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A more extensive use of airplanes for the detection of fires and the transportation of service crews to the conflagrations is contemplated under programs formulated in the 1945 fiscal year.

PUBLIC LANDS FOR PASTURES In the 1945 fiscal year the use of more than 12,400,000 acres of public land in the United States and Alaska for the grazing of livestock was supervised by the General Land Office as another element in its administration of the people's real estate assets. Consisting of tracts in Alaska suitable for grazing purposes and similar areas in the United States not included in established Federal grazing districts, a total of 12,479,270 acres were made subject to use under 10,593 leases involving annual rental of $229,523.

In order that maximum production of meat and other livestock products might be provided from the public lands during the reconversion period, plans were being formulated at the close of the 1945 fiscal year to increase the stocking capacity of the range lands. It is estimated that with proper range facilities and improved range practices the capacity of the leased area could be increased 50 percent and an additional 10,000,000 acres leased if the improvement and rehabilitation program is carried forward to completion. Meanwhile, operations of the Range Development Service of the General Land Office, previously halted by war conditions, were scheduled for resumption as the close of the fiscal year brought an approaching end to the war.

Under the supervision of this Service improvements on the range such as the development of springs and wells, the construction of fences, the reseeding of areas denuded of vegetation, and the control of rodents and other predatory animals is undertaken in cooperation with the stockmen.

THE PUBLIC LANDS

AREA OF THE PUBLIC LANDS The area of public lands remaining in Federal ownership, including Indian trust and tribal lands, as of June 30, 1945, amounted to about 413 million acres in the public land States and about 365 million acres in Alaska Approximately 400 million acres of these public lands were vacant, unappropriated, and unreserved as follows: 37 million acres in the States outside of Federal grazing districts; 133 million acres within such districts; and 230 million acres in Alaska. During the year 692,000 acres were withdrawn for various public purposes while withdrawals reserving 9,497,000 acres were revoked.

Of the approximately 778 million acres remaining in Federal ownership in the States and Alaska, 118 million acres in the States and 363 million acres in Alaska were still unsurveyed as of June 30, 1945.

The total acreage patented with minerals reserved to the United States was increased during the year to 48,766,625 acres as shown on the following table:

Acreage of lands patented with minerals reserved to the United States, as of June 30, 1945

Patented Total patType of mineral reservation during fiscal ented through year 1945 June 1945

Reservation of all minerals:
Under Stock Raising Act------------------------------------------------ 15,094 33, 586,052
Under other acts-------------------------------------------------------- 50,684 2,376,256

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During the year an additional area of 1,793,513 acres was brought under lease, including mineral permits and licenses, making a total of 17,707,440 acres under lease at the end of the year. The types of leases in force June 30, 1945, are shown by the following tables.

*
Mineral leases, permits, and licenses outstanding, as of June 30, 1945

Leases Permits Licenses Total Mineral N N N Num- una- unil- urnber Acres ber Acres ber Acres ber Acres 4,521,486 4,521,486 76, 190 146,210 5,911 5,911 47,292 49,831 400 400 1,629 54,853 4,652,908 4,778,691 1 Does not include permits granted to Federal war agencies. 2 Does not include 25 leases within naval reserves (10,162 acres). Leases other than mineral leases outstanding, as of June 30, 1945 Type of lease Number Acres Annual rental Aviation------------------------------------------------------ 43 28,776.27 $525.00 Fur farm (Alaska)----- 19 133,810.00 775.00 Grazing (Alaska)---------- 9 1,168,953.93 1,269. 35 Grazing (Oregon and Califo 212 263,044.01 8,368.08 Grazing (Taylor Act, sec. 15) 10,584 || 11,310,316.49 228,254.44 Recreational- 17 20,003.78 1 610. 70 - 626 3,091.32 23,080.00 15 600.00 585. 50 3 153.01 10.00 Total.--------------------------------------------------- 11, 528 12,928,748.81 243,478.07

1 Does not include rental of 1 lease, the rental of which is based on receipts.
* Does not include rental of 10 business site leases, the rentals of which are based on receipts.

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In addition, 393,000 acres were being used at the end of the year by Federal and local agencies, private individuals, and corporations under permit from the Commissioner of the General Land Office. War agencies held Departmental permits for the use of almost 24,000,000 acres of public lands.

Homesteads, Sales, and Other Entries Although the total number of entries on the public lands declined again during the year, the number of new homesteads and public auction sales increased over last year. The number of new homesteads in Alaska totaled 117, compared to 94 in the fiscal year of 1944 and 79 during 1943.

The following table shows the new entries and selections allowed, the entries finally approved and the patents and certifications issued during the year. At the end of the year, 4,156 entries embracing 626,000 acres were pending awaiting further compliance with the public land laws by entrymen or final action by the General Land Office.

