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pared with that of 1858 upon a nearly equal prin- | the maturity of the debt, would be as $100 to cipal, in part by the expiry of terminable annui. $8.77 of debt, and takes no account of the enties, charged as interest, and in part by the re- hancement of our wealth in the mean time. duced rate of interest on the floating debt in the What that shall be when the debt is to bo reimlatter year; bank interest ranging through the bursed, cannot now be foretold or even imagined. fiscal year 1868 at 5 to 10 per cent, and in the year If it shall increase during the two next decennial ending March, 1863, at 2 to 3 per cent., and in periods following the year 1863, at the rate of tho the money-market falling from 12 per cent in the period between 1850 and 1860, the sum will be former to 6 and 5 in the latter; besides, 5,000,000 above 70,000,000,000, or double the present comof Exchequer bonds outstanding in 1858 were re- puted value of Great Britain and Ireland; and a duced to £418,300 in 1863.
debt of 2,000,000,000 would then be less than 3 These statements are made to caution the reader per cent. upon the principal of the wealth pledged against authors who report the debt and charge for its ultimate discharge, while the burden of its from official summaries. Upon turning from such interest upon the annual income of the country tabular statements to the account of annual ex- would be lessened in corresponding proportion. penditure published under the same official If we take the estimated wealth of Great sanction, it will be found that the amount of the Britain to be equally underrated in 1816 and in annual charge sometimes varies as much as 1858, we see how the burden of national debt de £2,000,000.
clines relatively to the value of the property 6. United States debt and interest. Our debt is which must pay it. In these forty-two years tho official for every period stated. For 1863 it is incumbrance feil from 40 to 13 per cent. of the given as it stood on the books of the Treasury on national wealth, while the capital of the debt was the 1st of October. It is treated in the other reduced less than 3,000,000 on 4,200,000,000, or the columns of the table as chargeable upon the peo- burden fell from 40 to 13, while the debt fell only ple and property of the loyal States only. And as from 40 to 37, or, in other words, the debt of the annual interest stated is the amount which 1858 would have been a charge of 371 per cent. on the principal would carry for the yoar ending the property of 1816, but was only 13.4 per cent. October 1, 1864, if the principal remained so long of the property of 1858. The debt of the United unchanged. The proportion of this interest to States in 1816 was a charge of 7 per cent on the the annual income of the year, is stated at 1% per property of that day; in 1860 it would have been cent. This would be true if the annual income no more than nine-tenths of 1 per cent.; and a of the people were correctly given; but if, as we debt of 1,222,000,000, which is &f per cent of the suppose, this is put down at two-thirds of its real computed wealth of the loyal States in 1863, amount, the burden of interest upon the people's | would, at a rate of increase in valuation in the income would be something less than nine-tenths next twenty years no greater than occurred in of 1 per cent.
the last ten years, sink to 1,8 per cent. The proportion of the total debt of the United Our tabular statement, with these hints, is subStates to the private property of the loyal States, mitted as a study in financial statistics. Exstated at 84 per cent. nearly, means that the value haustive tabulation is a sort of cross-harrowing of our property in 1863, at the prices ruling be- of the subject, which is its best and most searchfore the rebellion, if standing at the amount given ing exploration, and the best method of getting in the property-column twenty years hence, or at at the use and value of the data.
GENERAL REMARKS. The increase of the total population of the greater increase as expressed in percentage, it United States in the ten years, 1850-60, was 35.52 must be recollected that the capital wealth of the per cent of the total population of the free rebel States in 1850 was but $2,289,000,000, slaves States, 41.62 per cent.; of the loyal States, 40.22 included, while that of the loyal States was per cent.;
of the total population of the rebel $1,846,000,000,--the latter having increased their States, 25.37 per cent.: of the free population of capital 36,050,000,000, the former but $2,913,000,000, the rebel States, 26.32 per cent.; of the slave --ihe Census valuation of the slaves being 'empopulation of the rebel States, 23.5 per cent.; of braced in these aggregates. But the character the whole slave population of the Union, 23.38 of this enhanced wealth is also a matter of primo per cent.; and of the total free colored popula- importance in estimating its worth as a measure tion, 12.3 per cent.
