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ventions, bringing together the results of sented one thousand dollars as a fund for agricultural experiments from every sec the encouragement of the culture of silk. tion of the country; and more queries and In a single year this country imported enigmas have been definitely settled by it silk goods to the amount of twenty-three than by all other sources for dissemina millions of dollars. The Institute desires ting practical knowledge in this important to keep this sum at home. branch of industry. On the first and The Institute has organized a school third Tuesdays of each month, the Farm- for the Arts of Design. er's Club holds its meetings at the rooms The necessity of a school for the Arts of the Institute; and at these meetings of Design, as applied to the Mechanic practical farmers present specimens of Arts, has long been felt in this country. products and describe modes of culture. In France the Arts of Design form a part Their remarks are eagerly caught up by of the common school education, and in the reporters of the various agricultural consequence, the whole world is put unpapers, and thus disseminated throughout der contribution !for French patterns. the country: The Institute showed the The quality of our woods is better, and Virginians how, by a most simple process, our workmanship equally good with the they could restore their worn-out lands: French, but the superiority of their delands in the old commonwealth, which a signs enables them to sell French furnifew years since could be purchased for ture in our markets at double the prices five or ten dollars per acre, now command of our own. They send us a new from forty to one hundred dollars per acre. pattern of calico at 75 cents per yard, It is altogether probable that the improve- which we imitate in a few weeks at ments in our agricultural products, from 12 cents per yard; but in these few the causes already stated, are more than weeks our market is supplied at a profit one per cent. on the whole amount of the to the French manufacturer of many crop; and as this amount, exclusive of times the whole cost, and simply for the the tobacco, sugar, cotton and rice crops, want of a school for the Arts of Design. is some seven or eight hundred millions, The Shipwreck Society had its birth in the Institute has benefited the country at the American Institute. It has also inlarge, in the department of agriculture troduced a most valuable system of coast alone, several millions. The American signals. It would be an endless task to Institute first proposed the geological sur portray the benefits which have resulted vey of New York. Congress is at every from yearly Fairs. What is the characsession indebted to the Repository for ter of American manufactures now as statistics on almost every subject connect- compared with those exhibited at the ed with the public welfare. There is a first Fair? Look at the cloth-room, and permanent committee on arts and sciences, see fabrics which would do honor to any in which are men who stand in the front English manufacturer of five years ago. rank of natural philosophers and engi- A few years since, our dyers were entire
Almost every invention of sup-. ly unable to compete with the English posed utility is submitted to them by the and French dyers; now they are surpasinventors for investigation ; their favora. sed by none. Instead of wearing Amerible report being deemed sufficient to au can cloths from patriotism, we do it now thorize capitalists to invest their money in from choice : they are better than forthe project. No instance can be shown eign cloths of the same cost. Examine where the committee has given an opinion the cotton and other fabrics, and it is which proved fallacious. The Reposito- with some difficulty you can believe that ry contains two hundred and fifty models they are the product of American looms.* of useful inventions. The Institute has Our improvements in hardware and the subject of silk culture under the most cutlery are equally great.
What survigorous examination. One of its mem geon now thinks of sending abroad for bers introduced, from Italy, the morus his instruments? what tailor for his multicaulus; another member has pre- shears ? None: they are better made at
* Cloths, Cassimeres and various woollen fabrics, were sent from Franklin Mills, Skeneateles ; Middlesex Mills, Lowell; Cozzens', Providence; Millbury Mills; Woonsocket Falls, Ware and Leeds Mills. The specimens equaled anything of the kind from Europe. Those who take an interest in American manufacturers, and were prevented from attending the Fair, can examine the fabrics at 9, 30, 31, and 63 Pine street, and 16 Exchange.
