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XIX. FRANKFORT.-Republic. One of the Freo Cities of Germany. Area, 39 square miles. Population (1861), 87,518. Government,

Republican Legislature, Senate and Assembly.

GOVERNMENT, December, 1863. First Burgomaster ...........................................

..Samuel Theophilus Muller. Second Burgomaster.

...Joseph Anthony W. Forsboom.

John George Neubourg.
Syndics

Saniyel Theophilus Muller.
Philip Fred. Gwinner.

Charles Francis de Schweitzer.
President of the Legislative Assembly.

... Sigismund Fred. Muller. Vice-President of the Legislative Assembly............. Dr. George Julius Jung.

.George Adolph H. Hauck.
Dean of Permanent Representation of the City......... Charles Angustus Meyer.
Commander of the Federal Contingent......... Lieutenant-Colonel F. L. P. Hemmerich.

LEGISLATURE.—The Senate is composed of 4 Syn- | the expenditures et 2,213,103 florins. The public dics and 21 members, chosen for life. The two debt in the same year was 8,308,300 florins. There Burgomasters are the presiding officers. The was, besides, a railroad debt amounting to 7,242,700 Legislative Assembly consists of 57 members, florins. This florin is about 40 cents of American chosen by the burghers of the city, of 20 perma- money. Dent representatives of the city, and 11 members COMMERCE, NAVIGATION, &C.-The movement of elected from among the rural inhabitants. the commerce of Frankfort for the year 1861, is exo

FINANCES (1863). —The budget for 1863 estimates pressed in the following table, where the weight is the receipts for the year at 3,626,684 florins; and given in quintals or cwts. of about 112 pounds :

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STATES OF THE GERMANIC CONFEDERATION. Under this title we present a general view of the a canfederation (Deutsche Bund) of independent States embraced in the Germanic Confederation; States under an Act of Constitution signed at a separate view of each of those States being pre- Vienna June 8, 1815. According to the first artisented in its alphabetical order.

cle of that Constitution, the object of the ConThe TREATY OF VIENNA (1815) divided Germany federation is "the preservation of the internal into 39 separate sovereignties, but that number and external security of Germany and the inde has been reduced to 34. The sovereignties which pendence and inviolability of the several German are no longer found on the rolls of the German States.” The second article concedes equality of States are (1) the Principality of Gotha, which rights and privileges to the members of the Conlapsed in 1826, the territory being divided between federation, but the influence and votes of the Cobourg and Meiningen; (2) the Duchy of Anhalt- States in the Diet or Assembly are arranged and Cöthen, which larsed in 1847, the territory being established according to the relative importance attached to Anhalt-Dessau; (3 and 4) the Princi- of the States, as will appear in a subsequent palities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohen- table. The organ and representative of the Conzollern - Sigmaringen, which were annexed to federation is à Diet of Plenipotentiaries, which Prussia in 1849, upon the abdication of the reign- sits in permanence in the city of Frankfort-oning princes; and (5) the Duchy of Anhalt-Bern- the-Main. This body acts in one of two forms,berg, which lapsed in 1863, upon the death of the either as a General Assembly, or plenum, in which last duke, the territory being now annexed to the States have votes according to their importAnhalt-Dessau-Cothen, the whole composing the ance, but every State casting at least one vote; or Duchy of Anhalt.

as the Ordinary Assembly or Committee of the The remainiug 34 sovereignties constitute what Confederation, in whicli 17 votes are divided is known as the German Empire, being united in / among the 34 members according to a scule in the table already referred to. In all cases where Committee of Confederation, may act either in a changes in the organic laws of the Confederation | legislative or executive capacity. are to be considered or made, or when a new The following are the members of the Confede member is to be admitted into the Diet, or when ration as now constituted, with their votes in the peace or war is to be declared, the proceedings General Assembly, and their votes in Committee must be in plenum, or in General Assembly of Confederation. By the Fifth Article of the But in other cases the Ordinary Assembly, or Act of June 8, 1815, Austria is invested with the

right of presiding in the Diet.