and index of prosperity. The real estate of tho The increased value of the property of the rebel States, as reported by the marshals in 1860, United States in the same period (1850—1860) was 43 per cent. and the personal 57 per cent. of was 129.7 per cent.-of the property of the free their property; while in the loyal States the real States, 124.52 per cent.; of the loyal slave States, was 66 per cent., and the personal but 34. Tho 132.0+ per cent.; of the rebel slave States, 139.76. average ratio of real to personal estate in New (The value of the slaves in neither case included.) | York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, is 75 per The greater increased per cent. of the wealth of cent. of the total, or 66 agninst 10, the averigo the slave than of the free States, in the decade, is of the rebel States. South Carolina, Georgia, and mainly attributable to the quantity of cotton North Carolina have but 30 per cent of their produced in the period, and the price it com- wealth in real estate, and 70 in personal. The manded. From 1810 to 1850, the exports of cotton proportion of fixed to floating capital in a nation to foreign countries were valued at $533,000,000, is the truest measure of its real wealth and of its and at an average of 7.7 cents per pound; in the grade of civilization. Among savages land is period 1850 to 1860, the exports amounted to worth little, and its improvements nothing; real $1,236,000,000, at an average of 104 cents per property scarcely exists. In the highest civilizapound. To this must be added their exports of tion and greatest prosperity, real estate prepoude tobacco, rice, and breadstuffs and provisions, and rates, and its degree of excess over personal, the amount of all these articles sold to the North- measures and expresses the national welfare. ern States. But to understand the value of this i
UNITED STATES SANITARY COMMISSION. SKORTIT after the commencement of the present The Secretary of War authorized the appointraz, a letter was addressed by the Acting Surgeon- ment of this Commission, June 9th, 1861, and orGeneral (Dr. R. C. Wood) to the Hon. Simon Cain. dered it “ to direct its inquiries to the principles AUG, Secretary of War, asking for the appoint and practices connected with the inspection of reBeat of "A Commission of Inquiry and Advice in cruits and enlisted men; the sanitary condition of respect to the Sanitary Interests of the United the volunteers; to the means of preserving and Suates Forces." Dr. Wood states that the sudden restoring the health, and of securing the general and large increase of the army has created an im- comfort and efficiency of troops; to the proper Dease pressure upon the Medical Bureau, and the provision for cooks, nurses, and bospitals; and to Ceannission is intended to act "in co-operation orber subjects of like nature.” le orders it also with the Bureau in elaborating and applying such to communicate to the Department and the Medifacts as night be elicited from the experience and cal Bureau, “from time to time, such observations Dare esteaded observations of those connected and results as it may deem expedient and importvith armirs, with reference to the diet and hy ant." glede of troops, and the organization of military The Commission thus created was recognized by hospitals, etc. ; " that “this Cominission is not in. an order (June 16th, 1861) from the then Surgeon. tebied to interfere with, but to strengthen the General C. A. Finlay, enjoining upon all medical present organization, introducing and elaborating officers of the army and volunteers to "render such improvements as the advanced stage of media every facility for such objects, and to give the al science migbt suggest, more particularly as re Cominissioners admission, when on visits of ingards the class of men who, in this war of sections, spection, into all Hospitals, Regimental and Gene may be called to abandon the comforts of home, ral,” which order was afterwards approved by Hon. so be subjected to the privations and casualties E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War, March 7, 1862.
var." Five gentlemen were named as suitable The present organization is as follows: Benbers of the Commission.