home. Look at the ladies' hats now in ladies of the British empire. Victoria (to this room : what leghorn can equal them her credit I proclaim it) personally shows in beauty or quality ? Who now sends to to her subjects the example of love and England for cut glass, and what but the regard for even a poultry
yard ! emulation arising from our Fairs has re “ Turn your eyes to France! Louis duced its value to the present low prices? Philippe is the protector of the Royal Some of the best specimens in our exhi Society of Horticulture, of Paris—thus bition are brought from beyond the Al giving his fine example to all our paleghany Mountains by the manufactur triotic citizens who are now so nobly en
Look at the girandoles and candela gaged in forming everywhere Farmers' bras exhibited, and recollect the entire Clubs, which, by thus condensing the impossibility of procuring such articles a theories and experience of masses of men, few years since.
will find those truths which are vital to Such is a rapid condensation of Mr. a powerful progress in Agriculture as Mapes' well written and important dis well as in any other cause. See the course. The Institute happily committed Sultan of Turkey, within a few months to his hands the preparation of the open past, sending commissioners into every ing address; he has been one of its firm district of the Mussulman Empire, to inest supporters, and his opinions receive, spect the condition of farmers, to lend as they are well entitled to, the regard of them money to buy stock and farming the intelligent. The cause of Agriculture tools, to give them the most valuable has a most eloquent champion in Mr. seeds, and ordaining that no man, while Meigs, a member of the Institute: we engaged in cultivating the earth, shall be quote from his address also :
arrested for debt! “What was England for fifteen hundred “Look for a moment at the value of cul. years ? Her history will show you, that tivation. Spain, for a long time, annually her population never exceeded six mil received from her mines in South Amerlions during all that time. In 1509, gar ica, some thirty millions of dollars in gold dening began to be of some importance and silver. Spain, which had before in England. Before that time vegetables that time a rich agriculture and a lofty were imported from the Netherlands.
name, now became proud and lazy ; her Then began the culture in England of Hidalgos, with pompous step, paced the cabbages, gooseberries, musk-melons, prados of her cities, disdaining all labor. apricots, garden roots, &c. The damask Spain dropped her spade and hoe—spurnrose was introduced by Dr. Linacre, phy ed the plough—and you all see the result. sician of Henry VIII. In 1526, roses “England, by her parlimentary returns were first consecrated as presents from last year, shows the value of agriculture the Pope! Hops from France! Pippin for that year to be three thousand millions apples, by Leonard Mascal, in 1525. of dollars; or as much, in one year, as the Corinthian grapes, now called currants, mines of America had given Spain in a from Zante, in 1555. Musk roses, and hundred years." several plums from Italy, by Lord Crom Mr. Weslervelt, another orator vho well. July flowers, and carnations, in addressed the Institute, remarked : 1567. Tulips from Vienna, in 1578. “ Sciences are reduced to systems, and Asparagus, oranges, lemons, artichokes, systems, in their turn, are reduced to tbe cauliflowers, beans, peas, lettuce, in 1660. comprehension of the plainest underThen began the population of England to standings. grow. Then began the creation of the “ But these, like everything else, are farmer. Then arose the delightful dwell not properly attained unless by ceaseless ings of the yeomanry of England, on the labor and perseverance; and like everydomains which, for more than a thousand thing which is susceptible of an intrinsic years, had been occupied by feudal vas- value, they are usually worthless withsals, styled in the old law books villeins, out the physical and intellectual industry over whom, in their subject condition, the necessary to their accomplishment. eleven hundred military castles of Eng. Genius, it is true, may sustain and enland had for so many ages frowned in liven everything within its sphere ; but it aristocratic power !