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The Committee of Confederation has not exerted by the representative bodies of the several States; much influence of late years. It was, conse- (1) an Assembly of the Princes and of the Chief quently, proposed in 1863 popularize the Ger- Magistrates of the Free Cities; (5) a Federal Triman representative system. On the 16th of August, bunal. the sovereign German Princes and the Burgomas. In the Assembly of Delegates, the votes of the ters of the Free Cities assembled at Frankfort, when several States were to be as follow: Austria and a plan of reform was laid before the Assembly by Prussia, 30 each; Bavaria, 10; Saxony, Hanover, the Emperor of Austria. This plan proposes for and Würtemberg, each 6; Baden, 5; Electoral and the legislative and administrative affairs of the Grand Ducal Hesse, each 4; Holstein, LuxemConfederation: (1) A Directory consisting of the burg, Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Nassan, and Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Prussia and Weimar, each 2; Meiningen, Coburg, Altenburg, Bavaria, and two other princes taken from the Oldenburg, Anhalt, the two Schwarzburgs, Walminor States; (2) a Federal Council consisting of deck, Lippe, Lichtenstein, Frankfort, Bremen, Commissioners casting 11 votes for the whole Con- Hamburg, and Lübeck, each 1,-making in all federation, subject to the rovision of the Federal 128 votes. No definitive action has been arrived Assembly; (3) an Assembly of Delegates elected | at on these propositions.

THE ARM OF THE COXFEDERATION. By the Act of the Congress of Vienna of June, 301,637 men, rank and file. Various changes were 1815, the contribution of the various States to the introduced into this military organization subarmy of the Germanic Confederation was fixed at sequently; and by a vote of the Diet of March 10, one per cent. of the population, that is, the popula- 1853, the total strength of the army was largely tion possessed at that particular period, without increased. The actual strength of the army of the taking into account a further increase or decrease Confederation consists of 391,634 infantry, 60,758 of numbers. One-seventh of this army was to con cavalry, and 50.680 artillery, divided into ten corps sist of cavalry; and ten pieces of artillery, with a d'armée, and a number of troops of reserve, -total, proportionate number of artillerists, were to be 503,072 men. The distribution is as follows among furnished with every 1000 men. On this basis, the thirty-four States:the army u: the Confederation consisted of

1

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I., II., III.
IV., V., VI.
VII.
IX. 1

X. 1
VIII. 1
VIII. 2

IX. 2
VIII. 3

X. 2
IX. 2
X. 1
X. 2
IX. 2

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Austria..
Prussia.....
Bavaria
Saxony....
Hanover
Würtemberg
Baden...
Hesse-Cassel
Hesse-Darmstadt.
Holstein
Luxemburg
Brunswick
Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Nassau...
Saxe-Weimar..
Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Altenburg...
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Oldenburg......
Anhalt.
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt...
Lichtenstein.
Waldeck...
Reuss-Schleiz}
Schaumburg-Lippe...
Lippe-Detmold..
Hesse-Homburg
Lübeck..
Frankfort
Bremen..
Hamburg.

122,072 103,17+ 44,925 15,767 16,931 17,472 12,165 7,455 8,071 4,559 1,739 2,755 4,693 5,490 3,316 1,899 1,621 1,841

997
2,910
2,108

744
890

91
857
1,229

347 1,190 330

536 1,110

638 1,742

301 527 604 34 19 17 19 200 370 20

X. 2
X. 2

158,037 133,769 59,334 20,000 21,757 23,259 16,667

9,466 10,325 6,000 2,706 3,493 5,967 6,109 3,350 1,918 1,638 1,860 1,197 3,740 2,128

751 899

91 868 1,241

350 1,202 333

679 1,119

748 2,163

460

12

3 12

3 58

X. 2

85

X. 2
X. 2

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Five German fortresses-namely, Mayence, Lux: | Luxemburg, by Prussians chiefly; Landau, by Baemburg, Landau, Rastatt, and Ulm-are garrisoned varian troops; Rastatt, by troops of Baden and by Federal troops. The strongest and most im- Prussia; and Ulm, by troops of Würtemberg, Baportant of these fortresses, Mnycnce, is garrisoned varia, and Austria. by Austrians and Prussians, in qual moieties;

The ZOLLVEREIN (COMMERCIAL Union). Within the Confederation (but not embracing | 1833, May 30, Saxony. all of the German States) is a Commercial Union, May 11, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Altenburg, and called the Zollverein. Formerly each of the

the two Schwarzburgs. States had its own separate system of custom- 1835, Feb. 20, Hesse-IIomburg. houses, tariffs, moneys, weights, and measures, May 12, Baden. the existence of which was a serious embarrass- Dec. 10, Nassau. ment to commerce. It is the object of the Zoll. 1836, Jan. 25, Frankfort. verein to consolidate all of these under one 1811, Oct. 18, Lippe-Detmold. general system. The first measures towards the

