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Subsidies of the Colonial Administra- Florins, Screw corvettes of 14 to 16 guns .................... 10
23,871,480 Screw goelettes of 7 to 10 guns .....

29 Contribution of the Colonies to interest

Side-wheel steamers of 1 to 8 guns

12 of the Public Debt..


Total steam-vessels............................ 58 \Principal Items of Expenditures.


The above carry an aggregate of 786 guns.
Royal Household........

Executive (Council of State).


Foreign Affairs ........

526,211 Floating batteries of 26 to 32 guns
Justice .......

2,919,261 Ships-of-the-lino, 2d class, of 74 guns. Interior

17,085,090 Frigates, 1st class, of 52 guns.
Religion (Non-Catholic).

1,469,496 Frigates, 24 class, of 32 guns......

661,388 Corvettes, 1st class, of 22 guns...

8,205,721 Corvettes, 2d class, of 10 to 20 guns Public Debt

30,696,588 Brigs of 12 to 18 guns .... Finances (Office)........

6,564,857 Goelette-brigs of 6 to 10 guns .... War...

12,783,000 Schooners of 1 to 3 guns Colonies......

....................... 16,280,645 Transport corvette of 10 guns..... Contingencies...

50,000 Gunboats (33 large and 2 small)
Public Debt, 1863.-The public debt is reported Sloop (iron-clad) of 2 guns .........

Gun-goelettes of 6 guns (coast defence).
(1863) as 1,023,018,982 florins, bearing an annual in- Receiving and school ships...
terest of 29,630,588 florins. Converted into dollars,
the debt of Holland amounts to $424,552,877.

Total sailing-vessels........

87 COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.-In 1861, the total imports into Holland were of the

value of 469,169, total armament 1780 guns, of which 994 guns are

The whole number of vessels is 145, and the 478 florins; the total exports were of the value of 401,263,959 florins. The arrivals of vessels in 1861 carried by the sailing-vessels and 786 by the were 9069, aggregating 1,746,351 tons; the de- steam-vessels. The organization and personnel partures were 9131 vessels, aggregating 1,771,889 of the navy was at the date given as follow:tons. In the same year, the merchant marine of 1 admiral, 2 lieutenant-admirals, 1 vice-admiral, Holland was reported as follows:-2332 vessels, 5 rear-admirals, 20 captains of ships-of-the-line, measuring in the aggregate 540,949 tons.

40 captain-lieutenants, 309 lieutenants, 96 sur

geons, 70 pursers, and 173 cadets. On the 1st of ARMY (EUROPEAN), 1863.

January, 1863, the active force of seamen was 6197 men. The marine infantry was 45 officers, 4 cadets.

and 1962 sub-officers and men. Officers. Men.

Generals and Staff...

East India Possessions

911 43,191 West India Possessions....

85,898 Cavalry 184 4,519 Coast of Guinea.......

110,118 Engineers...

106 843

383 9,813

17,745,801 Pontonniers..

205 Company of Instruction ....

206 Population of Principal Cities, Dec. 31, 1862. Mounted Patrol...



Amsterdam 263,204 | Utrecht............. 55,541
Rotterdam........ 111,403 Leyden

37,339 Total.

1,823 59,139

The Haguo ....... 82,620 | Groningen 36,192

Division of Inhabitants according to Religions, NAVY, July 1, 1863.

1859. Steam-Vessels.

Protestants..... 1,942,387 | Lutherans......... 64,539 Screw frigates of 45 to 51 guns ....

5 Catholics....... 1,234,486 Israelites. ......... 63,890 Screw corvettes of 19 guns.........


All others, 3,826.

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XXX, ITALY.–Kingdom.
Area, 98,075 square miles. Population, 1862, Minister of Foreign Af-
21,776,953. Government, Constitutional Monarchy. fairs

.Chev. Emile Visconti-ve-
Capital, Turin. Religion, Catholic.

nosta. The reigning sovereign of Italy is King Victor Minister of Public InEmanuel II., who was born March 14, 1820, suc- struction....

