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XV. COLOMBIA (United States of).- Republic Area, 521,948 square miles. Population (1851), | upon him, 20th of September, 1861, and the con2,223,837. Government, Republican. Capital (at vention appointed a provisional Government of present), Bogota.

five ministers, pending the consideration of a new HISTORICAL NOTICE.—This republic, formerly

Constitution. The new Constitution was estaNew Grenada, embraces the States of Panama,

blished and put into operation in May, 1863. Bolivar, Magdalena, Santander, Antioquia, Boy Under this charter the several States administer aca, Cundinamarca, Tolima, Cauca, and the Federal their own local affairs, independent of the Federal District of Bogota. The title of United States Government, ---the President and the Congress of Colombia was substituted for that or United being elected by the States. The public journals States of New Grenada, on the 20th of September, report that, at an election held in Dec. 1863, six of 1861, by a conyention of the Liberals sitting at the new States voted for Murillo for President.

PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT AND MINISTRY. stitution. This was for a period resisted in the northern portions of the States, by General Canal General Thomas Cyprien de Mosquera. and his adherents of the Conservative party. On

MINISTRY. the 29th of September, 1862, a convention was concluded between General Mosquera and General

Minister of the Interior... Eustorge Salgar. Canal, by which the party of the latter acceded Minister of Finance ....... Antony Gonzalez Carazo. to the Government of the United States of Co- Minister of the Treasury..F. Largacha. lombia; and the civil war then terminated. On

Minister of Foreign Afthe 4th of September, 1863, the Deputies of the fairs

.Manuel J. Quijana. States reassembled in convention at Rio Negro Minister of War & Navy..Santos Acosta. in the State of Antioquia. General Mosquera The population of the city of Bogota in 1851 then resigned the dictatorial power conferred was 43,000.

XVI. DENMARK.-Kingdom. Area, 21,856 square miles. Population, includ. FINANCES FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1863. ing the Duchies, 1860, 2,605,021. Government, Limited Monarchy, under Constitution of 1855. Legislature, composed of Council of the Empire.

Receipts. Expenditures. Capital, Copenhagen. Religion, Lutheran. The reigning sovereign of Denmark is Chris

For the whole Mon- Rix-dollars. Rix-dollars. tian IX., who was born April 8, 1818, and succeeded to the throne Nov. 16, 1863, upon the death


12,341,230 15,123,748

For Denmark and of King Frederick VII., Nov. 15, 1863.


39,184 53,257

For Denmark alone.. 11,294,378 7,593,113 MINISTRY.

For Schleswig

1,531,979 1,288,053 For Holstein ...

1,867,119 1,662,789 President of Council and Minister of Foreign Af.

Total............ 27,073,890 25,720,960 fairs

..Charles Christian Hall.
Minister of Marine......... Rear-Admiral Steen de

Minister of War... .Colonel N. Lundbye.

Public Debt, 31st March, 1861.--According to the Minister of the Duchy of

official statements, the public debt of the wholo Schleswig... .. Frederick Herman Wolf- monarchy of Denmark was, on the 31st of March, hagen.

1861, 100,217,574 rix-dollars, or about $55, 119,666 Minister of Public Wort

of the money of the United States. ship and Public Instruction

Detlev Gotthard Monrad. COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.—The imports and Minister of Justice......... Andrew Lawrence Casse. exports of the kingdom in 1861 were as follows Minister of Finance........Charles Emilius Fenger. Minister of the Interior... Pierre Martin Orla Leh

Imports. Exports. mann. Secretary of State........... Christian Frederick J. H. Liebe.

Rix-dollars. Rix-dollars.

Kingdom of Denmark 39,220,453 19,186,125 COUNCIL OF THE EMPIRE.—This body is com- Duchy of Schleswig... 10,135,830 4,862, 110 posed of 60 members for Denmark and Schleswig, Duchy of Holstein..... 16,677,443 15,056,595 of whom 15 are appointed by the king, 23 by the Representative Assemblies, and the others (22) by Total...... 66,033,726 39,104,830 direct vote.