Now behold the is only where true knowledge is at the magic changes wrought hy the power of foundation, that genius proves of real farm and garden. You see now the an advantage to its possessor." nual jubilee of those noble interests, at The exhibition of articles was full and tended by all the gentlemen, lords and magnificent; miracles of luxury and art
were gathered in every avenue; here the short lines toward 11, and you have the ponderous but elegant machinery of steam point for 105. ihrew a hundred new inventions into To find 224.–First find 22, (the first two dazzling motion ; there sparkled jewelry figures in the amount,) then count the short of the most exquisite finish; here the lines between 22 and 23 ; the first short eye was surprised by the gossanier fabric line represents 223 ; the next short line 224. from the fair hands of an American figures in the amount,) then the only short
To find 615.-First tind 64, (the first two woman, fit to float over the snow-white line between 64 and 65 represents 645. form of the Ideal; there stood a machine which would supply the labor of a hun. To find the circumference of a circle from dred hands; and yonder the fruits of the
its diameter, or its diameter from its cirearth hung in profuse clustering
RULE.-Place letter c (found on the cir“So rich and ripe
cular) opposite fig. 1 ; then the figures on That one was almost tempted to forgive the fixed part are diameters, and those on Our primal father's first and greatest sin."
the circle are circumferences. Opposite
each diameter is its circumference. Among the machines, we observed Example.- What is the circumference several of very great importance. “ The of a circle whose diameter is 9 inches? Endless Self-Computing Scale” is a pro Place c opposite fig. 1 ; then opposite 9 duction which exhibits uncommon genius, is 28-2, (28 inches and 2 tenths,) the anand industry, and patience. The Scale, swer. (the result of three years' incessant labor,)
To Apportion Taxes. we are told, is designed as an assistant in
RULE.—Place the whole tax to be raised, all arithmetical calculations. The rapid. found on the circular, opposite the whole ity, the siinplicity and accuracy of the valuation ; then opposite each man's valuaresults, have surprised our best mathe- tion is his tax. maticians. It consists of a logarithmic
Example.-A tax of $1,500,00 is levied continuation of numbers, arranged in two
on a valuation of $200,000,00 ; what is a or more circles, one of which is made to man's tax whose valuation is $700,00 ? revolve within the other; which process site 700 is $5,25.
Place 1500 opposite 200,000; then oppoconstantly changes the relations of the
[We recommend the invention to Sir figures to each other, and solves an infi
Robert Peel.] nite variety of problems. As the inventor tells us, its chief advantages are : 1st.
The ingenuity and utility of Mr. PolA complete saving of mental labor : 2d. man's Scale will be easily perceived. A great saving of time: 3d. Complete
There was a beautiful invention on accuracy. The results of the computa
exhibition of a · Year Clock !” We tions in this Scale are infallible ; errors, examined it with some attention, and except through sheer carelessness, heing quote a part of a succinct description : impossible: 4th. Mental improvement. “The improvements of the invention conBy this Scale a knowledge of the philo- sist in the novelty, yet simplicity, of the sophy of numbers, and their relations to
movements. There are but four principal
wheels. each other, is immediately obtained.
The motion is produced by
weights in the 30 day clocks, and by a The lines on both parts of the Scale are main spring wound upon a fusee in the precisely alike. That part of the Scale year clock. The power of the weight or which revolves is called the circular," spring is retarded in this clock, and made and the other is called the “fixed part.” to retain regularity in its motion, by the The lines represent the exact position of ingenious arrangement of the escapement the different figures, and are generally and pendulum. When you look at the numbered. The longest lines are numbered clock, you perceive a gilt ball four and a 1, 2, 3, &c., and represent 1, 2, 3, &c., 10, half inches in diameter at the end of a 20, 30, &c., or 100, 200, 300, &c., or 1-10, small steel rod. It revolves three times 2-10, 3-10, &c., according to the nature of and a half one way, and the same number the problem to be solved. The next sized of times the other. At the upper end of lines represent 11, 12, 13, 21, 54, &c., or this rod is an ingenious and delicate double 110,120, &c., and are nearly all numbered. lever movement, reaching to the escapeThe shortest lines represent the amount or ment, which it catches and leaves without quantity, when it is composed of three any sensible friction. The spring then refigures, as 101, 102, 125, &c., or 10-1, 13-5, acts upon the ball, aided by its own gravity, &c., or 1-01, 1-25, &c.; but on the Pocket and the rotary motion is continued, the Scale these lines are not numbered, escapement controlling the pendulum as in
To find 105 on the Pocket Scale.-Call other clocks. This ball is hollow and has the large 1, 100; then count five of the an internal apparatus, by which its rotary
motion is regulated. There are four small hemp, as to do entirely away with the weights at right angles to each other, two slow and expensive toil of the old proare mounted upon a wire, which is a ho
It appears to us, that these two rizontal diameter of the globe. This wire machines are of infinite value to this has on it the thread of a screw, and each country. Every section of the North turn of it produces an exact movement of and East, but more especially of the imtheweights to or from the centre, which can be regulated to the smallest fraction of mense West and North-West, from Vir. time. The two other weights are fastened ginia and Tennessee, to the forests of to a semi-circular band, composed of three Maine, the boundary Lakes, and the different metals, the contraction or expan- mineral regions of Wisconsin and lowa, sion of which also changes their position are capable of the abundant production of within the ball. The whole interior arc hemp, and, perhaps to an equal amount, rangement ensures, it is believed, entire of flax. These products might easily uniformity of motion in the globe.