...Prof. Michel Amari. ceeded his father as King of Sardinia, March 23, Minister of the Interior ...Chev. Ubaldino Peruzzi. 1819, and, by virtue of an act of the Italian Minister of Public Works. Lieut.-Gen. Count Louis Parliament, took the title of King of Italy, March

Fred. Menabrea. 17, 1861.

Minister of War...... Lieut.-Gen.Chev.AlexanMIXISTRY, Dec. 1889.

dre della Rovere. President of the Council

Minister of the Navy...... Major-Gen. Effisio Cugir and Minister of Finance, Chev. Minghetti.

Minister of Agriculture,
Minister of Grace, Justice,

Industry & Commerce. Jos. Manna,
and Ecclesiastical Af-

PARLIAMENT AND CONSTITUTION --The legislativo faire......... ..Jos. Pisanolli.

power is exorcised by a Parliament, consisting of

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the King, Senate, and Chamber of Deputies. The

Predes. Senate is composed of the Royal Princes (when Interior ..................

63,193,699 of age), and of other members (unlimited in num.

Public Works...

................ 107,174,875 ber), who are nominated by the king for life, and

War................................................. 259,508,090 who must have attained the age of forty years. Navy......

95,974,796 The members of the Chamber of Deputies are Agriculture..

7,859,863 chosen by the qualified electors of the kingdom. A deputy must be thirty years of age, must have


935,387,425 a slight

property qualification, and he cannot be declared elected unless at least one-third of the

Public Debt, Jan. 1, 1863.

Francs. electors of the district have cast their votes at the

Consolidated 5 per cent.................. 2,514,120,617 election. For the purpose of choosing deputies,


214,054,107 the whole kingdom is divided into districts.

Miscellaneous .............

374,976,255 Every male who pays taxes to the amount of $8 is a voter. The term of election is five years,


3,103,150,979 which is the duration of a Parliament, unless dis- Consolidated 5 per cent. added Jansolved by the king; and the Parliament must be assembled annually. The Chamber of Deputies

uary and March, 1863..

714,320,000 of 1862 numbered 43 members.

Total...... The Constitution of the kingdom of Italy is an

3,817,470,979 expansion of the Charter of March 4, 1848, granted

Converted into dollars, at the rate of 6 francs by King Charles Albert to his Italian subjects. to the dollar, the capital of the above debt is The executive power is exercised by the king $763,494,195. through responsible ministers, and the legislative power is vested as already stated.


Total of Officers kingdom of Sardinia there was added by the


and Men. Treaty of Villa Franca, July 11, 1859, and by the Peace of Zurich, Nov. 10, 1859, the Duchies of Parma and Modena, Lombardy, and part of the Grand Staff..


210 Papal States. On the 22d of March, 1860, the Infantry..

8,910 266,000 Grand Duchy of Tuscany was annexed to the Cavalry


22,000 kingdom, and on the 17th of December, 1860, the Artillery, with Grand Marches, Umbria, and the Two Sicilies. These Staff

1,066 30,300 States, covering an area of nearly 100,000 square Engineers, Sappers, miles and containing a population (1862) of 21,

with Grand Staff... 480

6,800 776,953, are divided into 58 provinces.

Trains, &c.......


8,500 Gendarmerie...........


19,500 FINANCES.---The following statement will ex.


175 hibit the aggregates of the financial operations Garrisons, Schools,

6,000 of the Government for the years 1861-62-63 :

Veterans, &c.......... 2,800 17,000
Receipts. Expenditures.

15,333 376,310 1861.

468,500,000 973,000,000 1862...

623,411,144 974,347,398 The army of Italy is still in progress of or1863.

614,811,652 935,387,425 ganization, and is to be filled up to the number Reduced to dollars, at the rate of 5 francs to

of 400,000 men. the dollar of American money, the operations of

NAVY (1863). 1863 show an income of about $122,962,330, and

Screw Steamers. an expenditure of $187,077,485.

Ship-of-the-line, 2d class........... 1
Principal Sources of Revenue, 1863. Frigates, 1st class....

8 400
Francs. Frigate, 2d class ....

1 36 Salt Tax.. 194,525,379 Frigates, 3d class.

3 64 Direct Taxes....

130,446,242 Frigate (armored), 1st class..... 1 36 Public Property, &c..

209,881,745 Frigates (armored), 20 class...... 2 52 Railroads..