Rev. H. W, Bellows, D.D., President,
G. T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer.
J. S. Newberry, M.D.
Rt. Rev. T. M. Clarke, D.D.,
Hon. R. W. Burnett,
Javn. Mark Skinner,
Hon. Joseph Holt,
Horace Binney, Jr. Esq,,
Rev. J. H. Heywood,
J. Huntington Walcott, Esq.
J. S. Newberry, M.D.,
F. N. Kvapp, Esq., The energies of the Commission were first Commission then undertook this task of distribuGrected to a thorough inspection of the Camps tion,- becoming the recognized almoners of a and Ilospitals of the Army. To this end a corps nation's good will to her soldiers. The distribu. of medical experts was formed, composed of those tion has always been preferably made in accordwho had devoted time to hygiene and other sub- apce with the written statement of a medical jeete bearing upon the well-being of troops. Regi- officer as to the existence of want. In this way it Dents were not only visited on their entrance has acted, even in its relief work, as a body sup into service, but at stated periods afterwards; plementary to the regular Medical Bureau. Its Crors of diet, or treatment of the men, were business is not fault-finding, but relief.bringing, pointed out to the officer, and assistance rendered to prevent suffering wherever possible,-and, ha every way to enable the latter to obtain the wherever suffering is found, to aid the regular greatest possible efficiency from his command. medical officers to alleviate it in such ways as they Wherever, through igooranee or fraud, on the may indicate. part of Quartermasters and Commissaries, the sol- We do not dwell upon certain new features dier was deprived of such advantages as wer his grafted upon the Medical Bureau, through the due, the defect was examined into, traced to its fluence of the Commission, in which particular it cose, and then pursued until redress was ob- has simply given intelligible utterance to the Lained from the proper authority,
feelings of the people, wbose representative it is. As the war advanced, it was found that all the Its operations, in this respect, show a wonderful supplies which could be collected by the Govern. contrast with the opposition to reform encountered ment would be inadequate to the wants of the by the English in the Crimean War, on the part sick and wounded. The people were desirous of of their own authorities. Bound down by the siding in the great contest for freedom, each ac- technicalities of customs, whose spirit bad long curling to bis or her ability. To distribute their since been evaporated, the shortcomings of the contributions, without the help of an organiza Commissariat and other departments of the tion thoroughly trained and skilled in military British Army were the cause of much suffering, life, would result in annoyance ts medical officers, and yet redress was slow and tiresome. Our own and would insure detriment to discipline. The rules have bocome much more pliant. Where
they can be proveu to be clogs or hinderances, Inspector, and J. Warner Johnson, Field Super they are abolished, or substituted by others bet. intendent, it has been quite sucoessful. By con ter adapted for the emergency. Our war is for stant association with the officers of a corps, the National existence; and while po expense is agent becomes fully able to detect wants, and is spared in carrying out all its details, that wbich enabled to satisfy them with the greatest prompt. is involved in supplying the wants of the men is ness and certainty. styled extravagance by no one.
The general purpose of the Special Relief work The Commission has distributed clothing, con- of the Commissiou is best set forth in the Report centraled food, fresh vegetables, stimulants, read of the Special Relief Agent at Wasbington, made ing matter, etc., to the value of $7,000,000. This at one of the meetings of the Board : has been raised all through the land. It has ls “To supply to the sick men of the newly. como in gold and silver bars from California and arrived regiments such medicines, food, and care Nevada, in contributions from patriotic Ameri- as it is impossible for them to receive in the midst cans living abroad, and from the aged sires, anx. of the confusion, and with the unavoidable Jack ious mothers, and warm-hearted sisters of the of facilities from their own officers. The men to soldiers now toiling in the field. Little sewing be thus aided are those who are not so sick as to circles, in villages, have reckoned it a great privi- have a claim upon a general hospital, and yet lege to contribute their mite to the soldier, and need immediate care to guard them against seri. have consigned it to the Commission with full
ous sickness." confidence that it would reach some one whose 2d. “To furnish suitable food, lodging, care and peods it would supply. The prayers of thousands assistance, to men who are hoporaldy discharged have been poured forth in its behalf.
