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The nataliter of Jupiter will not be visible darlag the months of November and December, Jupiter belut two w

PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY DURING THE YEAR

TERMINATING WITH OCTOBER, 1863.

Tas year has been fruitful in the investiga- Frigga; by Professor Peters, at Clinton, N.Y., tions in Physical Astronomy, as well as in ad. November 12, 1862. dition to the number of bodies belonging to our T8 Diana; by Dr. Luther, at Bilk, March 15, system.

1863. Since the announcement in our volume for Eurynomo; by Professor J. C. Watson, Ann 1863, four asteroids have been discovered. They Arbor, Mich., September 14, 1863. are as follows:

and to mentioned by symbolic number only Freia; by Professor d'Arrest, at Copenhagen, in the last volume, were subsequently named GaOctober 21, 1862.

latea and Eurydice respectively. The completo

list is as follows: 1. Ceres. 17. Thetis. 33. Polyhymnia. 49. Pales.

65. Cybele. 2. Pallas. 18. Melpomene. 31. Circe.

50. Virginia.

C6. Maia. 3. Juno. 19. Fortuna. 35. Leucothen. 51. Nemausa.

67. Asia. 4. Vesta. 20. Massilia. 36. Atalanta. 52. Europa

03. Leto. 5. Astræa. 21. Lutetia. 37. Fides.

53. Calypso. 63. Hesperia. 6. Hebe. 22. Calliope. 38. Leda.

54. Alexandra. 70. Panopaea. 7. Iris. 23. Thalia. 39. Lætitia. 53. Pandora.

71. Riobo. 8. Flora. 24. Themis. 40. Ilarmonia. 56. Melete.

72. Fcronia. 9. Metis. 25. Phocea. 41. Daphne.

57. Mnemosyno. 73. Clytia. 10. Hygeia. 26. Proserpina. 42. Isis.

68. Concordia. 74. Galatea. 11. Parthenope. 27. Euterpe.

43. Ariadne.
59. Elpis.

75. Eurydice. 12. Victoria. 28. Bellona. 41. Nysa. 60. Danae.

76. Freia. 13. Egeria. 29. Amphitrite. 45. Eugenia. 61. Echo.

77. Trigon 14. Irene. 30. Urania. 46. Hestia. 62. Erato.

78. Diana. 15. Eunomia. 31. Euphrosyne. 47. Aglaia.

63. Ausonia.

79. Eurynome. 16. Psyche. 32. Pomona. 48. Doris.

61. Angelina. Comets.--Five comets have been discovered | port, Mass., had discovered a companion to Sirius, since making up the record for last year's Als with the great refractor of his construction. manac.

This instrument, unrivalled for its magnitude, is I. By Professor Respighi, at Bologna, on the 216 lines in diameter. Mr. Goldschmidt has an28th of November, 1862. Its orbit is sensibly nounced to the Academy of Sciences at Paris the parabolic.

discovery of five other companions, the diameter II. By Dr. Bruhns, at Leipsic, 2d of December, of his object-glass being only 46 lines! He has 1862. On account of its rapid motion towards given a diagram showing their places. the south, it appears to have been observed but Mr. Dawes appears to have been the second a short time in the northern hemisphere, from person to recognize any of the newly-discovered which only we have results. The observations companions by Goldschmidt. He announces havare satisfied by a parabola.

ing found the minute star d some 51" to 57" east III. By Dr. Klinkerfues, at Göttingen, 11th of of the principal one. April, 1862. On the day following its discovery, Companion of Procyon.-Mr. Hermann Romits appearance was described at Paris as a very berg, who has the care of the Observatory of J. fine, the disc (nucleus) surrounded by a fan-shaped Gurney Barclay, Esq., at Leyton, Essex (England), luminosity." It was observed at Washington, 4th has given measures for angle of position (2910 64') of May, and appeared as a round nebulosity 5' or and distance (45".8) of a 10f mag. companion to 6 in diameter. It was visible to the naked eye Procyon made in March last. And thus tho anoduring the early part of May. The observations malous motions of Sirius and Procyon are in a extend over an interval of about five months, and fair way to be accounted for. Reasoning upon its orbit seems to be slightly elliptical.

