sound morality, nor ab; seizing, under the plea of “ expediency,” stain from earnest opposition thereto, if upon the Rio del Norte as the western proposed by others. In the lust of terri- boundary of Texas, to the language of torial aggrandizement, which, revived in the last message and that anticipated in our day and among our people, from the forthcoming message respecting Ore. their Norman-Saxon ancestry, neither less audacious nor less rapacious the official paper at Washington, and its
gon, combined with the denunciation by -audax et rapax-than when described echoes—as enemies to their country, and of old by the Romans—and in the law. advocates of the foreign cause against lessness of reasoning by which this lust that of their own land--of all who insist is to be justified--the Whigs must hold that the President should not, and constithe high ground of moral arbiters. Not tutionally cannot, assume thus to forestall indifferent certainly, on the one hand, to the action of Congress, and commit both the just claims of their country--but not it and the nation, in the face of the world, lesss averse to assert the robber plea, that
to acts and opinions which their delibewe want, and have the power to takethey will be looked to by the good and the rate judgment might dissent from and dis
approve. wise to promote moderation and justice, and especially to maintain peace and up: the Constitution in this regard, as in so
On the Whigs it will devolve to uphold hold the right, at whatever hazard of transient popularity. There is, we fear, from any part of this great duty, even
and they must not flinch what must be termed a degree of pusilla- though called upon by what may seem nimity among public men and the public public opinion to acquiesce. An honest press, about seeming to be found, on any party cannot, any more than an honest great topic of foreign controversy, in op- man, bend its conscience to the clamor of position to their own country, if they others, however numerous; nor in the should frankly and honestly follow out the principles they nevertheless deem great account which each, both here and right. The discredit attached, even yet, acts, will the
hereaster, must give for himself of his to those who opposed the war of 1812, acts in terrorem upon the public senti “ Civium ardor prava jubentium" ment of this day, and operates most mis, be admitted as any justification for him chievously upon the sound judgment and
or them who knowingly do wrong. moral feelings of the country. It is an
Popularity is not to be contemnedold artifice of executive usurpation, to party success is surely desirable; but far foment such exasperation, and to insist beyond success, and far above popularity; that when foreign danger menaces, all are to be ranked consistency, honor and domestic dissension should cease.
justice. These are the professed aims of The Address to the people of Virginia, ihe Whig party—let them be inflexibly accompanying the resolution of 98—
its guides--and leaving the event where drawn up by Mr. Madison—thus refers those thus influenced, thus to the claim of those in power that, in in the face of foreign danger, we are not
“ To fine issues finely touched," to scan too nicely domestic usurpation. should without distrust be content to leave
“ It would be perfidious not to warn you it, LET THE WHIGS ABIDE THEIR TIME.
THE FACTS OF M. VALDEMAR’S CASE.
BY EDGARA. POE.
Of course I shall not pretend to con ness of his whiskers, in violent contrast sider it any matter for wonder, that the to the blackness of his hair—the latter, extraordinary case of M. Valdemar has in consequence, being very generally excited discussion. It would have been mistaken for a wig. His temperament a miracle had it not-especially under was markedly nervous, and rendered him the circumstances. Through the desire a good subject for mesmeric experiment. of all parties concerned to keep the affair On two or three occasions bad put him from the public, at least for the present, to sleep with little difficulty, but was or until we had farther opportunities for disappointed in other results which his investigation—through our endeavors to peculiar constitution had naturally led effect this-a garbled or exaggerated me to anticipate. His will was at no account made its way into society, period positively, or thoroughly, under and became the source of many unplea- my control, and in regard to clairvoyance, sant misrepresentations, and, very natu I could accomplish with him nothing to rally, of a great deal of disbelief.
be relied upon. I always attributed my It is now rendered necessary that I failure at these points to the disordered give the facts-as far as I comprehend state of his health. For some months them myself. They are, succinctly, previous to my becoming acquainted with these :
him, his physicians had declared him in My attention, for the last three years, a confirmed phthisis. It was his custom, had been repeatedly drawn to the subject indeed, to speak calmly of his approachof Mesmerism; and, about nine months ing dissolution, as of a matter neither to ago, it occurred to me, quite suddenly, be avoided nor regretted. that in the series of experiments made When the ideas to which I have alhitherto, there had been a very remarkable luded first occurred to me, it was of and most unaccountable omission :-no course very natural that I should think person had as yet been mesmerized in of M. Valdemar. I knew the steady articulo mortis. Il remained to be seen, philosophy of the man too well to apprefirst, whether, in such condition, there hend any scruples from him ; and he had existed in the patient any susceptibility no relatives in America who would be to the magnetic influence; secondly, likely to interfere. I spoke to him frankly whether, if any existed, it was impaired upon the subject;'and, to my surprise, or increased by the condition; thirdly, his interest seemed vividly excited. Í to what extent, or for how long a period, say to my surprise ; for, although he the encroachments of Death might be had always yielded his person freely to arrested by the process.
