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XXXVI. MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN.- Grand Duchy, One of the States of Germany. Aren, 4701 | Duke Frederick Francis, who was born February square miles. Population (1861), 548,449. Gov. 28, 1823, and succeeded to the dukedom March 1, ernment, Constitutional Sovereignty. Religion, 1812. Lutheran. The reigning sovereign is the Grand

XXXVII. MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ.—Grand Duchy. One the States of Germany. Area, 997 square | The reigning sovereign is the Duke Fre.. miles. Population (1860), 99,060. Government, derick William, who was born October 17, 1819, Constitutional Sovereignty. Religion, Lutheran. / and succeeded to the dukedona September 6, 1860.


XXXVIII. MEXICO.-- Republio. Area, 829,916 square miles. Population (1861), | more (some placing it as high as three-fourths), 7,360,000. Capital, City of Mexico.

it follows that the maritime custom-houses, pro

perly administered, should from the years 1827 GOVERNMENT, Dec. 1863.

to 1837 have produced an average of $13,229,800, President......... .Benito Juarez, elected in

and during the year 1857 upwards of $16,000,000.

We may fairly presume that the maritime custom. 1861 for a term of four

houses are capable of producing, under honest

years. Minister of Foreign Af- ) Don Sebastian Lerdo y annually; and that this might, by a judicious

management, between $16,000,000 and $20,000,000 fairs and of the Inter.) Tejada. Minister of War and Ma

system of internal taxation, be raised to $30,000,000 General Negrete.

annually I have not the least doubt." Minister of Justice and Señor Don José M. Igle- debt of Mexico stood about thus, according to the

PUBLIC DEBT.-In December, 1861, the foreign Public Education..... sias. Minister of Finance and Señor Don José Higinio

account of the Mexican authorities :Public Credit...........) Nunez.

To English subjects........

$60,000,000 Legislature. — The legislative authority of

To English subjects (secured by treaty) 4,000,000 Mexico is vested in a Congress elected by the peo

To Spanish subjects (a great part of ple, the number of members being (in the last To French subjects (secured by treaty)

which was disputed)


180,000 Congress) 184. FINANCES, DEBT, &C.-In consequence of the dis

Total .........

$76,180,000 turbed condition of Mexico for many years, there are no recent or authentic returns of the revenue These figures represent the public debt as reand expenditures of the Government. The prin cognized by the Constitutional Government, and cipal resources of the Federal treasury consist of of course do not include the French, British, Spanduties on imports and duties on the exports of ish, and American claims which are in controgold and silver. The product of these should be versy between thoso Governinents and Mexico. from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000. Besides these, a The latter (omitting American claims) are stated royalty is charged upon the operations of the mints, in the London " Times" as follow:-British claims, and stamp duties are levied on paper for legal do- $14,000,000; French claims, $12,000,000; Spanish cuments and contracts equal to about $4,000,000 claims, $5,000,000; total, $31,000,000. additional. From these sources (if there were The FRENCH CLAIM.–The history of this, as no interruptions of internal or foreign war) it is stated by a Mexican officer in the confidence of calculated that the gross revenue would amount his Government, is as follows. In 1861 the French to $16,000,000 or $18,000,000. The expenditures in Minister, M. de Saligny, demanded the payment time of peace amount to about $17,000,000. These of a large sum alleged to be due to a Swiss banker, statements are given on the authority of well-in- named Jecker, residing in the city of Mexico, he formed Mexican officials. The only other state- claiming the banker as a subject of the Emperor. ment we bave seen is the following, from a letter Subsequently in 1862) Jecker was gazetted in written at Vera Cruz in the summer of 1863: the “Moniteur" at Paris as a French subject. The

* The budgets of different Ministers of Finance origin of Jecker's claim was a loan of $750,000 for fifteen years—from 1824 to 1841, both in- made by him to Miramon while the latter was clusive (those for 1834–35 and 1836-37 having in possession of the city of Mexico in rebellion never been published-give a total expenditure against the Cor tutional Government. The sum of $274,737,317, or a yearly average of $18,315,821 ; demanded by M. de Saligny in satisfaction of this the accounts, however, of actual receipts and ex- claim, and refused by the Mexican Government, penditures for fourteen of those years averaging was $15,000,000. Other claims have been suggested only $17,732,292 annually. During eleven years by the French, but neither before nor since tho from 1827 to 1837, both inclusiye—the maritime war have they ever been specified. custom-houses averaged $6,619,900. Señor Lerdo ARMY AND NAVY.-The military force of Mexico y Tejada, in his Memorial of 1857, estimates in arms for the defence of the country in Decemthem at over $8,000,000; but as we have the as-ber, 1863, was about 50,000 men, distributed at surance of Antonio Garay, José Mariano Blasco, that time in the States of San Luis Potosi, GuaLuis Maria Mora, Francisco Lombardo, T. Eche- najuato, Jalisco, and Michoacan. Besides these varia, Señor Lerdo y Tejada, and others, Ministers regular forces, there were numerous bands of guerof Finance at different periods, that the contra- rillas on the roads from Vera Cruz to the city of band amounted, at the very least, to as much Mexico, hovering about the French line of com