27,168,000 Frigates (armored), 3d class...... 2 40 Telegraphs... 2,500,000 Gunboats.....

14 Post-Office.. 14,560,000 Transports ..........

11 20 Treasury.

28,719,334 From the Departments_Justice...... 3,441,600

Total screw steamers....... 43 Foreign Affairs...

360,000 Interior ...

1,802,200 Public Instruction


Side- Wheel Steamers. Agriculture 422,000 Corvettes, 1st class..

Corvettes, 2d class

614,811,652 Mail transports

10 28

12 14 Principal Items of Expenditure.


Total side-wheel steamers ...... 37 Finance Department.

351,983,090 Justice...

30,801,264 Aggregate of steam-vessels, 80; of the total Foreign Affairs..

3,388,129 force of 20,960 horse-power, and carrying 890 Public Instruction..

15,503,720 guns.

64 going.

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756 guno.

32 guns.


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134 guns.


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198 guns.


and the ralue of the exports for the same year Frigates, 1st class

72 guns.

was 319,107,448 francs. The arrivals of vessels in Frigates, 20 class.............. 1 20

1860 were 85,907 vessels, of an aggregate capacity Corvettes, 1st class

2 24

of 5,857,605 tons; and the departures for the same Corvettes, 2d class...............

40 year were 85,057 vessels, of an aggregate capacity Brigs

3 30

of 5,654,822 tons. The merchant marine of the Lighters...

5 12 kingdom in December, 1861, consisted of 16,448

vessels, of an aggregate capacity of 686,403 tons. Total sailing-vessels............. 17 Besides the foregoing, there are in course of

POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES, Jan. 1882. construction (1863) 3 first-class iron-clad frigates, Naples.... 447,065 | Catania...... 68,810 4 second-class iron-clad frigates, and one ram.

204,715 Ferrara..............

67,988 Personnel of the Navy, 1863.— The personnel of Milan

196,109 Lucca..

....... 65,435 the navy in 1863 consisted of 2 admirals, 3 vice Palermo ........... 194,463 Ravenna.......... 57,303 admirals, 10 rear-admirals, 58 captains, 507 other Genoa............ 127,986 Alexandria......... 56,545 officers, 11,193 sailors and machinists, 660 other Florence ........... 114,363 Modena ........... 55,512 workmen, and 2 regiments of marines, composed Bologna... 109,395 Pisa ....... 51,057 of 192 officers and 5688 men.

Messina............ 103,324 Reggio.............. 50,371 COMMERCE, NAVIGATION, &c., 1861.-The total Leghorn 96,471 | Parma

47,428 value of the imports in 1861 was 476,791,930 francs,

Ancona............. 46,090

XXXI. LICHTENSTEIN.—Principality, One of the States of Germany. Area, 61 square | ing sovereign is Princo John II., who was born miles. Population, 7150, Government, Constitu- October 5, 1840, and succeeded to the principality tional Monarchy. Religion, Catholic. The reign. November 12, 1848.

XXXII. LIPPE-DETMOLD.-Principality. One of the States of Germany. Area, 445 square | The reigning sovereign is Prince Leopold, who miles. Population, 1861, 108,513. Government, was born September 1, 1821, and succeeded to the Constitutional Sovereignty. Religion, Reformed. I principality January 1, 1851.

XXXIII. LIPPE-SCHAUMBURG.-Principality. One of the States of Germany. Area, 170 square | reigning sovereign is Prince Adolphe, who was miles. Population, 1861, 30,774. Government, Con- born August 1, 1817, and succeeded to the prinstitutional Sovereignty. Religion, Reformed. The cipality November 21, 1860.

XXXIV. LÜBEC.- Republic. One of the Free Cities of Germany. Area, 142 receipts and expenditures for the yoar as follow square miles. Population, 1862, 50,614. Govern- Receipts, 1,334,450 marcs; Expenditures, the saine. ment, Republican. Legislature, Senate and As- The public debt, December 31, 1861, was 12,077,550 sembly.

marcs. In January, 1863, there was added to the GOVERNMENT, 1863.

debt the sum of 8,750,000 marcs, incurred for aid Council

to the direct railroad from Lübec to Ilamburg.