the observed character of their deviations, as de IV. By Professor Respighi, at Bologna, 12th of duced from a discussion of observations made by April, 1862. On the 14th of April, its nucleus was different astronomers since 1755, as far back as as bright as a star of 6th magnitude, and its coma 1844 the illustrious Bessel predicted the presence 40' long. Its orbit is parabolic.

of other bodies not very remote from them. V. By Mr. Bäcker, at Nauen, near Berrin, 9th Variable Nebrila.--The nebula near S Tauri was of October. Its appearance was that of a faint not noticed by Chacornac in observations between nebula. It has been observed at Washington; the 26th to 31st of January, 1854, nor even as lato and thus far a parabolic orbit satisfies the observa- as 17th of December of the same year. Id was tions.

first seen 19th of October, 1855; and there are Probably because of its position in the morn- strong reasons for believing that it must be numing twilight, the short period comet of Brorsen bered among the extraordinary and as yet inex. passed its perihelion unobserved in 1862-1863. plicable celestial phenomena. That of Winnecke will pass its perihelion 23d of Solar Parallax.-During the year 1962, series November, 1863, at which time its right ascension of observations was made upon the planet Mars will be 17 hours, and its declination 21° sonth. when near opposition, for the purpose of do

Companions to Sirius.--It was stated in the termining its parallax, and thence that of the last rolume that I.. Alvan Clark, at Cambridge 'son. The series first proposed embraced differectial measures in declination, to be made near the bridge (Eng.), may bo found in tho January and meridian. An ephemeris was prepared at tho February numbers of tho London, Edinburghi, and Washington Observatory, and distributed to astro Dublin Philosophical Magazine, powers in every part of the world. Correspond. August Meteors.-On tlio nights of 9th and 10th ing olsservations, made at the observatory at San. they were extremely numerous during the curly tiagin Clutc, have been received, and a discussion portions of cach evening. The greater numbers of the results will take place on arrival of those on both nights radiated from a point below and promised ftom Williamstown, Australin. eastward of the polo star, one portion passing to

A second series of ineridional observations was the cast and the other westward of the meridian asked for by Dr. Winnocke, of tho Pulkowa Ob- and very slightly inclined to the horizon. Their serratory. A comparison of the results made marked peculiarity was that almost without exthere with those obtainod from the Capo of Good ception they left brilliant trains, visible 20°, and llope Observatory, indicates that tho, value sometines eren 300, in extent. The observers (5776) derived by Encke from computations of near New Haven have published their results in the transits of Venus must be increased about Silliman's Journal. one-twenty-fourth part. A similar comparison Celestial Photography.—Dr. Draper, of the Uniof observations between Greenwich and Williams- versity of New York, has mado great improvetown gives a value, 8".932, closely accordant with meuts in this branch of astronomical investigathe forazer, and by the elaboration of his lunar tion. Ho las perfected a picture of the moon, tables, Professor Isansen finds a value 8".97. In mado under a magnifying power of 320, which a discussion of the theories of Venus, the Earth, represents our satellite on a scale of about 70 and Mars, Le Verrier had previously found the miles to the inch. llis telescopo las a silvered Becessity for adopting 8".95, a value intermediate glass mirror, and is kept steady whilst motion is between the two preceding, which is no little re- communicated to the sensitized photographi-plato markable.

by clockwork. An illustrated account of his San's Heat.-For an interesting paper relative operations will shortly to published by tho to the heat of the sun, the reador is referred to Smitlısonian Institution. the June number of the London, Edinburgh, and Lewis Rutherford, Esq., of New York, has conDublin Philosophical Magazine.

tinned experiments in stellar photography, for Light of the Sun.--Mr. Alvau Clark has insti. the purpose of obtaining maguified pictures from tuted a series of experiments to determine the which angles of position and distance of doublo comparative light of the sun and stars, and finds stars could be measured with greater satisfaction that the former would be visible as a star of the than tho micrometer affords; but, for the want sixth magnitudo if it wero removed to 1,200,000 of a sufficiently sensitive process, the anticipations times its present distance. If the distances of great gains have not been realized. It has ascribed to sereral of the stars from parallax be been found impossible to obtain impressions of true, he thinks astronomers will find our glorious the smaller stars, and thus the number of objects luminary only a very small star.