19, Brunswick. formation of the Commercial Union were pro- 1847, April 2, Luxemburg. posed by Prussia in 1828, and since then the pro- 1851, Sept. 7, Hanover, Oldenburg, and Schaum. gress of the Zollverein is shown in the following

burg Lippe. statement :

The treaties which bind these States into the 1828, Feb. 14, Union of Prussia with IIesse-Darm-Zollverein are not of a permanent nature, but stadt.

open to dissolution at stated terms. July 17, Adherence of Anhalt-Dessau.

The total revenue of the Zollverein in 1859 was 1829, July 3, Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Coburg. 23,757,542 thalers. The thaler is about 73 cents Gotha.

of American money. 1831, April 16, Waldeck.

(For what concerns each of the individual States Aug. 25, Hesse-Cassel.

in the Germanic Confederation, 800 those States 1833, Mar. 22, Bavaria and Würtemborg.

in their alphabetical order.)

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XXI, GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
Government, Constitutional Monarchy. Parliament, of Queen, Lords, and Commons. Area of United
Kingdom, 112,406 square miles. Population, 1861, 29,334,788. Capital, London.

Rt. Hon. Sir Chas. Wood, Bt. India.
SOVEREIGN.

Duke of Somerset............. First Lord of the AdALEXANDRINA VICTORIA, Queen of Great Britain

miralty. and Ireland; born May 24, 1819, succeeded Wil- Rt. Hon. T. M. Gibson....... President of the Board liam IV., June 20, 1837; crowned June 28, 1838;

of Trade. married Feb. 10, 1840, to her cousin H.R.H. Prince Lord Stanley of Alaerley. ... Postmaster-General. Albert of Saxe-Coburg, who deceased on the 14th Rt. Hon. Edw. Cardwell .....Chancellor of the Duchy Dec. 1861.

of Lancaster.

Rt. Hon. C. Pelham Villiers.. President of the Poor Royal Family; CHILDREN OF THE QUEEN.

Law Board. 1. Victoria Adelaide Maria Louisa, Princess

[The foregoing form the Cabinet.) Royal; born Nov. 21, 1840; married Jan. 25, 1858, Sir Robert Peel .......... ..Chief Secretary for Ireto Frederick William, Prince of Prussia.

land. 2. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Duke of

A. Fonblanque............... Director of Statistical Saxony, Cornwall and Rothesay, Earl of Dublin, Baron Renfrew; born Nov.9,1811; married March

Department. 10, 1863, Alexandra of Denmark, who was born

MILITARY EXECUTIVE. Dec. 1, 181.

Duke of Cambridge..........General Commanding3. Alice Maud Mary; born April 25, 1843; mar

in-Chief. ried July 1, 1862, to Prince Louis of Hesse.

Major-Gen.Sir J.G.Scarlett.. Adjutant-General. 4. Alfred Ernest Albert; born Aug. 6, 1844. 5. Helena Augusta Victoria; born May 20, 1846. Major Gen. Sir R. Airey...... Quartermaster-Gener'l.

..Paymaster-General. 6. Louisa Carolina Alberta; born March 18, 1848. Right Hon. W. Hutt..... 7. Arthur William Patrick Albert; born May 1,

ADMIRALTY. 1850.

Duke of Somerset, 8. Leopold George Duncan Albert; born April Vice-Admiral Sir F. W. Grey, 7, 1853.

Rear-Admiral Charles Eden, Lords Commis9. Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore; born April Tear-Admiral Charles Frederick, sioners. 14, 1857.

Capt. Hon. J. R. Drummond, ROYAL FAMILY, OTHER THAN THE QUEEN'S CHILDREN.

James Stanfield, Esq., M.P.,

Rear-Admiral Lord Clarence Edward Paget... First Duke of Cambridge, George Frederick William

Secretary, Charles, cousin to the Queen; born March 26,1819.

