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Temperature.—The mean annual temperature in the vicinity of Everett is 49.8° F. The mean annual maximum temperature for a 23-year period was 58.0° F. and the mean minimum temperature for the same period was 41.5° F.
The following information relative to weather conditions in the vicinity of Everett has been furnished by the Weather Bureau, United States Department of Agriculture.
Mean maximum temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, for 23 years
Mean minimum temperature, degrees Fahrenheit, for 23 years
Three bridges cross the improved section of the Snohomish River. The first, 3/4 miles above the entrance to the improved channel, is the Great Northern Railway bridge of swing type, with a left channel opening 100 feet wide. This bridge has a clear height above mean lower low water of 17.63 feet and above high water of 6.4 feet.
Three hundred and fifty feet above the Great Northern Railway bridge is the lift span of the State highway department which has an opening of 105 feet and clear heights of 49 feet and 35 feet above mean lower low and high water, respectively, when closed. It has a lift of 40 feet.
At Everett Avenue, about 1,100 yards above the end of the improved channel at Steamboat Slough, is a city highway bridge of the swing type having left channel and right channel openings 100 feet wide and a clear height above mean lower low water of approximately 23 feet and above high water of 13 feet.
In the town of Lowell, adjoining Everett on the southeast, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad crosses the Snohomish River, 8% miles above its mouth, on a swing drawbridge having a left channel width of 100 feet, a right channel width of 97.9 feet, and a clear height above high water of 6.25 feet.
HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY THE UNITED STATES
Everett Peninsula has a water frontage of approximately 94 miles, of which 1 mile borders on the deep waters of Port Gardner Bay. Adjoining this deep-water frontage on the north, the peninsula has a frontage on the tidal flats of about 27 miles. The remainder of the water front on the northern and eastern sides of the peninsula lies upon the Snohomish River.
This river, which formerly entered the sound north of Everett, is essentially an alluvial-bearing stream. This characteristic resulted in the formation of an extensive delta at the mouth of the river and of flats beyond, and has rendered difficult the development of a navigable river channel. The river generally is shallow, but is tidal for about 18 miles above its mouth. It enters Possession Sound through the delta channels known as Eby Slough, Steamboat Slough, Union Slough, and Old River. Steamboat Slough was formerly the only channel used for navigation purposes, but owing partly to its proximity to the upland shore of the peninsula, Old River was the channel selected for improvement.
The mouth of Old River channel was formerly practically dry at low water and was used as a storing and sorting ground for logs, although at high stages of the tide it was navigable by light-draft boats. The channel extended inland to the junction of the inner end of Steamboat Slough with Snohomish River proper, and was shallow throughout, there being practically no water in it for navigation at low tide.
Early harbor improvements by the United States Government resulted in the excavation of a basin on the southern end of the tidal flats 5,300 feet long, 400 feet wide, and 26 feet deep at mean lower low water; the partial excavation of a projected channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean lower low water extending northward from the basin through the flats and the shallows of Old River to the deeper water of the Snohomish River proper at Steamboat Slough, a distance of 5% miles, and in the construction of a training dike extending northward parallel to the improved river channel from the edge of the flats to Smith Island north of the peninsula.
In 1910 a project of improvement was adopted which provided for supplementary bulkhead work and for the dredging of a channel 75 feet wide and 8 feet deep at mean lower low water from the basin previously excavated in the harbor to the inner end of Steamboat Slough. This project was completed in 1914. Extensive shoaling has since taken place in the dredged channel, however, and it is estimated that not more than 10 percent of the original dredged cut remains. A serious development of this shoaling is the progressive filling up of the harbor basin. The depths in the improved channel vary from 1 to 9 feet, the controlling depth at mean lower low water being 1 foot.
Most of the shoaling in the dredged channel occurred between 1914 and 1921, and was due to the deflection of the river current into the harbor by the training dike. A gap was made in the dike in 1921, widened in 1922, and again in 1924, deepened in 1925, and again enlarged in 1927 and 1928. As a result of this diversion, scouring has taken place in the channel below the gap and the harbor has shoaled less rapidly.
The project of improvement was modified in 1930 to provide for widening the gap to 1,200 feet and extending a spur dike below it eastwardly to the pierhead line; for raising 6,000 lineal feet of the existing dike to 14 feet above mean lower low water for the protection of shipping in the harbor from seas carried by westerly winds; for maintaining a channel below the gap to a depth not to exceed 8 feet at mean lower low water; and for maintaining to a depth of 30 feet at mean lower low water a waterway to be known as East Waterway, including an approach thereto from deep water. This project has been completed.
HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS BY LOCAL INTERESTS
In 1931 local interests undertook the project of dredging the East Waterway Basin, extending 1,800 feet northerly from Port Gardner Bay, with a width of 892 feet and a depth of 30 feet. This project was completed except in the extreme northerly 200 feet and a narrow area long the west side, reducing the width of entrance channel thereby to 650 feet at project depth.
The spoil from this dredging was used to construct a fill between the East Waterway Basin and the training dike constructed under the Federal project. This fill is about 1,700 feet long, with an average width of 500 feet and an approach from the city side 150 feet wide and about 1,000 feet long.
Local cooperation has not been required in any of the various projects of improvement by the United States. The only work of improvement done thus far by local interests other than mentioned above has been the constructon of two pile breakwaters and some miscellaneous dredging and filling by the port commission and by private owners.
Only 3 of the 23 docks in Everett are used for public transportation purposes, the others, with the exception of the Standard Oil Co., General Petroleum Corporation and Associated Oil Co. docks, having been constructed for private use at the various industrial plants.
The piers designed for general cargo and open to public use consist of Oriental Dock Co. pier No. 3, which is owned by the Great Northern Railway; the Everett Dock & Warehouse Co. pier No. 1, which is owned and operated by that company; and the Washington City Dock Co. pier No. 2, which is operated under lease from the city. These three piers are all located on Port Gardner Bay. The railroads entering the port operate no water terminals.
OWNERSHIP OF THE WATER FRONT Water-front development in Everett, both on the Possession Sound side of the city and on the Snohomish River, has been accomplished by private enterprise, and developed sections of the water front, including the docks, are all privately owned, except the Washington City Dock (Pier 2) which is owned by the city, and operated by the dock company under lease. Tidal areas below the line of ordinary high tide are generally privately owned, except the State harbor area, which is held under lease. The port commission has acquired about 2,000 acres of tide flats west of the training dike and has obtained a permit from the War Department to fill about 35 acres in the harbor, in connection with their comprehensive plan of harbor development. Part of the work under the permit has been accomplished.