be made one of the great staples of the " It will at once be seen, that the friction North. They would have become so of the common pendulum is avoided. The already, we are convinced, if the process revolutions of the ball are found by expe- of rotting and dressing the article could riment and observation to be isochronal."
have been quickened. This, we believe, It is worthy of particular notice, that is now accomplished, and with such a the same combination of machinery, ex- quality in the hemp prepared, as to comtended, would keep a clock in motion any mand for it, we are told, a higher price at number of years.
the Navy-Yard, than any dressed by the The Tobacco Trade was well repre. old method obtains. If this process shall sented by Mr. J. Anderson.
prove to be subject to no important disMore immediately interesting to us, advantages, we know of no reason why however, were the various patented ma- hemp and flax should not be produced in chines, for use in agriculture and manu this country, for consumption at home facture—for agriculture especially we and abroad, in as great quantities as is feel to be the great interest of this coun the cotton of the South. try. Among them was a contrivance, of And all this—combining machinery, a simple nature, to cradle wheat by invention, fruits, grains — all this is the labor of horses. It is said to have American—the product of American soil, been in use on many farms-working ad- American genius, AMERICAN industry. mirably, since the cradling is rapidly In Colonial times—just before the Revodone, and what is more, there is compara- lution—a British minister would have tively no loss of grain by shelling. In prevented the manufacture of even a hobcutting ripe grain, probably three per nail in America: now we can vie with cent. has usually been lost upon the England in almost all the productions on ground. For many other agricultural which she prides herself. A few years implements there were improved models. ago, and some Americans would have We noticed, too, an improved machine, kept this mighty land a vassal, kneeling by which cotton may be spun to the ex at the feet of the Old World, and asking tremity of fineness, with an immense of her nearly all the luxuries and many saving of labor. Every improvement in of the comforts for our cis-Atlantic life: cotton machinery will be esteemed of now she has broken off the chain, and great value. That Commerce, also, might stands up with a sublime aspect, in her not be unrepresented, there was a pow own strength-for it is always sublime, erful machine for loading or unloading when a nation relies upon herself. And vessels with great dispatch. It has been this country is now dependent on no effectually proved.
other: her Jooms are sounding in a thouPerhaps, however, the most important sand villages; her streams are baptizing of all the inventions exhibited, was a myriad wheels; her artizans are making machine for rotting hemp by steam. the cavernous places of the earth to echo Hemp, by this process, can be thoroughly the shout of the strong man, who binds rotted in four and five days, with the very Nature captive to the rushing car of Civi. great advantage of retaining a large por- lization ; her sons, in a word, have writtion of the natural oil in the weed, which ten, published and established a second water-rotting quite washes away, but Declaration of Independence. We needed which, if retained, adds strength and protection "—we partially obtained itglossiness to the fibre. In addition to let every citizen, however befooled hitherthis, there was a machine with such im- to by Democratic reasonings, look at the provements for breaking and dressing the results !
