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and trail building. This amounted to $10,152.20 last year, and the total to date is $266,411.95.
Alaska spruce-log program.—This project was closed out during the summer of 1944. When actual logging was completed in July, a total of 38,500,000 board feet of high-grade spruce had been towed to Puget Sound mills for conversion into airplane lumber and 46,000,000 board feet of hemlock and low-grade spruce had been furnished to local mills for lumber used on military projects. A good share of the equipment and supplies have been sold to Alaska loggers and other local industries while the balance was barged to Seattle and disposed of in that section.
ALASKA GAME COMMISSION
• The Alaska Game Commission, composed of one member from each
judicial division of the Territory and an executive officer, was created as an autonomous agency by Congressional Act of 1925. It meets annually to study reports and recommendations received from field personnel and individuals interested in wildlife conservation, and to recommend to the Secretary of the Interior for final approval and promulgation the adoption of regulations aimed to afford the maximum utilization of Alaska's wildlife resources without depletion of the breeding stock.
The annual meeting of the Game Commission was held in Juneau during the second week in February, and new game and sport fishing regulations were prepared for submission to the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service. This was the first meeting held since inauguration of region 6 under similar management to that governing the other five regions of the continental United States.
Due to the extreme shortage of trained personnel it was not possible to carry on the studies of moose, bison, and pheasant populations as in previous years. The only project of this nature was in connection with controlling beaver damage to red salmon spawning streams of the Keani Peninsula. This project was financed by the salmon packers of Cook Inlet and the work was carried on under the supervision of an employee of the Fish and Wildlife Service ordinarily engaged in patrol of the commercial fisheries.
Fur farming in Alaska continues to be of prime interest to thousands of United States citizens, particularly men in the armed forces who are making plans for postwar employment. The Fur Experimental Station at Petersburg carried on the feeding and breeding tests begun several years ago, and there has been increasing success in the development of formulas prepared from locally obtained waste products from the fishing industry, as well as in producing superior strains of fox and mink. There has also been a marked degree of success in pen raising marten; animals heretofore extremely difficult to raise in captivity.
High wages paid in other lines of work further reduced the pumber of trappers operating in Alaska and there was a corresponding decrease in fur production, although higher prices received for the pelts brought a larger aggregate return than in the previous year. A total of 253,615 pelts brought a gross return of $2,268,658 as compared with 291,108 pelts selling for $2,048,942 last year.
In marked contrast to the preceding year, when beaver headed the list in value, mink assumed the lead, with 61,038 skins selling for $671,418. Marten took second place, with 13,352 pelts 'bringing $600,840. Muskrat came next, with 142,530 skins valued at $285,060. Beaver dropped from the lead to fourth place, with 8,516 skins, bringing $255,480. Rank of other fur-bearers in the order of their importance was as follows: white, red, cross, blue and silver fox; otter; lynx; wolf; weasel; coyote; polar bear; wolverine and black bear.
Enforcement officers apprehended 115 violators of the game and sport fishing laws and 74 were tried and convictions secured in all instances; the remaining 41 cases were dropped because offenses were of a minor nature and the violators were released with a warning. Fines totaled $7,655, and jail sentences amounted to 26 months, chiefly suspended, although a total of 210 days actually were served in connection with court-martial proceedings. One officer was dismissed from the Army in a particularly flagrant violation. The usual procedure of forefeiting all game, fur and guns of violators was followed and this property will later be sold for the account of the Government.
Appointed licensing officers aided the regular personnel in sale of licenses, as in previous years.
ALASKA INSANE During the past year 49 persons were admitted to Morningside Hospital at Portland, Oreg., where the Territory's insane have for 4174 years been cared for under contract with the Department of the Interior. A total of 2,128 patients have been admitted during this period; 323 were in the hospital on June 30, 1945. A new, modern building 40 by 200 is being constructed to accommodate about 60 additional patients.
TERRITORIAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH By action of the 1945 Territorial Legislature, the Territorial Department of Health has, for the first time in its history, a full-time Commissioner of Health to direct its work under the supervision of a Board of Health composed of four members appointed by the Governor for a term of 4 years, subject to confirmation by the Legislature.
Public Health Laboratories Division.—The services of this Division include bacteriological analyses of milk and water, serological tests on bloods, blood typing, examination of specimens for tuberculosis, gonorrhea and other diseases that may require laboratory aid for diagnosis. Despite being severely handicapped by a large turn-over in personnel, the Division continued to operate laboratories in Juneau, Anchorage, and Ketchikan.
Maternal, Child Health, and Crippled Children's Services.--This Division is charged with the administration of three programs: an educational program to foster better health for mothers and infants, including a plan for vision conservation and dental health; a program for emergency maternity and infant care of wives and families of servicemen in the lower four pay grades; and a program for locating and providing care for crippled children. These services are extended to local communities through Public Health nurses, and in addition, during 1945 the Division acquired a marine unit, the vessel Hygiene, which travels around southeastern Alaska and provides preventive and certain types of clinical services to people who would otherwise not get appropriate care.