The marc of Lübec is about 30 cents of American First Burgomaster..........Charles Louis Roeck.

money. Second Burgomaster .......J.J. F. Torkuhl.

COMMERCE, NAVIGATION, &c.-In 1862, the imSyndic. P. L. Elder.

ports into Lübec were as follow President of Deputation, of Works, and Schools. Senator Henry Brehmer.

Maros. Department of Finance...Senator Henry W. Hach. By sea...

19,998,918 Fire Insurance. ...Senat'r J.D. Eschenburg.

By railroad...

36,925,248 Military Affairs, Post

By wagons....

4,099,510 Office, and Railroads... Senator Dr. T. Curtius.

By river

814,856 Charitable Institutions ....Senator A. F. Siemssen. Police .... Senator J. Christian Böse.


61,818,062 Poor and Penitentiaries..Senator Henry T. Behn. The arrivals of sea-going ressels in 1862 were Senators belonging to the Council, but not hold- 1251, of the capacity of 176,874 tons. Of these,

857 were steamery. ing executive office, Louis Muller, George Christian vessels, of the capacity of 181,254 tony. The mer

The departures were 1270 Tegtmeyer, and Henry Charles Dittmer.

Legisl uture.-The Sonate is composed of 14 Se- chant marine in 1862 consisted of 55 vessels, meanators, 6 of whom must be learned in the law, 2 suring in all 12,710 tons, of which 14 were steamers. others must be of the educated classes, 5 merchants, and 1 taken at large. The Assembly consists of 120

POPULATION, 1862. members. The President of the Assembly to Lübec and suburbs........

31,898 July, 1805, is Hermann Henry Mecths. The Vice- Rural districts.

12,459 Presidents are Dr. Holtermann and Dr. Charles Bergedorf (in Lübec)...

6,257 Müller. FINANCES, 1863.-The budget of 1863 gives the Total..


XXXV. LIBERIA. - Republic. Area, 23,859 square miles. Population (1863), dred miles of the West African coast, with an $2.000 and 6000 16.000 were bordo in the United average depth interiorwards of twenty miles,

In 1839, the by Government, Republican. Capital, Monrovia. American benevolence on the shores of Western

Africa were united as a commonwealth. In PRESIDENT-DANIEL BASHIELL WARNER (1864–66). 1847,

this gave place, at the desire of the settlers :-(The first President was Joseph Jenkins Roberts; and with the consent of the Colonization Society, he was succeeded by Stephen Allen Benson,-each the present Republic of Liberia. of whom served four terms of two years each. POPULATION, &o.- 16,000 persons of color have Daniel Bashiell Warner, the third President of been settled in Liberia by the Colonization SoLiberia, entered upon his duties on the first Mon- ciety. The great majority of these were born in day in January, 1861.)

the United States. Besides these, about 6000 FORM OF GOVERNMENT, &c.—The form of govern- | native Africans, rescued from slave-ships by Amement in Liberia is Republican,-having an elected rican naval vessels, have been provided with President, and two Houses (Senate and House of hoines in the Republic. An aboriginal populaRepresentatives) of the Legislature. The Vice- tion, estimated at 400,000, reside upon the soil, President and President are elected for two years, and are amenable to the laws of Liberia. Many the House of Representatives for two years, and of the natives have become useful citizens, serve the Senate for four years. There are 13 members on the jury, act as magistrates, and one of them of the Lower House, and 8 of the Upper House, was elected and creditably served as a member each county sending 2 members to the Senate. of the Liberian House of Representatives. Hereafter, as the population augments, each EDUCATION.--A system of common-school in10,000 persons will be entitled to an additional struction is provided by the Liberian Governrepresentative. The Vice-President must be ment; and several institutions of a more adthirty-five years of age, and have real property vanced character are supported by the benevoof the value of 3000; and, in case of the absence lence of the American people. A college-building, or death of the President, he serves as President. erected at a cost of $20,000, is open at Monrovia, He is also President of the Senate, which, in addi- having a faculty of 3 (colored) professors, and tion to being one of the branches of the Legisla- about 25 students. ture, is a Council for the President of the Re- CLIMATE, SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c.-From an adpublic, he being required to submit treaties for dress to the colored people of Pennsylvania, by ratification and appointments to public office for Edward 8. Morris, Esq., of Philadelphia, -a gentleconfirmation. The President must be thirty-five man feeling a deep interest in the prosperity of years of age, and have property of the value of the Republic of Liberia and well informed con$600. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme cerning its affairs,—we extract the following Court, and such subordinate courts as the Legis- passages relating to its climate, soil, produclature may from time to time establish.