from service, sent from general hospitals, or from Our space prevents us giving more than a very their regiments, but who are often delayed a day brief outline of the modus operandi of this pecu- or more, sometimes many days, before they obtain liar auxiliary to the great war. The work of the their papers and pay." Commission is carried op under two general 3d. "To communicate with distant regiments heads- Inspection and Relief. For the first, a in behalf of discharged men whose certificates of corps of medical officers, known as Sanitary In- disability, or descriptive lists, on which to draw spectors, has been created, whose members are their pay, prove to be defective;-the invalid roldistributed through all the great Armies of the diers, meantime, being cared for, and not exposed United States. Their business is to carry on 8 to the fatigue and risk of going in person to their regular series of inspections of the troops and Hos regiments to have their papers corrected." pitals, so as to keep the Chief of Inspection 4th. “To act as the unpaid agent or attorney informed of their condition. In making these of discharged soldiers who are too feeble, or too inspections, it is expected that they conferwiecily utterly disabledl, to present their own claim at with the officers in charge, and aid them, by ad- the paymaster's office." vice, or otherwise, in any emergencies that may 5th. To look into the condition of discharged require such aid. Wherever defects occur, their men who assume to be without means to pay the business is especially to solicit remedial means expense of going to their homes, and to furnish from the officer directly in charge, and, if this the necessary means where we find the man is source of relief fail, then to report the case to true, and the need real." others higher in authority: They are not sent to 6th. “To secure, to disabled soldiers, railroad pry out the weak points, but to aid in strength: tickets at reduced rates, and, through an agent at ening such. These duties, wbich may be called the railroad station, see that these men are not advisory and preventive, do pot constitute the robbed or imposed upon by sharpers." whole of the Inspector's duty. He has also scien. 7th. “To see that all men who are discharged tific duties, comprising the collection of statistical and paid off do at once leave the city for their data, the examination of local causes of disease, homes; or, in cases where they have been induced, the effects of certain kinds of clotbing, food, of by evil companioue, to remain bebind, to endeavor long marches, etc., etc., upon the men, and other to rescue them, and see them started, with through subjects calling forth a bigh order of professional tickets, to their own towns.” training.
8th. "To mako reasonably clean and comforto The work of Relief is divided into two kinds, able, before they leave the city, such discharged that which is rendered in accordance with the men as are deficient in cleanliness and clothes." order of a medical officer, and that which is given 9th. “To be prepared to meet at once, with food directly to the soldier, separate from his command or other aid, such immediate necessities as arise or hospital, and which is styled Special Relief. when sick men arrive in the city, in large numFor tbe due execution of the first, the Commis- bere, from battle-fields or distant hospitals." sion has regular Special Relief Agents in every 10th. “ To keep a watchful eye upon all sol. army, and others who visit hospitals likely to live diers who are out of hospitals, yet pot in service, in want of necessary articles. The people demand and give information to the proper authorities, of that no soldier suffer, if help can reach hin. such soldiers as seem endeavoring to avoid duty, These Relief Agents are their ministers. They do or to desert from the ranks." not only visit comfortable hospitals in out-of-the In the business of ihe Special Relief Depart. way places of security, but live in the Army. and ment, both East and West, are enlisted many are found on the battlefield, as at the buitle of energetic, whole-souled men and women, who Gettysburg, dispensing comforts, while the balls take great pleasure in thus contributing to the are whistling around their heads.