* The Danish rix-dollar equals about 55 American cents.



The effective of the merchant marine in Dec. Division of Schleswig by Languages.-A census 1861, was 5679 vessels, measuring 123,057 lasts, or of this Duchy by languages, made in 1860, showed about 246,114 tons of American measurement. that 146,500 of the inhabitants spoke Low Dutch,

ARMY OF THE DANISH MONARCHY.-The military 135,000 spoke Danish, 85,000 spoke Danish and forces of Denmark consist of the men above the Dutch, and 33,000 the language of Friesland. age of 22, who are liable for 8 years, 4 years of which they are liable only in the reserve. The

Population of the Principal Cities. term of active service is quite short. The liability Copenhagen.....

155,143 to serve in the arrière-ban continues until the Altona (Holstein).

45,624 age of 45.

Kiel (Holstein)...

17,541 THE NAVY (1862) Steam-Vessels.

No. THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN QUESTION.-(Denmark Ship-of-the-line of 64 guns ....

1 is now (Feb. 1864) apparently on the brink of a Frigates of 34 to 42 guns...

4 war with the Germanic Confederation on account Frigate (building) of 56 guns ................

1 of complications growing out of the SchleswigCorvettes of 12 to 16 guns

Holstein question. Schleswig and Holstein aro Corvette (plated) of 15 guns......

1 two duchies independent of the Danish monarchy, Schooners (plated) of 3 guns

2 but the dukes of which happen to be at the same Battery (turreted iron-clad)..

1 time kings of Denmark. The dukedoms, however, Schooners of 3 guns........

2 descend by a different law of succession from that Gunboats of 2 guns..

7 which regulates the succession to the monarchy, Steamers of 4 to 5 guns...

8 —the crown of Denmark being heritable by fe

males, and the sovereignty of the duchies only Total steamers (carrying in all 402 guns) 30 by males. This being the case, and Frederick VII,

(the predecessor of the present King of Denmark) Sailing-Vessels.

No. having no male heir, the duchies were likely to Ships-of-the-line of 84 guns........


be separated entirely from Denmark at his death. Frigates of 46 to 48 guns ....

4 To guard against future trouble apprehended on Corvettes of 14 to 20 guns ........

2 this account, and to preserve the integrity of the Brigs of 16 guns....

2 Danish monarchy, a Congress of European Powers, Schooner of 1 gun..........

1 consisting of Austria, Denmark, England, France, Cutter of 6 howitzers..

1 Norway, Prussia, and Sweden, assembled in Lon.

don in 1852, and on the 8th of May of that year Total sailing-vessels (carrying in all 427 guns) 12 settled the succession to both Denmark and the Vessels propelled by Oars.

duchies upon Prince Christian of Schleswig-Hol.

stein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg and his heirs, by Gunboats and Bomb-boats, 50, carrying 100 guns. which the heirs of an elder branch (Augusten

Aggregate of all classes, 92 vessels, carrying in burg) were excluded from the succession to the all 929 guns.

duchies. At the death of the late King of DenPOPULATION OF DENMARK, THE DUCHIES, AND Co- mark. (Frederick VII.), Nov. 15, 1863, Prince

Christian succeeded to the crown of Denmark LONIES, 1860. Denmark ....


and to the duchies under the London settlement; Schleswig..


but at the same time Prince Frederick, of AugusHolstein

544,419 tenburg, claimed to succeed to the duchies on the Lauenburg.


ground that the London Congress of European

Powers could neither set aside his rights, nor the Total of Denmark and Duchies... 2,605,024 rights of the people of Schleswig and Holstein.

The duchies being mainly German in origin, lanColonies.

guage, and feeling, the greater part of the German Faroe Isles (1855).

8,651 peoplo sido with Prince Frederick, and the GerIceland (1855)

64,603 man Diet have (January, 1864) marched an army Greenland (1855).

9,892 into the duchies to prevent their incorporation St. Croix...

22,862 into the Kingdom of Denmark. Austria and St. Thomas

12,560 Prussia, acting independently of the Diet, have St. John....