tions, &c. :For political and judicial purposes, the Republic “On Christmas afternoon, 1862, our good ship is divided into counties, which are further sub-anchored of Monrovia. The appearance of the divided into townships. The counties are four in surrounding country from the anchorage is pumber,--Mont Grand Bassa, Sinoe, and superb, eing adorned with all the luxuriant Maryland. The townships are commonly about vegetation of that sunny clime, although it eight miles in extent. Each town is a corpora- wanted many of those improvements which the tion, its affairs being managed by officers chosen hand of man can bestow in more favorable cirby the inhabitants. Courts of monthly and quar. cumstances. The sloping banks, carpeted with ter sessions are held in each county. The civil the richest tropical verdure, the city on the hill, business of the county is administered by the the fort and its flag, the light-house, store-houses, four Superintendents appointed by the President &c., formed a scene which excited admiration. with the advice and consent of the Senate. The “The climate of Liberia varies but little in temcounty system of government is capable of indeperature throughout the year. Properly speakfinite extension over new districts of territory that ing, there are but two seasons,-spring and summay be acquired, giving all the advantages which mer. Vegetation is not interrupted. While some local self-government affords to the inhabitants. products of the earth are in blossom, others are

The government of Liberia is entirely in the coming to maturity. The two seasons which hands of colored men, and is successfully main- divide the year are called the wet and the dry; tained. Its independence has been formally ac- the former extends from the beginning of June knowledged by thirteen of the Powers of Europe to the end of October. During the wet season the and America, England and France being among rains are by no means incessant, and in the dry the former, and the Government of the United season there are some refreshing showers. The States among the latter. Treaties of amity, com- temperature in the warmest weather seldom exmerce, and navigation have been concluded be ceeds 90° Fahrenheit, and it has not often been tween it and most of the nations referred to known to fall below 680, above, besides several others.

“The soil of Liberia is in all respects excellent: HISTORICAL NOTICE, PROGRESS, &c.—On the 15th it is so exceedingly fertile that many articles *of December, 1821, Commodore Robert F. Stock- which require so much labor in other countries ton, U.S.N., and Dr. Eli Ayres, acting for the Ame- are here produced spontaneously, or with very rican Colonization Society,—which was formed little effort on the part of the husbandman. The in Washington City on the night of the 20th of vegetable productions of the country are of count

December, 1816,-purchased Cape Mesurado, upon less variety, some of them very valuable. The which is now situated Monrovia, the capital of forests produce mahogany, hickory, teak, roseLiberia. There was subsoquently added six hun- wood, boxwood, and many other kinds of timber

suitable for carpenters, ship-builders, and cabinet | returned from a visit to the promising young Re makers; also camwood and other dye-woods of public of Liberia, I take the liberty of forwarding great value. The acacia, which produces the for your disposal the following sketch of one who gum-arabic of commerce, is found in some parts has contributed much to the moral and physical of the interior; likewise the copal, from which advancement of Liberia. the celebrated varnish is extracted. There are " Daniel B. Warner, the third President of that several varieties of the palm-tree, of which the Republic, was inaugurated on the 1st of this nut-bearing palm is the most valuable, as it pro- month. Ho is an able statesman, a republican duces the palm-oil of commerce. The returns of of the right stamp, a good writer, a patriotic imports from Western Africa by England during citizen, and, 1 may add, a working-man in its 1860 gave the value of palm-oil as reaching broadest signification. £1,684,632,_equal to $8,000,000. There are also " Mr. Warner is of unmixed African blood. His medicinal plants in great variety. Indian corn personal appearance

is manly, and calculated to and rico (the latter of a superior quality) are command respect. His moril traits are excele produced in great abundance; also yams, sweet lent, and his intellectual qualities are of a high potatoes, cassada (which in flavor resembles the order. He is sagacious, persevering, diligent in Irish potato), and many other vegetables suitable every pursuit, and strictly correct in all his dealfor table use. All the common garden-vegetables ings. He possesses much firm pess of character, of America may be cultivated in Liberia. Pigs though his manners are agrecable and his dispoand goats, and the various kinds of domestic sition amialle. Few men in any country can fowls, thrive well. Wheat, barley, and oats may compare with Mr. Warner with regard to the be produced in somo localities. The fruits are variety of services he has rendered to the public. abundant and of great variety, many of them ex