In some needs of our men. There inay be some persons armies, an agent lives in euch corps, is supplied who will cavil at this work, and who inperiogly with a large wagon, kept constantiy full of such ask, where are the officers of the Medical and supplies as are needed in the field, and sbares the other Departments, that such a work as this of hardships of the soldier's lite. This plan is Special Relief is required? udopted in the Army of the Potomac, where, To mret such, Mr. Knapp thus speaks in the under the direction of Dr. Lewis II. Steiner, Chief | Report already alluded to: “ The fact is simply this that wbile the Medical Department bas communicated, from time to time, to those for made a larger and wiser provision for the gick whose use such results are obtained. and rounded than the world ever before saw; A large number of monographs, un special sub there is not, and cannot be, a minuteness of de- jects of interest to medical officers, have been tail, and a waiting at every corner, to give to a prepared, so as to place, in the hands of the surfainting soldier a cup of water, such as friends at geon in the field, compendious epitomes of the bome, in their aoxious love, ask for. Yet this most modern information, and these are gratuiverk needs to be done, and, therefore, we, who tously distributed. ze simply the people's heart and bounty, do the The original organization of the Commission work. But if the Medical Department were to owes much to the first General Secretary, F. L. attempt it, in all its minutiæ of detail, their Olmsted, Esq., who labored with great zeal in its pover for their own hundred-fold greater work service." Its officers now are working with a rould be weakened in a way that would find no quiet enthusiasm, which could not be obtained justification."
for money, or any other reward; and every emThe Sanitary Commission has also a Hospital ployee will find it a source of incalculable pleaDirectory, in which arrangements are made for sure, in the future, that he once labored in its supplying information relative to all patients in ranks, at the command of a great people, whose the Army Hospitals. This information is fur souls' heartiest wish and desire was, that no sufBished gratuitously.
fering should exist in the Army of the Union, The statistical material collected from all parts that might be prevented by anything procurable d its work is submitted to proper discussion by through money or kind words." 12 accomplished Actuary, and the results are
STATEMENT OF ISSUES, BY THE U.S. SANITARY COMMISSION, AT THE BATTLE OF GETTTSBURG. The following is a statement of the quantities of the principal articles distributed by the Commia noe to the wounded upon the field at Gettysburg, subsequent to the battle. The perishablo articles, (amounting to over 60 tons,) were taken to the ground in refrigerating cars.
Of Articles of Clothing, etc., viz.:
250 pounds. (cotton)
300 yards. Shirts, (woollen)..
• Tin Basins, Cups, etc...... 7,000
110 barrels. - Pilloss......
7 * Pillos-cases.
46 * Bed Sacks...
“ Bay Rum and Cologne Water... 225 bottles. * Blankets.
3,600 + Sheets...
11 barrels. « Wrappers
4.000 pairs. * Handkerchiefs..
1,200 < Stockings, (woollen)...... 3,560 pairs. “ Lanterns....................................
350 pounds. * Bed Utensils......
300 sq.y'ds. & Towels and Napkins.
648 piecer. Sponges... 2,500
237 quirer. 6 Combs..
“ Pants, Coats, Hats................... 189 pieces. Buckets..
16 rolls. Of Articles of Sustenance, viz.: Of Fresh Poultry and Mutton...... 11,000 pounds. Of White Sugar.........
6,800 pounds. Batter
1,168 farm-houses in Penn
1,148 sylvania and N Jersey) 8.500 dozens.
600 gallons, Garden Vegetables ....... 675 bushels. “ Biscuit, Crackers, and Rusk... 134 barrels. Berries ........
400 gallong. “ Concentrated Beef Soup
“ Indian Meal & Prepared Faridaceous Food.
1.621 pounds. 3.500 & Dried Fruit
1,07+ * Jellies and Conserves
582 cans. * Lemone..............
72 - Oranges...
303 jars. Coffee .........
43 u Chocolate..................
« Wine ...........
THE PUBLIO LIBRARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. UNTIL within a few years, the public libraries | Libraries in the United States which antain as of America were neither so numerous nor so im
many as 10,000 Volumes each. portant as to-render their statistics interesting. Philadelphia (Library Co............ 44,000 À young nation, whose independent existence
42,000 dates back less than a century, and acting as the pioneer of civilization in so broad a territory, New York (Society)..
29,100 could not be expected speedily to rival the great National, Washington...
24,500 repositories of learning which adorn so many Charleston, S.C........ of the capitals of Europe. Where Government Andover Theological Seminary,
13,000 patronage is wholly wanting, and not even
Baltimore... the accessions of a copy-tax are enjoyed by Georgetown College.....
