The Development of Biological Systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the Natural System
A reevaluation of the history of biological systematics that discusses the formative years of the so-called natural system of classification in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Shows how classifications came to be treated as conventions; systematic practice was not linked to clearly articulated theory; there was general confusion over the "shape" of nature; botany, elements of natural history, and systematics were conflated; and systematics took a position near the bottom of the hierarchy of sciences.
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Adanson affinities Alphonse de Candolle analogy anatomy animals Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu appeared approach arrangement Asa Gray Augustin de Candolle Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle botanists botany Brongniart Buffon calyx Candolle's chapter characters classes classification comparative Compositae connected continuity corculum corolla cotyledons Cuvier deJussieu described diagrams Dicotyledones discrete discussion distinct divisions eighteenth essential example families floral flower fossils function gaps Genera plantarum genus Geoffroy George Bentham groups hierarchy Ibid ideas important included insertion Labiatae Lamarck later Leguminosae less Lindley linked Linnaean Linnaeus Macleay Mirbel monocotyledons monopetalous names natural history natural method natural order natural system naturalists nineteenth century noted observed organs ovary petals pistil placed plants polypetalous position principles rank ranunculi recognized rela relationships Saint-Hilaire seed separate similar simple sometimes species Stafleu stamens Stevens structure studies suggested synthesis systematics systematists taxa taxonomic theory thought tion tionships Tournefort tree understanding zoology