my experiments, he had never before other points to be ascertained, but these given me any tokens of sympathy with most excited my curiosity--the last in what I did. His disease was of that chaespecial, from the immensely important racter which would admit of exact calcucharacter of its consequences.
lation in respect to the epoch of its terIn looking around me for some subject mination in death ; and it was finally by whose means I might test these parti- arranged between us that he would send culars, I was brought to think of my friend, for me about twenty-four hours before the M. Ernest Valdemar, the well-known period announced by his physicians as compiler of the “ Bibliotheca Forensica," that of his decease. and author (under the nom de plume It is now rather more than seven of Issachar Marx) of the Polish versions months since I received from M. Valdeof “ Wallenstein” and “ Gargantua.” M. mar, himself, the subjoined note : Valdemar, who has resided principally at
“ MY DEAR P Harlaem, N. Y., since the year 1839, is
“ You may as well come now. D(or was) particularly noticeable for the and F— are agreed that I cannot hold out extreme spareness of his person-his beyond to-morrow midnight; and I think lower limbs much resembling those of they have hit the time very nearly. John Randolph; and, also, for the white
" VALDEMAR." 39
VOL. II.-NO. VI.
I received this note within half an particularly, of the experiment proposed. hour after it was written, and in fifteen He still professed himself quite willing minutes more I was in the dying man's and even anxious to have it made, and chamber. I had not seen him for ten urged me to commence it at once. A days, and was appalled by the fearful male and a female nurse were in attendalteration which the brief interval had ance; but I did not feel myself altogether wrought in him. His face wore a leaden at liberty to engage in a task of this chahue; the eyes were utterly lustreless; racter with no more reliable witnesses and the emaciation was so extreme that than these people, in case of sudden the skin had been broken through by the accident, might prove. I therefore postcheek-bones. His expectoration was ex- poned operations until about eight the cessive. The pulse was barely percep- next night, when the arrival of a medical tible. He retained, nevertheless, in a student with whom I had some acquaintvery remarkable manner, both his mental ance, (Mr. Theodore ,) relieved me power and a certain degree of physical from farther embarrassment. It had been strength. He spoke with distinctness my design, originally, to wait for the took some palliative medicines without physicians; but I was induced to proceed, aid-and, when I entered the room, was first, by the urgent entreaties of M. Valoccupied in penciling memoranda in a demar, and secondly, by my conviction pocket-book. He was propped up in the that I had not a moment to lose, as he bed by pillows. Doctors D and F was evidently sinking fast. were in attendance.
Mr. L-I was so kind as to accede After pressing Valdemar's hand, I took to my desire that he would take notes of these gentlemen aside, and obtained from all that occurred; and it is from his methem a minute account of the patient's moranda that what I now have to relate condition. The left lung had been for is, for the most part, either condensed or eighteen months in a semi-osseous or copied verbatim. cartilaginous state, and was, of course, It wanted about five minutes of eight entirely useless for all purposes of vital- when, taking the patient's hand, I begged ity. The right, in its upper portion, was him to state, as distinctly as he could, to also partially, if not thoroughly, ossified, Mr. L-1, whether he (M. Valdemar) while the lower region was merely a mass was entirely willing that I should make of purulent tubercles, running one into the experiment of mesmerizing him in another. Several extensive perforations his then condition. existed; and, at one point, permanent He replied feebly, yet quite audibly, adhesion to the ribs had taken place. “ Yes, I wish to be mesmerized”-adding These appearances in the right lobe were immediately afterwards, “I fear you of comparatively recent date. The ossi. have deferred it too long." fication had proceeded with very unusual While he spoke thus, I commenced the rapidity; no sign of it had been discovered passes which I had already found most a month before, and the adhesion had effectual in subduing him. He was evi. only been observed during the three pre- dently influenced with the first lateral vious days. Independently of the phthi- stroke of my hand across his forehead; sis, the patient was suspected of aneurisin but although I exerted all my powers, no of the aorta ; but on this point the osseous farther perceptible effect was induced symptoms rendered an exact diagnosis until some minutes after ten o'clock, when impossible. It was the opinion of both Doctors D and F— called, accordphysicians that M. Valdemar would die ing to appointment. I explained to them, about midnight on the morrow (Sunday.) in a few words, what I designed, and as It was then seven o'clock on Saturday they opposed no objection, saying that evening.