munications. Mexico has no navy, the small city. It is designed for the education of experts force remaining in 1861 having been destroyed in mineralogy, topographic and geographic engiupon the arrival of the French, Spanish, and neering. Some of the young men educated in English squadrons in 1861.

this college have proved very distinguished scienEDUCATION.-Popular education in Mexico is pro- tific professors. vided for by a system of primary and secondary The college has an astronomical observatory, schools, the former being supported by municipal and all kinds of instruments and apparatus for funds or from the treasuries of the States re-teaching the natural sciences. spectively, except in the District of Mexico and It is supported by funds derived from a duty the Territory of California, where the expenses exacted from the owners of silver from all the are paid from the National Treasury. Some of mines of the republic. The students pursue their these schools have, in addition, particular funds ad- practical exercises in schools connected with the ministered by privato associations. Under their central establishment in Mexico, which are located influence, popular education has been greatly sti- in the mineral districts of.“ Real del Monte," "Guamulated, and very great progress has been made. najuato," “ Zacatecas,” and “ Fresnillo." In the primary schools, instruction is limited to Another special school, under the name of reading, writing, the principles of arithmetic, and “School of Agriculture,” is established near the religious and moral training. There is in the city of Mexico, for the instruction of young men city of Mexico an association, named "Compania to be employed in managing farms and plantaLancasteriana," protected by the Government, tions. It is a new institution, founded five or which company superintends all primary schools, six years ago, under very wise regulations; and it encouraging publications, and every kind of labor is expected that it will bring forth very efficient favorable to this branch of education; and asso-scholars for the improvement of agriculture. The ciations of a similar character exist in most of the college has an extensive farm, with all the neces. States.

sary implements for rural industry belonging to it. The secondary instruction is given in colleges The public education for women is given in the supported either by particular funds or by the city of Mexico, besides the primary schools for treasuries of the States.

girls, in two principal colleges, named “Colegio In the city of Mexico there have been, since do Niñas," and "Colegio de los Vixcainos," both the time of the Spanish Government, excellent established before the independence. The educacolleges of this kind, where many of the notables tion is limited to sewing, embroidering, houseof the Church, the bar, &c., have been educated. keeping, music, and dancing, besides religious The most important are “ Saint Ildephonso Col- practices. lege," "The Lateran College," " The Conciliar Se- In most of the capitals and principal cities of minary," and "Saint Gregory College." All of the States, there are colleges for men supported these are extant but the last, which was suppressed and organized in the same way as those in the by the Government a few years ago, its funds city of Mexico. The most notable are in Puebla, being transferred to a school of agriculture. Oaxaca, Morelia, Toluca, and Guadalajara. There

In the above-mentioned colleges, young men are also institutions for girls, generally of the make their preparatory studies for the professions same kind. of lawyer and notary public, besides the special Besides these colleges, there are, in Mexico and in studies adapted to those professions.

other cities, many schools directed by private proThe preparatory studies, which continue gene- fessors and supported by the pensions paid by the rally five years, consist of Latin and Spanish scholars. In some of them, almost every branch Grammar, translation from the French and some- of knowledge is taught. times the English languages, elements of Logic and The commission of architect, and even of a topo Ethics, of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. graphic engineer, may be obtained by studying in

After these follow the particular studies of the another institution, the “Academia de San Carlos." legal or modical profession, which are thorough and It is established in an important edifice, and it has extensive. The law studies, which last four years, classes in mathematics, mechanics, stereotomy, embrace Natural and International Law, Pub- theory of constructions, besides the teaching of lic Law, Roman or Civil Law, Spanish and drawing (lineal and natural), painting, sculpture, Mexican Legislation, and Criminal or Penal Juris- and engraving, which form the main objects of tho prudence, besides the Canonical Legislation of the Academy. It has a fine gallery of pictures by the Catholic Church.

principal European painters, especially of the SpanMedical studies are pursued in the city of Mexico ish school, as Murillo, Velasquez, and Rivera, in the "School of Medicine," a college organized abounding also with religious paintings of Mexican according to the regulations and system observed ancient artists well known by amateurs. in the " Ecole de Médecine," of Paris. It has now This Academy is supported by the Government, a large and magnificent edifice, having an ex. and, even in the most critical circumstances of the cellent "amphitheatre” for the chirurgical opera- country, it has imparted the benefit of instruction tions and autopsies, and every accommodation for to many young Mexican artists. Some of those keeping models, instrumonts, &c. This school has distinguished for their talents are sent to Rome been very successful.