to which the process seeins applicable becomes Mercement of the Solar System in Space.-Mr. so reduced as to afford scant encouragement. An Airy, the Astronomer Royal, las completed the apparatus for the same purpose has been precomputations for inferring the direction and pared at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, by amount of the movement of our system in spaco, the Astronomer Royal, and lines in the spectra of from the observed proper motions of 1167 stars. 19 stars have been micasured. They are generally The result is that the sun is moving towards a nebulons, resembling the solar line II. point in A. R. 3619, N.P. D. 65°; and at the distance Mr. Iluggins and Dr. W. A. Miller, in England, of a star of the first magnitude, tho aunual motion and Rev. Professors Secchi and Donuti, in Italy, mbtonds an angle of 0".t. But the comparison are also experimenting on this subject. of the sum of the squares of apparent proper Publications.-Among the valuable publications motions, uncorrected, with the sum of the squares of the year, the following may be named :- Manual

apparent proper motions corrected for motion of Spherical and Practical Astronomy, by Proof the sun, shows so small an advance in the ex. fessor William Chaurenet. Published by Lippinplanation of the stars' apparent movements, as cott & Co. io thror great doubt on the certainty of results, Positiones media stellarnm fixarum in 'zonis the sum of the squares being dimiuished by only regiomontanis a Besselio inter +15° et +45° dethe twenty-fifth part. The Astronomer Royal clinationis, by Professor Max Weisse. Published states that the indicated point in space does not by the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. aller teach from Sir William Herschel's, but do- Anpales de l'Observatoiro do Paris. Observapaulo much in N.P.D. on the accuracy of Brad- tions: tumes 111., IV., V., XVI., XVII. Published legos quadrant observations.

by the Imperial Observatory. Araual Pirallar.-Mr. Krueger has published Atlas Ecliptique, par Chacornac: sheets 2, 2bis, in the Comptes Rendus of the Royal Society of 9, 15, 39, 46. Published by the Imperial ObservaFinland the results of a series of observations tory. musle with the Heliometer at Rome to determino Astronomical, Magnetical, and Meteorological the paralkıxes of 21258 Lalande, and 17415 of the Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Arg lander-Oeltzen Catalogue. The former has Greenwich, 1860. Published by the Admiralty. proper motion of 4".5, and the latter of 1".4. Astronomical and Meteorological Observations Their computed parallaxes aro +0".260 -0".020, made at the Naval Observatory, Washington, 1861. and +6" 347 LO".021 respectively, tho former Published by the Navy Department. arany closely with the result previously ob- The Greenwich Observations for 1861 have been tained by M. Anwers, of Königsberg.

published in England, but have not yet reached Zodiacal Light.-A new theory of this interest this country. The Washington observations for tang phenomenon, by Professor Challis, of Cam- | 1862 will be published in December.

THE UNITED STATES NAVAL OBSERVATORY AT WASHINGTON. In our volume for 1863 we gave some account In 1825, in the first Message to Congress after of the United States Coast Survey, the institution his accession to the Presidency of the United which has unquestionably done more hitherto States, he earnestly recoinmended the establishthan any other one in the land towards establish- ment of a National Observatory, as also of a Uniing on a firm basis the scientific reputation of the form Standard of Weights and Measures, of a United States abroad, and probably more than Naval Academy, a Nautical Almanac, and a Naany other also in disseminating scientific methods tional University. But all these recommendations and stimulating to scientific progress at home in were treated with neglect by Congress; although all directions within its scope and influence. time has written a sufficient commentary on their

Immediately following was a similar account wisdom and foresight. An excellent report on of the Smithsonian Institution, an organization the subject, advocating the views of the President, aiming at a still wider range of influence, was made by Mr. C. 8. Mercer, chairman of the namely, both the increase and the diffusion of committee of the House to whom, in the ordinary kpowledge; and these, too, with no restrictions of routine, the subject was referred; but the recomnationality, and no special devotion to any one mendations of the President and of the Commitdepartment or class of departments in learning tee were suffered to lie unnoticed on the tables of or science. Of the large and wise policy, and of both Houses; and it was reserved for the Emperor the able administration which has characterized Nicholas of Russia to follow those counsels which this magnificent trust, the nation to whom it was party rancor precluded the Congress of the United confided may well be proud.