Communicable disease control.-During the year 3,379 cases of communicable disease were reported throughout the Territory, as compared with 4,212 for the previous year. Deaths totalled 353 as against 318 last year. There was an epidemic of diphtheria in Nome, with 83 known cases and 8 deaths, 353 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 147 cases of syphilis and 636 cases of gonorrhea were reported. Diagnostic facilities are available in the 3 laboratories of the Department, follow-up and case-finding services are provided by the Public Health nurses, and free drugs are distributed to physicians throughout the Territory for the treatment of any case of syphilis or gonorrhea.
Division of Public Health Nursing. This Division, established August 1, 1943, is administered by a Public Health nurse director under the supervision of the Territorial Commissioner of Health, and is supported by funds allocated to the Territorial Department of Health by the Territorial Legislature, the Children's Bureau and the United States Public Health Service. The nursing service functions on a generalized basis, extending facilities to expectant mothers, infants, preschool, school and crippled children; communicable disease, tubercular, venercal disease, mental hygiene and morbidity cases, In each community where nursing service is given there is a Community Health Council composed of interested citizens. The Public Health nurse attends health council meetings, lending her interest to their health projects and keeping them informed of the general trend of her work.
Division of Public Health Engineering.–Public health educational methods have been used in the work of this Division much more extensively during the past year than ever before. Food handler schools have been conducted in seven of the larger Alaska towns; intensive rat infestation studies were completed in conjunction with the U. S. Public Health Service, and rat control is being instituted in towns where it is necessary. Milk and cannery sanitation work has suffered to some extent in certain areas because of inadequate inspection personnel and transportation difficulties. Further improvements have been made in some public water supply and sewerage systems, but a great amount of construction is needed throughout most of the Territory to bring these utilities up to proper standards.
UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
The District No. 11 Office of the Public Health Service, comprising the Territory of Alaska, assists the Territorial Department of Health in formulating sound public health programs in accordance with requirements imposed by the regulations governing the expenditure of Title VI, Veneral Disease and Tuberculosis Control Funds, which are administered by the Public Health Service. The District Director has also been assigned the duties of Medical Director of the Alaska Native Service in order to assist in coordinating the work of the Territorial Department of Health and the Native Service.
Four Public Health Service nurses served with the Territorial Department of Health during the year, and it was through the use of Federal funds that that Department was enabled to acquire the motorship Hygiene. The Service maintained six Relief Stations at Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, Juneau, Cordova, and Seward. The District Director devoted considerable time to the details of placing in operation the Skagway Sanitorium for tuberculous natives, which was surplus to the needs of the Army and was transferred by the War Department to the Interior Department for use by the Alaska Native Service.
The territorial veterinarian serves the entire Territory but maintains headquarters at Palmer in order to be readily available to the farmers of the Matanuska Valley. The 1945 Legislature made provision for the Territory to have an assistant veterinarian. Four hundred fiftyone farm calls were made during the year and 1,385 animals were treated or examined for disease, exclusive of tuberculosis and Bangs tested animals which totaled 1,243.
The war, with the great increase in the numbers of military personnel and civilian workers which it brought to Alaska, created a critical housing shortage in many towns in the Territory. To help alleviate this situation, the National Housing Agency took two steps: the first to allocate priorities for private construction and to provide public housing with the occupancy restricted to workers in specified war industries; the second to provide priorities for the private building of dwellings, the occupancy of which was not restricted, in order to permit local residents to improve their housing and thereby increase the over-all supply and improve the quality of facilities. A third step, taken in the fall of 1944, was the granting of unlimited priorities for the conversion of private dwellings in order to make possible the greatest use of existing structures in congested communities.
The National Housing Agency, through its subdivision, the Federal Public Housing Authority, had authorized or completed on June 30, 1945, public dwelling projects in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Hoonah, and privately constructed units had been authorized or completed in Anchorage, Chignik, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan, Mosier Bay, Nakeen, Nome, Ouzinkie, Petersburg, Port San Juan, Whittier, and Wrangell.
FEDERAL PUBLIC HousING AUTHORITY
During the year ending June 30, 1945, the Federal Public Housing Authority completed 6 housing projects in Alaska–3 in Anchorage and 3 in Fairbanks—and operated 208 family dwelling units and 99 dormitory units in those 2 cities. There were 4 additional projects assigned to the Federal Public Housing Authority for construction at Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau and Hoonah, with completion scheduled for the fall of 1945.
The 1945 Territorial Legislature passed an Alaska Housing Authority law which established the Alaska Housing Authority composed of five commissioners appointed by the Governor, subject to approval by the Legislature. This agency was empowered to operate war and low-rent housing projects in Alaska and entered into a lease with the FPHA which provided that all FPHA projects in Alaska, with the exception of Hoonah, will be operated from July 1, 1945, by the Alaska Housing Authority. All costs of operation will be paid from revenue and any surplus returned to the United States Treasury. Losses, if any, will be made good by the Federal Government.
The FPHA is, at the present time, accepting applications for lowrent housing projects, which will be reviewed and placed on file, ready for acceptance as soon as financial aid is made available by Congress.