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vidual who has completed a 4 years' course in a medical school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;

(14) (A) service performed by an individual under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;

(B) service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back; [or]

(15) service performed in the employ of an international organization[.] ; or

(16) service performed by an individual under an arrangement with the owner or tenant of land pursuant to which

(A) such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land,

(B) the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such owner or tenant, and

(C) the amount of such individual's share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities pro

duced. (c) INCLUDED AND EXCLUDED SERVICE.-For purposes of this chapter, if the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term “pay period” means a period (of not more than 31 consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by subsection (b) (9).

(d) EMPLOYEE.—For purposes of this chapter, the term "employee" means

(1) any officer of a corporation; or

(2) any individual wbo, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee; or

(3) any individual (other than an individual who is an employee under paragraph (1) or (2)) who performs services for remuneration for any person

(A) as an agent-driver or commission-driver engaged in distributing meat products, vegetable products, fruit prod

ucts, bakery products, beverages (other than milk), or laundry or dry-cleaning services, for his principal;

(B) as a full-time life insurance salesman;

(C) as a home worker performing work, according to specifications furnished by the person for whom the services are performed, on materials or goods furnished by such person which are required to be returned to such person or a person designated by him; or

(D) as a traveling or city salesman, other than as an agentdriver or commission-driver, engaged upon a full-time basis in the solicitation on behalf of, and the transmission to, his principal (except for side-line sales activities on behalf of some other person) of orders from wholesalers, retailers, contractors, or operators of hotels, restaurants, or other similar establishments for merchandise for resale or supplies for use

in their business operations; if the contract of service contemplates that substantially all of such services are to be performed personally by such individual; except that an individual shall not be included in the term "employee" under the provisions of this paragraph if such individual has a substantial investment in facilities used in connection with the performance of such services (other than in facilities for transportation), or if the services are in the nature of a single transaction not part of a continuing relationship with the person

for whom the services are performed (e) STATE, UNITED STATES, AND CITIZEN.—For purposes of this chapter

(1) STATE.—The term “State” includes Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

(2) UNITED STATES.—The term "United States" when used in a

geographical sense includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. An individual who is a citizen of Puerto Rico (but not otherwise a citizen of the United States) shall be considered, for purposes of this section, as a citizen of the United States.

(f) AMERICAN VESSEL AND AIRCRAFT.-For purposes of this chapter, the term “American vessel” means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State; and the term "American aircraft” means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.

(g) AGRICULTURAL LABOR.–For purposes of this chapter, the term “agricultural labor” includes all service performed

(1) on a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife;

(2) in the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush

and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm;

(3) in connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 15 (g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (46 Stat. 1550, § 3; 12 V. S. C. 1141j), or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes;

(4) (A) in the employ of the operator of a farm in handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity; but only if such operator produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed;

(B) in the employ of a group of operators of farms (other than a cooperative organization) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A), but only if such operators produced all of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed. For purposes of this subparagraph, any unincorporated group of operators shall be deemed a cooperative organization if the number of operators comprising such group is more than 20 at any time during the calendar quarter in which such service is performed;

(C) the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not be deemed to be applicable with respect to service performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption; or

(5) on a farm operated for profit if such service is not in the course of the employer's trade or business or is domestic service in

a private home of the employer. As used in this subsection, the term "farm” includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards.

(h) AMERICAN EMPLOYER.–For purposes of this chapter, the term American employer” means an employer which is

(1) the United States or any instrumentality thereof,
(2) an individual who is a resident of the United States,

(3) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States,

(4) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or

(5) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State. (i) COMPUTATION OF WAGES IN CERTAIN CASES.–For purposes of this chapter, in the case of domestic service described in subsection (a) (7) (B), any payment of cash remuneration for such service which is more or less than a whole-dollar amount shall, under such conditions

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and to such extent as may be prescribed by regulations made under this chapter, be computed to the nearest dollar. For the purpose of the computation to the nearest dollar, 'the payment of a fractional part of a dollar shall be disregarded unless it amounts to one-half dollar or more, in which case it shall be increased to $1. The amount of any payment of cash remuneration so computed to the nearest dollar shall, in lieu of the amount actually paid, be deemed to constitute the amount of cash remuneration for purposes of subsection (a) (7) (B).

(i) COVERED TRANSPORTATION SERVICE. -For purposes of this chapter

(1) EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMSGENERAL RULE.— Except as provided in paragraph (2), all service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951.

(2) EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS—CASES IN WHICH NO TRANSPORTATION EMPLOYEES, OR ONLY CERTAIN EMPLOYEES, ARE. COVERED. -Service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with the operation of its public transportation system shall not constitute covered transportation service if —

(A) any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951, and substantially all service in connection with the operation of the transportation system was, on December 31, 1950, covered under a general retirement system providing benefits which, by reason of a provision of the State constitution dealing specifically with retirement systems of the State or political subdivisions thereof, cannot be diminished or impaired; or

(B) no part of the transportation system operated by the State or political subdivision on December 31, 1950, was ac

quired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951; except that if such State or political subdivision makes an acquisition after 1950 from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, then, in the case of any employee who

(C) became an employee of such State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of its acquisition after 1950 of such part, and

(D) prior to such acquisition rendered service in employment (including as employment service covered by an agreement under section 218 of the Social Security Act) in connection with the operation of such part of the transportation

system acquired by the State or political subdivision, the service of such employee in connection with the operation of the transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service, commencing with the first day of the third calendar quarter following the calendar quarter in which the acquisition of such part took place, unless on such first day such service of such employee is covered by a general retirement system which does not, with respect to such employee, contain special provisions applicable only to employees described in subparagraph (C).

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(3) TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ACQUIRED AFTER 1950.-All seryice performed in the employ of a State or political subsidivion thereof in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if the transportation system was not operated by the State or political subdivision prior to 1951 and, at the time of its first acquisition (after 1950) from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, the State or political subdivision did not have a general retirement system covering substantially all service performed in connection with the operation of the transportation system. (4) DEFINITIONS.—For purpose of this subsection

(A) The term "general retirement system” means any pension, annuity, retirement, or similar fund or system established by a State or by a political subdivision thereof for employees of the State, political subdivision, or both; but such term shall not include such a fund or system which covers only service performed in positions connected with the operation of its public transportation system.

(B) A transportation system or a part thereof shall be considered to have been acquired by a State or political subdivision from private ownership if prior to the acquisition service performed by employees in connection with the operation of the system or part thereof acquired constituted employment under this chapter or subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or was covered by an agreement made pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act and some of such employees became employees of the State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of such acquisition.

(C) The term "political subdivision” includes an instrumentality of —

(i) a State,
(ii) one or more political subdivisions of a State, or

(iii) a State and one or more of its political sub

divisions. (k) EXEMPTION OF RELIGIOUS, CHARITABLE, AND CERTAIN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS.

(1) Waiver of exemption by organization.-An organization described in section 501 (c) (3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501 (a) may file a certificate (in such form and manner, and with such official, as may be prescribed by regulations made under this chapter) certifying that it desires to have the insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed by its employees and that at least two-thirds of its employees concur in the filing of the certificate. Such certificate may be filed only if it is accompanied by a list containing the signature, address, and social security account number (if any) of each employee who concurs in the filing of the certificate. Such list may be amended at any time prior to the expiration of the twenty-fourth month following the first calendar quarter for which the certificate is in effect, or at any time prior to January 1, 1959, whichever is the later, by filing with the prescribed official a supplemental list or lists containing

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