States from adopting on the recommendation of We propose now to give some account of a third their President, and, by the establishment of the prominent American institution of science,-the noblest Observatory of the world, to render the Naval Observatory at Washington,—which has capital of his empire a capital of astronomical been equipped in a style worthy of a great gov- science. ernment, and, until the outbreak of the present The first structure in the United States claiminsurrection, furnished with larger means in men ing the name of a fixed astronomical observatory, and money than any other Observatory in the was erected on Capitol Hill in Washington, in the world. If ample facilities in these respects had year 1834, by Lieutenant Wilkes, for the Naval been in themselves sufficient, it would long since Depot of Charts. It was equipped with a three have taken rank with the noblost astronomical and three-quarter inch transit-instrument made institutions in existence, eclipsing most of them, for the Coast Survey in 1815 and loaned to the and vying with Pulkowa itself,--the noblest Navy Department on Lieutenant Wilkes's applishrine ever reared to astronomy. Although it cation, and some portable instruments made for may not until recently have answered all the ex- use in an exploring expedition contemplated by pectations of the nation, or indeed of astronomers the Government in 1828. It does not, however, anywhere, it has now earned a title to very appear that any observations were ever made by prominent rank among observatories by the high Lieutenant Wilkes other than those necessary degree of accuracy to which all its observations for rating the chronometers. During the next may lay claim, the system with which they are year a five-inch telescope was placed in the steeple carried on with reference to definite ends, the of one of the buildings of Yale College, by the regularity with which all its instruments are con- aid of which Halley's comet was roughly observed stantly employed each for that work to which it by Professors Olmsted and Loomis. In 1838, anis best adapted, and for the promptness with other small astronomical structure was built at which the observations are reduced and rendered Hudson, Ohio, through the exertions of Professor available for use as fast as they are made. These Elias Loomis, and furnished with an English are the characteristics of an Observatory of the equatorial of four inches aperture and a threefirst class.

inch transit-circle. Professor Loomis determined It is somewhat remarkable, when we consider the longitude and latitude of his observatory, and our national ambition and our aspirations for in- made observations of five comets and sixteen tellectual progress, that so long a time elapsed occultations, although the duties of a professor before the establishment of any institution in the engaged in constant tuition left him no opportuUnited States claiming even the name of an astro- nity for further astronomical research. nomical observatory, if we except some tempo- In June, 1838, information was sent by Mr. rary structures erected during colonial times for Rush, our minister in England, that he had rem special purposes.

ceived the money bequeathed by James Smithson Prominent among those who early advocated for founding in Washington an institution, bearing and persistently urged the foundation of such an his name, for the increase and diffusion of know institution, was John Quincy Adams. As early as ledge among men. Mr. Adams again exerted his October, 1823, while Secretary of State, in a letter most strenuous efforts to secure the establishment to one of the corporation of Harvard College, he of an Astronomical Observatory as a part of the urged the establishment of an Astronomical Ob- institution. He immediately waited on President servatory at Cambridge, and offered to contribute Van Buren, and in a long interview urged his one thousand dollars personally towards this end views of the subject. A few months later, at the in case the requisite sum should be raised within call the Secretary of State, he reduced his two years, the concealment of his name being, views to writing, advocating the application of however, enjoined. At the expiration of that time, part of the fund to the establishment of a great the amount not having been subscribed, Mr. Observatory and of a Nautical Almanac. Mr. Van Adams renewed the offer; but the spirit of libe- Buren expressed his concurrence with the views, rality had not at that time been awakened among but never acted in the premises. the friends of science, and his effort was in vain. Indeed, so bitter was the rancor of political par

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