and are pensioned there to perfoct their artistical There is also a University, in which are conferred education. the degrees of doctor of divinity and of law; but One of the persons thus educated is the young the importance of this university is lost, since in painter Juan Cordero, whose pictures have been modern times it has no more the superintendency admired in Europe, one of them having obtained of studios, trusted now to a committee composed of a premium in an exposition at Paris. all the chief professors of the principal colleges, THE WAR, AND THE PROGRESS OF EVENTS.-Since and named “Direccion de Estudios."

the arrival of the French, Spanish, and English There is also in the capital an excellent college, expedition at Vera Cruz in December, 1861, Mexico called the "Colegio de Mineria,” established in has been engaged in a war of defence against inthe most splendid and magnificent edifice of that vasion. The alleged cause for this invasion was


XXXIX, MONACO.—Principality. The area of the Principality of Monaco is ro Charles III., who was born December 8, 1818, and duced to the territory covered by the city of Mo succeeded to the principality June 20, 1856. naco. Population, 1687. The reigning prince is

IL NASSAU.—Dachy. One of the German States. Area, 1736 square The reigning sovereign is Duke Adolphe, who miles. Population, 1861, 457,551. Government, was born July 24, 1817, and succeeded to the duke Constitutional Sovereignty. Religion, Evangelical. dom August 20, 1839. The population of WiosCapital, Wiesbaden.

baden in 1861 was 20,797.


XLI. OLDENBURG.Grand Dachy. One of the German States. Area, 2470 square The reigning sovereign is the Grand Duko Peter, miles. Population, 1861, 296,242. Government, who was born July 8, 1827, and succeeded to tho Constitutional Sovóraignty.

grand dukedom February 27, 1853.

XLII. PARAGUAY.—Dictatorsbip. Area, about 72,000 square miles. Population, FINANCES.—The receipts for 1859 amounted to 1857, 1,337,431. Government, Dictatorial. Capital, $2,438,499. Asuncion.

Public Debt.-The public debt of Paraguay in President, or Dictator, Francis Solano Lopez 1859 amounted to $900,000 in Treasury notes, se who placed himself at the head of public affairs cured by specie in possession of the Government. (1862) on the death of his father, Charles A. Lopez, according to the will of the latter... By the Con- of 15,000 men. The reserves on leave 48,000 men.

ARMY.—The standing army ordinarily consists stitution, the President may appoint a successor by will in case of his death before the expiration Navy.-Effective of the marine amounts to 15 of his term.

steamers. MINISTRY.

COMMERCE.-The value of the imports and exports for 1859 was estimated as follows:

Imports, Secretary of the Interior. Francis Sanchez. Secretary of War and of

$1,731,268; exports, $1,509,788. the Navy :: ....Col. Venancio Lopez. NAVIGATION.—The arrivals and departures for Secretary of For. Affairs.José Berges.

1859 were estimated at 412 vessels, of an aggregato Secretary of the Treasury.Mariano Gonzalez. measurement of 16,650 tons.

XLIII. PERU.-Repablic. Area, 508,986 square miles. Population, 1859, | Army and Navy..

$10,284,980 2,500,000. Government, Republican. Capital, Lima. Commerce..

7,604,402 CONSTITUTION.-The government of Peru con- Interior

2,034,959 sists of a President, elected by the people for a Justice

1,092,665 term of six years, a Senate, composed of 2 mem- Foreign Affairs.

429, 460 bers elected for each province, and a House of Representatives, chosen on the basis

of one mem-

$21,446,466 ber for each 20,000 inhabitants. In 1860, the Senate was composed of 36 members, and the House of 86 members. The Ministers, together was as follows:

Public Debt.-The public debt of Peru in 1862 with Senators chosen by the Congress, form tho Cabinet.

Foreign debt (May 30, 1862). $17,323,200
Domestic debt (Dec. 31, 1862).

6,135,661 General John Anthony Pezet.

Total debt...

$23,458,761 Vice-President

ARMY.-—The Peruvian army in 1862 was conGeneral Pedro Diez Canseco.

stituted as follows :Grand Marshal San Ramon was elected Presi


8,400 dent in April, 1862, for the term of six years;


1,200 at the same time General Pezet was elected First


1,000 Vice-President, and General Canseco Second Vice


5,408 President; but in consequence of the death of Marshal San Ramon, April 3, 1863, General Pezet suc


16,008 ceeded to the Presidency.