LAW OFFICERS OF THE CROWN.
Duchess of Cambridge, Augusta Wilhelmina
Louisa of Hesse, aunt to the queen by marriage, Sir Roundell Palmer .... Attorney-General.
in 1818, with the late Duke of Cambridge; born Robert Porrett Collier... Solicitor-General.
July 25, 1795.

J. Manning....

Queen's Sergeant. King of Hanover, George Frederick, Duke of Sir T. R. Ph imore...... Queen's Advocate-General. Cumberland, cousin to the queen; born May 27,

JUDICIARY. 1819. Princess Augusta Caroline Charlotte Elizabeth

Court of Queen's Bench. Mary Sophia Louisa, cousin to the queen, and Sir A. J.-E. Cockburn-Lord Chief Justice. daughter of the late Duke of Cambridge; born Sirs W. Wightman, C. Crompton, C. Blackburn, July 19, 18:22

and J. Mellor-Judges. Princess Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth, Ilon. H. E. Campbell Associate to Lord Chiefcousin to the queen, and daughter of the late Duke Justice. of Cambridge; born Nov. 27, 1833.

Court of Common Pleas. HER MAJESTY'S CHIEF OFFICERS OF STATE.

Sir W. Erle-Lord Chief Justice.

Sirs E. V. Williams, J. Š. Willes, J. B. Byles, and Viscount Palmerston......... First Lord of Treasury. H. S. Keating Judges. Lord Westbury: ........ Lord High Chancellor. T. W. Erle

Associate to Lord Chief-Justice. Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone... Chancellor of the E.:chequer.

Court of Etchequer. Earl Granville, K.G..........Lord President of the Sir F. Pollock-Loril Chief Baron.

Council.

Sirs S. Martin, G. W. Bramwell, and W. F. ChanDuke of Argyll.. Lord Priry Seal.

nell-Barons, Rt. Hon. Sir G. Gray, Bt... Home Department. H. Pollock-Associate to Lord Chief Justice. Earl Russell....

...Foreign Affairs. Duke of Newcastle............ Colonies.

Admiralty Court. Earl De Grey and Ripon.... War.

Right Hon. S. Lushington Judge.

The PARLIAMENT of Great Britain is composed as follows :-viz., A House of Lords, containing 465 Peers, who sit in the House by hereditary right, of whom 421 are English and Welsh, 28 Irish, and 16 Scotch; and a House of Commons, of 658 members, chosen by the qualified electors of the United Kingdom. Of the members of the Commons, 500 are English and Welsh, 105 Irish, and 53 Scotch.

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BRITISH FINANCES FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st 1862; Births, Deaths, and Marriages-England,

MARCH, 1863.
Wales, and Scotland.

Rerenue.
From customs......

£24,034,000 Births. Deaths.

Marri

excise .......................... 17,155,000 ages. stamps....

8,994,000 taxes...

3,150,000 England and Wales.. 711,691 436,514 165,222 property and income tax.......... 10,567,000 Scotland..... 107,138 67,159 20,544 post-office..

3,650,000 crown lands..

300,000

sale of old naval and military PRIMARY SCHOOL EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AT

stores, &c......

720,506

# Miscellaneous. THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR 1862.

2,038,055 Number of primary schools, 7569; aggregate of

Total....

£70,603,661 children in attendance, 964,849; aggregate expen. diture for the above for salaries, books, build- For interest and management of pub

Expenditures. ings, and all expenditures, £774,743.

lic debt....

£26,231,657

" civil list and civil charges........... 10,881,512 PAUPERISM IN ENGLAND, WALES, SCOTLAND, AND

17,314,790

navy IRELAND IN THE YEARS 1851, 1861, AND 1862-3.

11,370,588

" collection of revenue................ 4,553,461 England &Wales. Scotland. Ireland.

Total expenditures...... £70,352,008

BRITISH NATIONAL DEBT 31st MARCH, 1863. Jan. 1851. 860,893 76,906 209,187 Funded debt....

£783,306,739 1861. 890,423 78,433 50,683

Unfunded debt...........

16,495,400 1863. 1,142,624 *78,724 65,847

Total debt...... £799,802,139 BRITISH IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. Table showing the Total Amounts of Imports and Exports into and from the United Kingdom for size

years prior to 1863; and also the Gold and Silver Bullion and Specie exported in the same years.

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• 14 May, 1862. The enumeration in Scotland is made on 14th May in each year.

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