1,715 marched armies there also to prevent hostilities

if possible. Feb. 4, 1864, hostilities commenced Total

2,725,307 | at Missunde.]

XVII. EQUADOR.-Republic. Aroa, 287,638 square miles. Population (1858). FINANCES.-The receipts in 1858 amounted to 1,040,371, of whom 600,000 were whites, descend- $991,750, and tho expenditures to $1,000,000. ants of Europeans. Government, Republican. Ca- Public Debt.-The public debt in 1865 amounted pital, Quito.

to $17,225,739. President....

Gabriel Garcia Moreno, COMMERCE.-The value of the imports in 1861 (1861).

amounted to $4,915,288, and the value of the exVice-President. .Mariano Cueva.

ports to $2,705,780. Minister of Foreign Af.

NAVIGATION.-The arrivals and departures at fairs.....

. Raphael Carvajal. Guayaquil for 1861 were arrivals, 273 vessels, Minister of Finance ........ Vacant.

measuring 61,360 tons; and departures, 265 vegMinister of War and In

sels, measuring 57.616 tons. terior Daniel Salvador.

Population of the city of Quito (1858), 76,000.


Area, 213,241 square miles. Population, 1861, Count Colonna Walewski.A Senator.
37,382,255. Government, Constitutional Monarchy: Mons. Magne................. Senator.
Legislature composed of Emperor, Senate, and
Chamber of Deputies. Capital, Paris. Religion,


The Senate.
NAPOLEON III. (Charles Louis), EMPEROR of

The Senate consists of not moro than 150 Sensthe French; born at Paris, 20th April, 1808, of the tors, appointed by the Emperor; their tenure of marriage of Louis Napoleon, King of Holland, and office is for life. Cardinals, Marshals, and Admiof Hortense Eugenie, Queen of Holland; married rals belong to the Senate as of right. on the 29th January, 1853. Proclaimed Emperor, Dec. 2, 1852.

The Legislative Chambers. EUGENIE de Montijo, EMPRESS, who was born in

The 35th Article of the French Constitution Spain on the 5th May, 1826; from this marriage provides that there shall be one deputy to the issued

Legislative Chamber for each 35,000 voters. And Napoleon Eugene Louis Jean Joseph, IMPERIAL the Senatus-Consultus of the 27th May, 1857, PRINCE, born at Paris on the 16th March, 1856.

further provides that an additional deputy shall MATHILDE Lætitia Wilhelmine, a cousin of the be accorded to each and every department in Emperor; born on the 27th May, 1820, of the mar- which the fraction of voters over and above the riage of the Princess Catherine of Wurtemberg foregoing-mentioned quota may exceed 17,500 and Prince Jerome Bonaparte (some time King voters. The Legislative Chamber is, consequently, of Westphalia); married in 1841, Prince Anatole formed of 283 deputies. It is believed that 35 of Demidoff de San Donato; from whom she was them are of the Opposition. divorced by the Czar Nicholas. NAPOLEON Joseph Charles Paul, cousin of the

THE COUNCIL OF STATE. Emperor; born on the 9th September, 1822, of the last above-mentioned marriage; married on

The Council of State consists of one President, the 30th January, 1859,

three Vice-Presidents, and one Secretary-General, Louise Therese Marie CLOTILDE, daughter of appointed by the Emperor; of not less than forty Vittore Emmanuele II., King of Italy, born on nor more than fifty Councillors of State of ordithe 20 May, 1843; from this marriage issued- nary service; of not more than fifteen Councillors

Napoleon Victor Jerome Frederick, born on of State of ordinary service, unclassed; of not the 18th July, 1862.

more than twenty Councillors of State of extra

ordinary service; of forty Masters of Petitions THE CABINET COUNCIL

and Grievances (divided into a first and a second Mons. Rouher........ Minister of State.

class, each consisting of twenty Masters); and of Mons. Baroche ...... Minister of Jus. d Pub. Wors'p eighty Auditors (divided into a first and a second and Keeper of the Scals.

class, each consisting of forty Auditors). Council. Mons. Fould.... Minister of Finances.

lors, Masters, and Auditors are all appointed by Mons. Rouland...... Min., & Pres. Council of State. the Emperor, and they hold their places during Marshal Vaillant... Min. Imp. Housch'd & Fine Arts. his majesty's good pleasure. Marshal Randon... Minister of War. Count Chasse

THE FRENCH Army.t loup-Laubat.......Minister of Marine 4 Colomites. M.Drouyn de Lhuys Minister of Foreign Affairs.