He has done active duty in the army and navy, tremely delicious. Among them are the mango, in the counting-house and in the Cabinet. He orange, lemon, lime, guava, tamarind, cocoanut, has also been an efficient local preacher in the banana, rose-apple, and African peach. The cul- Methodist Church. In short, he is what Dr. tivation of sugar is also very promising, and is Franklin considered the most honorable of human already carried on to a considerable extent. beings,-'a doer of good to his fellow-men. The

"But, in conformity with the opinion which I writer of this sketch, while lately on a visit to have often expressed here and in Africa, the cul- | Liberia, became personally acquainted with Mr. tivation of coifce holds out the strongest induce- Warner: he has met with few men more deserving ments to agriculturists. Since the production of of universal esteem. The high estimation he obthis article in Brazil has greatly decreased, owing twins among his countrymen is sufficiently proved to local causes, the supply in all parts of the by his elevation to the chief magistracy. The world has fallon far short of the demand; and, zeal which Mr. Warner has always displayed in as a consequence, prices have considerably adó the public service gives us an assurance that the Vanced. Cotive is a native of Africa, and the affairs of the nation will continue to flourish coffce-1 lantations of the world owe their origin under his auspices. His policy is strictly industo plants obtained from that continent. There is trial, and will no doubt be used to develop the now much of coffec-growing in Liberia and its agricultural and manufacturing resources of the neighborhoc 1, and the quality of Liberia coffee country. is deemed to be equal if not superior to that of “What an example does the record of Mr. any other, not excepting the celebrated Mocha. Warner offer to the industrious and enterprising Iinmense fortunes will be made by the culti- young men of Liberia! It exemplifies the reality vators of this article, all circumstances being of the fact that the highest offices of the Governnow favorable for the successful prosecution of ment stand open for the most worthy, however this branch of industry. There is nothing to humble his origin or however straitened his prevent Liberia from becoming the principal worldly circumstances. His record also addresses coffee emporium of the world.

itself to the fathers of worthy and intelligent “Mineral wealth of the richest qualities youth in America. I respectfully invite them to abounds."

glance at that chair of state, by obtaining which COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. - The Liberians their sons would become historical characters. have built and manned 30 coast traders, and they And I am free to add that the chief magistracy of have a number of large vessels engaged in com- Liberia is the highest position a colored man can merce with England and the United States. The reach in this life; for on him rest the destinies principal articles of export are coffee, sugar, of one hundred millions of human beings. Africa palm-oil, and camwood.

will be civilized and Christianized through and FINANCES.—The revenue of the Republic in by Liberia, whose President will be both the ful1861 was $149,550, and the expenditures for the crum and the lever to assist in the mighty work. same year were $142,831.

"Our philanthropic and first American minister THE NEW PRESIDENT OF LIBERIA-Mr. E. S. to the Republic of Liberia (Hon. Abraham HanMorris contributes the following letter, containson) has thus written to Mr. Morris :ing a personal sketch of the recently-inaugurated **Allow me to record my honest and deep conthird President of this interesting Republic:- viction that Liberia is destined to be the free and “OFFICE, 916 ARCH STREET, PHILADELPHIA,

happy home of millions of the descendants of

Africa, who shall return hither from the home of January 8, 1864.

bondage, and live in the full enjoyment of the "GEORGE W. CHILDS, Esq., Publisher, &c.

unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit “Knowing you are abont issuing The National of happiness. Almanac and Annual Record,' and as I have lately “Respectfully, EDWARD S. MORRIS."

* In 1862, tho imports of palm-oil from West Africa into the United Kingdom were of the value of £1,724,310.

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