Journal of the Texan Expedition against Nobody but a Texan could have written it,
Meir. By Gen. THOMAS J. GREEN. and no other than Texan life would have New York: Harper & Brothers.
given rise to its incidents. When the As to this book, we must confess there General forgets that he must be a fine writer are many reservations to be made. When
or is the hero of the story, he is a graphic, regarded in a critical sense, and as con
off-hand and pleasant narrator. He talks trasted with the literary standards of the day, like a Texan himself then, and his characits position is a very dubious one. So far as
ters are true Texans, with all the strength any ornation of style which could pretend of ready, desperate passions, and cool fanto verge upon excellence is concerned tastic daring. it is absurd; for it has absolutely nothing
An example in point we will extractof such graces to recommend it. But as a premising that after the successful charge bare and unpretending recital—if it were of the Texan prisoners upon their guards only consistently so—of incidents in them at Salado—their escape and final recapture
-an order for them to be decimated was selves intensely tragic and abundantly ex
received from that bloody Santa Anna. citing, the book is interesting. It would The passages are touching, and give a favorhave been to a singular degree more so, but able idea of the bold and generous qualities for the constant intrusion, on the part of of these adventurers. the author, of a determination not only to
“The decimation took place by the drawprove himself a fine writer and elegant ing of black and white beans from a small scholar, but as well a Texan Hero in his earthen mug. The white ones signified own person. He does not pause at this
ercmption, and the black leath. One hun
dred and fifty-nine ivhite beans were placed last climax even, but insists on being re
in the bottom of the mug, and seventeen cognized in his own narrative as the very black ones placed upon the top of them. Bayard of Texan heroes. These two The beans were not stirred, and had so wretched dandyisms greatly mar the spirit
slight a shake that it was perfectly clear
they had not been mixed together. Such and effect of the book. “ General Green
was their anxiety to execute Captain Cameof the Texan Army,” is made the head ron, and perhaps the balance of the officers, of this offending against Mexico-the cen that first Cameron, and afterwards they, tre and circumference of all that is chival
were made to draw a bean each from the ric, impetuous and stern that occurred
mug in this condition.
“He said, with his usual coolness, 'Well, throughout the whole of its eventful conse- boys, we have to draw, let's be at it;' so quences. General Green having, by what saying, he thrust his hand into the mug, ever accident, reached New York first, and and drew out a white bean. Next came
Colonel Wm. F. Wilson, who was chained earliest placed his MSS. in the hands of
to him; then Capt. Wm. Ryan, and then publishers, has the first to say with regard Judge F. M. Gibson, all of whom drew to the affair, and is determined that the white beans. Next came Capt. Eastland, claims of said General Green shall be fully who drew the first black one, and then camé
the balance of the men. They all drew set forth in advance. There is something their beans with that manly dignity and closely verging upon the bare-faced perti- firmness which showed them superior to nacity of a barber's puff, in the spirit with their condition. Some of lighter temper which this point is set forth. But the truth jested over the bloody tragedy. One would is, we know this Gen. Green to be a gallant another would say that this is the tallest
say, 'Boys, this beats raffling all to pieces;' man-quite capable of doing all he repre. gambling scrape I ever was in,' and such sents himself as doing—and we find a par. like remarks. None showed change of tial excuse for this bluff ill-savored egotism to depress, so did the white fail to elate.
countenance; and as the black beans failed in the rugged independence of forms, and The knocking off the irons from the unforplain-speaking impulsiveness, peculiar to tunate alone told who they were. Poor his associations and adopted country. With Robert Beard, who lay upon the ground all that may be offensive to ears polite in
ear by exceedingly ill, and nearly ex
hausted from his forced marches and sufits tone, we are glad to recognize the book, ferings, called his brother William, who in the inain, as original and purely Texan. was bringing him a cup of water, and said,