The land forces of France were distributed as Mons. Boudet....... Minister of the Interior. follows on the 1st November, 1862 (the date of Mons. Victor Duruy Minister of Public Education. the last official returns): Mons. Behic.. Minister of Agriculture, Com- IIome....

338,562 men merce, and Public Works. Algeria

55.285 Italy.

16,950 THE PRIVY COUNCIL.* China ...

915 Cochin-China.

1,179 Marshal Duke (Pe


27,915 lissier) of Malakoff ...... A Senator, and Governor-Gene

Total ral of Algeria.

440,836 men

If there be deducted from these Mons.Achille Foulda Senator, and Minister of figures the 20,000 men of the draughts Finances.

of 1856-7-8, who have been placed in Mons. Troplong ..... First President of the Supreme

the reserve...
Court, and President of the

Duke De Morny..... President of the Legislative exclusive of the general staff, the

there will remain...

420,836 men Mons. Baroche ......A Senator, Minister of Justice staff, the military commissariat, tho

and Public Worship, and staff of garrison towns and military
Keeper of the Scals.

posts, the artillery staff, the engineer Duke de Persigny... Senator.

staff, the gendarmerie, the officers of Marshal Vaillant... A Senator, Grand Marshal of of building yards, and the adminis

all arms, the veterinaries, the officers the Palace, Minister of the

46,521 Imperial Houschold, and of tration, which number.... the Fine Arts.

Total officers and men... 467,357 * The members of the Privy Council enjoy rank as Ministers of the Cabinet Council. † See additional potes of Fropcb army, pago 578,-cloou of article on France.

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Receipts. Admirals (peace)............. 2 (war) 3.

Francs. Vice-Admirals

Direct Taxes..............

309,177,500 Rear-Admirals...


Registration, Stamps, and Crown Man-of-war Captains


409,975,016 First class..


Woods, Forests, and Fisheries.......... 44,433,500 Second class..


Customs, Duties, and Salt Tax. 185,714,000 Frigate Captains..

Indirect Taxes

...... 532,772,000 Lieutenants

Revenue from Post-Office.

66,452,000 First class...

Sundry Revenues.

............... 134,677,786 Second class................

Miscellaneous Income..

46,739,316 Midshipmen......


Sum total of Ordinary Ways and


1,729,941,118 Sailors....


Extraordinary Revenue. .......... 121,648,615 Total officers and sailors...... 49,297

Sum total of Receipts.... 1,851,589,733 By the French law, all persons connected with the sea, whether as sailors or fishermen, caulkers, EXPENSES PROVIDED FOR BY ESPECIAL REVENUE3 riggers, or sail-makers, are liable to be draughted

AND CORRELATIVE RECEIPTS. for service on vessels of war, between the ages of eighteen and fifty years. It is stated that 80,000

Expenses. sailors at the outside can be procured when all those who follow the sea in France are draughted. tion), Departmental services provided

Ministry of the Interior (7th Sec. There are in the French Navy 136 steam-vessels (if the 24 gunboats afloat be counted); but if for by direct taxes and by continonly the five chief classes of vessels used in naval

gent revenue.

121,182,610 warfare be reckoned, France possesses only 1122d Part), Land valuation and costs of

Ministry of Finances (5th Section, steam-vessels :

notice to pay taxes (special funds)..... 484,000

(11th Section, 20 Part), Reimburse-
New Mixed

ments of direct taxes...

86,302,775 Vessels. Vessels.

Ministry of Public Instruction and

Public Worship (5th Section, 2d Part), Men-of-War.


23 36 Plated Frigates....

Expenses of primary education drawn

4 from special income... Wooden Frigates

6,325,000 6 24 Ministry of Agriculture, Commerce, Sloops-of-War..