12,000 a single library, whatever has been done to Antiquarian Society, Worcester..
12,000 ward the foundation or increase of collections is
New York Mercantile due to individual liberality or associated enter. New York Apprentices'...
St. Mary's College (Baltimore). When due allowance is made for all the ob
........ 10,500 stacles, the growth and extent of our public Yale College
10,000 collections will compare favorably with those of
New York Historical Society.
10,000 any country. True, we have no one library which Philosophical Society, Philadelphia............ 10,000 rivals or approaches that of the British Museum, Maryland State, Annapolis. with its 600,000 volumes, or even the Bodleian South Carolina College..............
10,000 Library at Oxford, with its 300,000; but neither Boston Library...... have our
10,000 braries any of the adventitious ad. vantages enjoyed by those institutions, of re- In the quarter of a century which has elapsed ceiving copies of every thing published in the since the above table was prepared, the reader United Kingdom free of cost. If our largest cannot fail to remark a progress which is comlibraries must look with envy upon the 900,000 mendable in itself, and a prognostic of still higher volumes, besides 500,000 pamphlets, of the Impe- results to come. Yot so little apparent advance rial Library at Paris (now the largest collection had been made in the importance of collections, in the world), that feeling may be tempered by or the public information as to their extent, that the reflection that its splendid facilities for amass- we find an American Secretary of State, as late as ing books, in the centre of European civilization, the year 1850, replying to a circular of a comwith four centuries of opportunity since the in- mittee of Parliament designed to elicit informavention of printing, and the uncounted spoils of tion respecting the statistics of libraries throughmonkish and church libraries which it has ab- out the world, in the following terms :sorbed, furnish abundant reason for its supe
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTOX, riority. If we are reminded of the fact that
“July 18, 1850. twelve libraries in Europe exceed 300,000 volumes each, while not one in the United States has yet after the receipt of Mr. Crampton's note (solicit
“I regret to be obliged to inform you that, soon reached 150,000, we may be partially consoled by ing "certain authentic information with regard the reflection that the former are chiefly the
to public libraries in the United States”), an growth of Government patronage, built up by attempt was made to obtain the particular insovereigns from the taxation of the people; formation desired, but without success; and that, whilo the latter are the free-will offerings of liberal-minded men to the cause of letters.
with every disposition to do so, the Department Neither should it be forgotten that the mere of Her Majesty's Government in this respect.
finds that it has no means of gratifying the wishes numerical extent of libraries is a most unsafe
(Signed) "J. M. CLAYTOX.” criterion of their real value. Some, at least, of the Continental libraries, which reckon their Yet the attempt to gather information as to stores by the hundred thousand, are chiefly vast certain libraries on British ground appears to repositories of medieval rubbish, with little or have been equally fruitless; for we find the comno additions from the science and literature of missioners stating, in their voluminous report, modern times. Such fossil collections are rather that “respecting the majority of the Oxford catacombs of extinct and forgotten literature, libraries, ller Majesty's commissioners failed to than living libraries, keeping step to the spirit obtain accurate information either as to extent of the age and the progress of mankind. It may or accessibility, although they made repeated at least be claimed for American libraries that efforts." they are not accidental growths, nor to any ex- The first organized attempt to collect the full tent repositories of useless knowledge. If not statistics of libraries in this country was comlarge, they are tolerably select, and have been menced in 1849, under the auspices of the Smithforined, for the most part, with a view to tho sonian Institution, by Prof. C. C. Jewett, and the highest utility, and with some general unity results were published in 1851, in an octavo of plan.
volume of 207 pages. Though necessarily meagre In the “ American Almanac" for 1837 was pul in extent, owing to deficient returns and other lished the earliest statistical table of American causes, the work of Prof. Jewett affords a highly libraries which has been met with. Its brevity interesting record of numerous libraries, with induces us to place it on record, as affording a details of the history of the more important. It suggestive comparison with the tables that are embraces but forty distinct libraries which numto follow.
bered upwards of 10,000 volunies each.