the patient was already in the death On quitting the invalid's bed-side to agony, I proceeded without hesitationhold conversation with myself, Doctors exchanging, however, the lateral passes D and F had bidden him a final for downward ones, and directing my gaze farewell. It had not been their intention entirely into the right eye of the sufferer. to return; but, at my request, they agreed By this time his pulse was impercepto look in upon the patient about ten the tible and his breathing was stertorous, next night.
and at intervals of half a minute. When they had gone, I spoke freely This condition was nearly unaltered with M. Valdemar on the subject of his for a quarter of an hour. At the expiraapproaching dissolution, as well as, more tion of this period, however, a natural
although very deep sigh escaped the ment, his arm very readily, although feebosom of the dying inan, and the stertor- bly, followed every direction I assigned ous breathing ceased—that is to say, its it with mine. I determined to hazard a stertorousness was no longer apparent; few words of conversation. the intervals were undiminished. The “ M. Valdemar,” I said, “are you patient's extremities were of an icy cold- asleep?”. He made me no answer, but I
perceived a tremor about the lips, and At five minutes before eleven I per was thus induced to repeat the question, ceived unequivocal signs of the mesmeric again and again. At its third repetition, influence. The glassy roll of the eye his whole frame was agitated by a very was exchanged for that expression of slight shivering ; the eye-lids unclosed uneasy inward examination which is themselves so far as to display a white never seen except in cases of sleep line of the ball; the lips moved sluggishly, waking, and which it is quite impossible and from between them, in a barely to mistake. With a few rapid lateral audible whisper, issued the words : passes I made the lids quiver, as in inci Yes ;-asleep now. Do not wake pient sleep, and with a few more I closed me !-let me die so !” them altogether. I was not satisfied, I here felt the limbs and found them as however, with this, but continued the rigid as ever. The right arm, as before, manipulations vigorously, and with the obeyed the direction of my hand. I quesfullest exertion of the will, until I had tioned the sleep-waker again : completely stiffened the limbs of the slum. “ Do you still feel pain in the breast, berer, after placing them in a seemingly M. Valdemar ?" easy position. The legs were at full The answer now was immediate, but length; the arms were nearly so, and re even less audible than before : posed upon the bed at a moderate distance No pain-I am dying." from the loins. The head was very slight I did not think it advisable to disturb ly elevated.
him farther just then, and nothing more When I had accomplished this, it was was said or done until the arrival of Dr. fully midnight, and I requested the gen- F-, who came a little before sunrise, tlemen present to examine M. Valdemar’s and expressed unbounded astonishment at condition. After a very few experiments, finding the patient still alive. After feel. they admitted him to be in an unusually ing the pulse and applying a mirror to the perfect state of mesmeric trance. The lips, he requested me to speak with the curiosity of both the physicians was sleep-waker again. I did so, saying: greatly excited. Dr. D-resolved at M. Valdemar, do you still sleep?" once to remain with the patient all night,
As before, some minutes elapsed ere a while Dr. F- took leave with a pro- reply was made; and during the interval mise to return at day-break. Mr. L - the dying man seemed to be collecting his and the nurses remained.
energies to speak. At my fourth repetiWe left M. Valdemar entirely undis- tion of the question, he said, very faintly, turbed until about three o'clock in the almost inaudibly : morning, when I approached him and “ Yes; still asleep-dying." found him in precisely the same condition It was now the opinion, or rather the as when Dr. É went away—that is wish, of the physicians, that M. Valdemar to say, he lay in the same position ; the should be suffered to remain undisturbed pulse was imperceptible; the breathing in his present apparently tranquil conwas gentle (scarcely noticeable, unless dition, until death should supervenemand through the application of a mirror to the this, it was generally agreed, must now lips ;) the eyes were closed naturally; take place within a few minutes. Iconand the limbs were as rigid and as cold cluded, however, to speak to him once as marble. Still, the general appearance more, and merely repeated my previous was certainly not that of death.
question. As I approached M. Valdemar I made While I spoke, there came a marked a kind of half effort to influence his right change over the countenance of the sleeparm into pursuit of my own, as I passed Waker. The
rolled themselves the latter gently to and fro above his per- slowly open, the pupils disappearing
In such experiments with this upwardly; the skin generally assumed a patient I had never perfectly succeeded cadaverous hue, resembling not so much before, and assuredly I had little thought parchment as white paper; and the cirof succeeding now ; but to my astonish- cular hectic spots whích, hitherto, had