7 and Public Works (2d Section, 2d Part), Despatch-Boats...



Special subsidies to agriculture..... 2,073,500

(30 Section, 2d Part), Costs of audit Totals.......


and superintendence of railways....... 1,470,000

(4th Section, 2d Part), Costs of superOne vessel was lost in 1862, eight were con

intending joint-stock companies, etc.. 79,900 demned to be broken up as unseaworthy from age; there were afloat, or nearly ready, or under


217,917,785 going trial, two plated frigates, one wooden frigate, two despatch-boats, one gunboat, two float

Receipts. ing batteries.

Direct Taxes...

192,867,885 The approaches to the French coasts are to be contingent Departmental revenue.... 22,700,000 defended by 344 batteries and 27 forts; of which Special income for primary educa295 batteries and 18 forts are completed.

tion ....

800,000 Repayment of costs of andit and suFRENCH BUDGET. perintendence of railways....

Repayment of costs of superintend-
Budget for the year 1863.

ing joint-stock companies, &c........
Total ......

217,917,785 France. Ministry of State...

17,048,800 Ministry of Justice..

32,871,610 SPECIAL SERVICES, ANNEXED TO THE BUDGET FOR Ministry of Foreign Affairs..


REGULARITY'S SAKE. Ministry of the Interior,

50,518,484 Ministry of Finances..

943,159, 273

Receipts and Expenses. Ministry of War....

366,620,367 Ministry of State, -Legion of Honor. 15,543,150 Government-General of Algeria..... 14,156,013 Ministry of Justice - The Imperial Ministry of the Marine and Colonies. 149,383,420 Printing-Office.

4,640,000 Ministry of Public Instruction and

Ministry of Foreign Affairs.-Consular Worship 63,704,457 clerks, etc...

1,850,000 Ministry of Agriculture, Commerce,

Ministry of Finances.-Coining money and Public Works...... 71,639,453 and striking medals...


Ministry of War.-Army Fund...... 60,340,000 Total ordinary expenses..... 1,721,581,077 Ministry of Marine-Naval PenExtraordinary expenses... 121,114,500 sioner's Fund.....

13,270,000 Sum total of expenses. 1,842,695,577 Total.......

97,004,895 * Soo Fronch vavy, page 578,-close of this article.


1860 .....


Bullion and Bills Receivable on hand 1st January, Public Expenses-

336,836,712.87 Bullion .......... 190,168,356.68 1861

1,800,853,093.64 Bills Receivable.. 321,387,980.92 1862.

16,065,839.91 Gold and Silver in ingots.......... 13,875,733.29

2,153,255,746.42 525,432,070.89 Taxes and other Public Revenues

Special Services...

596,044,091.08 1860

40,171,782.04 Transactions of the Treasury1861 ................................................ 1,885,905, 206.99 Treasury Bonds given to the Sink1862 25,703.66 ing Fund...

135,083,597.02 Treasury Bonds given to the Dis1,926,102,692.69 count Banks


Payments in diminution of liabiSpecial Services........... 376,412,942.20 lities......

5,679,873,479.88 Receipts in diminution of the de

Payments in increase of assets ..... 77,967,308.81 ficit of the Treasury.

5,000,000.00 Cash in transitu between the pay

masters of the Treasury (cash Transactions of the Treasury


3,788,562,427.39 Treasury Bonds given to the Sinking Fund... 139,535,914.71

9,686,456,813.10 Receipts in increase of liabilities.. 5,962,090,019.69 Receipts in diminution of assets... 37,767,353.87 Cash and Bills Receivable on hand on the 31st Cash in transitu between the pay

December, 1861masters of the Treasury (cash


159,311,897.65 received).... 3,825,957,765.96 Bills Receivable..

200,267,153.33 Gold and Silver in ingots..

2,933,055.43 9,965,351,054.23

362,512,106.41 Total amount of receipts.......12,798,298,7608.01c.

Total amount of expenses....12,798,298,7608.01


YEARS -1858-0-60-1-2.

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