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AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE GRAYS HARBOR LUMBER CO., THE GRAYS HARBOR PULP AND PAPER Co., THE POLSOM LUMBER AND
SHINGLE CO., AND THE PORT OF GRAYS HARBOR TERMINAL AT PORT OF GRAYS HARBOR.

(Photo by Pacific Aerial Surveys, Inc.)

[graphic]

THE PORT OF GRAYS HARBOR,

WASH.

PORT AND HARBOR CONDITIONS

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Grays Harbor is a bay 13 miles long from east to west and 12 miles wide from north to south, which lies on the southwestern coast of the State of Washington, 45 miles north of the mouth of the Columbia River and 110 miles south of the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This bay is somewhat triangular in shape, the apex being at its eastern end. It is separated from the Pacific Ocean by two long promontories which end at Point Brown on the north and Point Chehalis on the south, approximately 2 miles apart, between which the main ship channel crosses the bar.

Several rivers enter the harbor, the more important being the Chehalis at the eastern end; the Wishkah, which flows southward into the Chehalis; the Hoquiam, which enters the harbor from the north about 372 miles west of the Wishkah; and the Humptulips, which flows southward into the harbor at its northerly end. Most of the terminal improvements are in the Inner Harbor, the Chehalis, the Wishkah, and the Hoquiam Rivers.

Several towns have been established on Grays Harbor. Hoquiam has a population of 12,766 and is situated on the north side of the Chehalis River, the Hoquiam River flowing through the city. Aberdeen, with a population of approximately 22,000, adjoins Hoquiam on the east and includes South Aberdeen on the south side of the Chehalis River. The Wishkah River flows through the eastern end of the city. Cosmopolis, a small town with a population of about 1,500, is located on the south side of the Chehalis River, a short distance above South Aberdeen. The growth of Hoquiam and Aberdeen has been progressive with the development of the large forest products industry and commerce of Grays Harbor, both cities being important factors in that development. The production of lumber and lumber products has resulted in Grays Harbor becoming one of the world's great ports for the distribution of these products, not only to ports on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the United States but to foreign countries.

The outer harbor.—The harbor generally is shallow and tidal flats extend throughout all sections of it. Several channels pass through the flats, those of principal importance being the North Channel, or main ship channel, and the South Channel, these two extending in an easterly direction from the harbor entrance to the mouth of the Chehalis River. The North Channel is most used. The Humptulips River channel, which is seldom used, extends northward to the mouth of the Humptulips River.

The main ship channel extends from deep water on the outer side of the bar to the town of Cosmopolis, passing south of Sand Island near Point Brown and north of Rennie Island, directly south of Hoquiam. The bar channel is approximately 2 miles long, 2 miles wide at the outer end, and one-half mile wide immediately off Point Chehalis. The channel continues northeastward through the flats to a point about 8 miles from Point Chehalis, where it joins the dredged channel extending to Cosmopolis. This dredged channel is about 200 feet wide from deep water in the bay below Hoquiam to Cosmopolis and 26 feet deep at mean lower low water. Greater depths in the main channel are encountered between the western end of the dredged channel and the bar.

The South Channel extends from Point Chehalis along the southern side of the bay to a junction with the North Channel east of Rennie Island. The depths in the channel vary from 8 to 26 feet. Its navi. gation can be undertaken only by boats of light draft.

The Middle Channel extends westward from a point directly south of Rennie Island and joins North Channel near the western end of the dredged channel. It is not used for navigation purposes.

The shallowness of the Humptulips River Channel precludes its use at low water as an entrance to the Humptulips River. The tidal range of 10.1 feet between mean lower low water and mean higher high water permits its navigation at high tide.

The channel extending southward through South Bay and into the mouth of Elk River has a controlling depth of 15 feet at mean lower low water off Point Chehalis. The port of Grays Harbor bas constructed a pier for the use of fishing vessels south of Point Chehalis and opposite the east end of South Jetty. There is a controlling depth of 10 feet between this pier and the bridge across South Bay.

The inner harbor.--The Chehalis River rises in the southwestern part of the State of Washington about 40 miles east of the Pacific Ocean, flows in a general northwesterly direction, and empties into the eastern part of Grays Harbor. Its length is about 115 miles. Its width varies from 500 feet to 1.200 feet. The river is tidal for about 27 miles above its mouth. The controlling depth at mean lower low water therein at the present time is 26 feet below Cosmopolis and about 10 feet from there to Montesano, approximately 8% miles distant.

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