NAVY.-The Peruvian navy in 1862 was comMINISTRY.

posed of 6 steamers, carrying 72 guns, and having Minister of Foreign Af.

an aggregate force of 1298 horse-power; 1 armed fairs.....

..Juan Antonio Ribeyro. sailing-brig of 12 guns; 3 transports, armed in Minister of the Interior...Cypriano Zegarro. the aggregate with 10 guns; 1 steam transport Minister of Justice. .Manuel Alvarès.

of 400 horse-power; and 6 hulks,-making a total Minister of Finance and

of 17 vessels, with 84 guns. The personnel of the Commerce.. Ignacio Noboa.

nary (1861) was-officers, 127, seamen, 1070, maMinister of War and of

rines, 469, artillerists, 335; total, 1874 men. the Navy .Manuel de la Guarda. COMMERCE.—The official statement for 1860 puts

the value of the exports at $35,078,424, and the FINANCES.—The receipts and expenditures for imports at $15,428,305. The value of the imports 1861 were as follow:-Receipts, $21,245,832, of does not include goods in transit on which no which $16,921,751 were derived froin the sale of duty is charged. guano, and $3,251,765 from customs. The expend- NAVIGATION.—The merchant marine in 1861 itures were

amounted to 110 vessels, measuring 24,234 tons.

XLIV. PORTUGAL-Kingdom. Area, 34,500 square miles. Population, 1863, The reigning monarch of Portugal is Luiz I., 3,693,362, exclusive of the islands and colonies. King of Portugal, the Algarves, &c., who was Government, Constitutional Monarchy of 1826-52. born 31st of October, 1838, and succeeded to the Legislature composed of king, peers, and deputies. throne, 11th of November, 1861. Capital, Lisbon. Religion, Catholic.


Minister of Marine and Counsellor José da Silva the Colonies................

Mendez Leal............ Secretary of State for

Minister of Public

Duke de Loulé (ad inForeign Affairs, and

Works, Commerce,and

President of the Coun-

.Duke de Loulé. Minister of the Interior.Anselmo José Braam- THE CORTEZ (Legislature) consists of two Cham


bers, one of which, the Chamber of Peers, is Minister of Finance........Joaquin Thomas Lobo compired of peers, appointed by the king from


certain classes, according to the Constitution, Minister of Ecclesias

who hold office for life; and the other, the Chamtical Affairs and of

Counsellor Gaspard Pe-
reira da Silva.

ber of Deputies, is composed of members chosen Justice..

by the qualified electors of the kingdom. All Minister of War.............General Viscount de sa males who possess property to the amount of

da Bandeira.

$120, or earn that amount annually, are voters.

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The nominal force of the army is 30,000 mon; FINANCES OF PORTUGAL.-Budget of 1863–64. of whom the above mentioned 18,832 men are in


Wilreis. active service, the remainder being on furlough. Direct taxes...

4,791,854 The active army employs 2306 horses. The organ- Indirect taxes

8,075,765 ization of the general officers is as follows:-1

National domains and miscellaneous... 2,068,532 marshal-general, 10 lieutenant-generals, 15 mar- Reduction of expenses...

435,125 shals of camp, and 15 brigadier-generals.

Total receipts (milreis).............. 15,371,266 THE PORTUGUESE FLEET, 1863.


Expenditures. 1 ship-of-the-line..


On account of the public debt (in- Milreis. 1 frigate


2,675,618 3 corvettes........


On account of the public debt (ex.
1 brig..


2,783,307 6 schooners and cutters.....


Finance Department .......................... 3,720,159 11 transports.

Interior Department

1,496,754 5 steam corvettes ........................**


Department of Justice and Ecclesias-
7 steamers................
26 tical Affairs.....

497,353 War Department

3,106,965 Total, 35 vessels of all classes............... 296 Navy Department..

1,089,522 Foreign Affairs ...........

188,953 Public Works...

1,333,207 of the above, 12 are steam-vessels, carrying 94

59,514 guns; and 23 are sailing-vessels, carrying 202

Extraordinary expenses.... guns. Two steam vessels

of war were in course of construction, to carry 26 guns. The personnel

Total expenditures (milreis)....... 16,910,352 of the Portuguese navy is composed of 1 viceadmiral, 1 rear-admiral, 4 chiefs of division, 10 * A Portuguese milreis is about $1.09 of Americaptains-of-the-line, 20 captains of frigates, 30 can money; the receipts and expenditures are, captain-lieutenants, 50 lieutenants of the first therefore, about $16,764,680 and $18,612,284, roclass, 100 of the second class, and 2887 mon. spectively.

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