Entries and selections, fiscal year 1945

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1 An original entry or selection is one made in pursuance of an act of the Congress which prescribes the terms and conditions under which patent may be issued or other evidence of title granted. An original entry becomes a final entry upon compliance by the entryman with further requirements of the law, such as residence or additional payment, and upon the issuance of a final certificate. A final certificate shows that, in the absence of irregularity, the entryman is entitled to a patent and passes equitable title to the land to the entryman. Where upon final examination it is found that an entry or selection is in proper form and that the law has been complied with, a patent conveying legal title to the claimant is issued. In the case of certain State selections, the legal title is conveyed upon approval thereof by the Secretary of the Interior and upon certification by the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

? Includes 3 homesteads on ceded Indian lands (433.60 acres).
* One selection was amended.
Town lots upon which only part payment was made; area not tabulated.
Includes 4 homesteads on ceded Indian lands (400.00 acres).
Includes 9 homesteads on ceded Indian lands (759.94 acres).
7 Includes 14 homesteads on ceded Indian lands (1,240.90 acres),

Includes 1 homestead on ceded Indian lands (80.00 acres).
Includes 3 homesteads on ceded Indian lands (280.75 acres).
10 Includes certifications, 47,963.15 acres.
1 Acreage previously reported.

Land Grants Title to 73,765 acres was conveyed during the year in satisfaction of grants of public lands made by the Congress to States and railroads for public purposes. Grants to States included 43,237 acres of indemnity school land selections, 14,983 acres of park selections, 9,280 acres of swamp land, and 4,726 acres selected for miners' hospitals. A total of 1,539 acres was patented to railroad companies pursuant to the Transportation Act of 1940. In addition, 16 patents were issued to States to give them additional evidence of title to 407,833 acres of previously granted school lands.

A total of 218 applications for rights-of-way were approved during the year under laws which provide for the granting of rights-of-way over the public lands for telephone and telegraph lines, public roads, pipelines, and other purposes. Of the applications approved, 104 were permits or easements with an annual rental of $1,730 and 32 were temporary rights-of-way over "O. and C.” lands with an annual rental of $160.

Land Exchanges Exchanges of land with private owners and local governments resulted in the addition of 56,087 acres to grazing districts in exchange for 51,954 acres of Federal land; 9,037 acres to Indian reservations in exchange for 9,079 acres; 480 acres to the "O. and C.” lands in exchange for an equal acreage; and 197,395 acres to national forests in exchange for 10,877 acres of land and sufficient timber to equalize the values involved.

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES Receipts from all sources during the year totaled $13,381,653. Mineral rentals, royalties, and bonuses accounted for 82 percent of the total receipts and sales of timber from the Oregon and California and Coos Bay lands for an additional 13 percent. The remaining 5 percent were realized from sales of public and ceded Indian lands, rentals, fines and penalties, copying fees, and from miscellaneous sources.

Of the total receipts, 38 percent will be distributed among various State and county governments and 44 percent will be covered into the reclamation fund. The remainder, except for $10,384.58 which will be credited to Indian trust funds and $57,734.66 which will be credited to the range improvement fund, will be covered into the general fund of the Treasury.

Expenditures from appropriations amounted to $2,365,005 distributed as follows: general administration, $867,783; surveys, $517,297; field examination, $343,482; administration of the revested and reconveyed grant lands, $290,956; district land offices, $267,925; range improvements, $44,275; and fire control in Alaska, $33,287. Ex

penditures, aggregating $319,191, were made from funds transferred to the General Land Office for the emergency protection of public lands and for soil and moisture conservation operations.

The following table shows the receipts earned during the year, by sources and Treasury accounts.

Disposition of receipts of the General Land Office: fiscal year 1945

Covered in the Treasury earmarked for— Source of receipts General | Reclama- | States and o Total fund tion fund counties funds o Sales of public lands-------------------- $79,582. 17 || $100,000.00 | * $3,800.00 ----------- $183,382. 17 Fees and commissions------------------ 17,359.71 | * 61,000.00 -------------|----------- 78,359.71 Mineral leases and permits: Mineral Leasing Act--------------- 1,005,976.36 |5,281,375.89 |3,772,411.35 10,059,763. 60 Red River oil and gas lands--- ----------------------------- 3,399.75 9,065.99 Potash----------------------------- - 68,098.61 || 3410,095.34 255,369.79 733, 563.74 Other------------------------------ * 216,604. 10 |-------------|------------- 216,604.10 Total mineral-------------------- 1,290,697.07 |5,691,471.23 4,031, 180.89 11, C18,997.43 Oregon and California grant lands------ 867,094. 56 |------------- 867,094.57 |- 1,734, 189. 13 Coos Bay grant lands------------------- 15,433.74 |------------- * 15,000.00 30, 433.74 Taylor Act grazing leases--------------- 57,734.66 s 57,734.66 115,469.32 - 230,938.64 Rights-of-way leases-------------------- 31,977.49 444.51 ---- 32,422.00 Sales of reclamation town lots----------|------------- * 7,498.64 7,498.64 Sales of Indian lands-------------------|-------------|------------- 4,718.34 Copying fees--------------------------- 21, 103.63 |------------- 21, 103.63 Miscellaneous-------------------------- 39,609. 46 ||------------- 39,609. 46 Grand total.---------------------- 2,420, 574.49 |5,918, 149.04 |5,032, 544.78 10,384. 58 |13,381,652.89

: #. o settlement of all accounts by the General Accounting Office. stimated. 3 Includes $52,577.64 collected in California under act of Oct. 2, 1917 (40 Stat. 297). 4 Includes $23,767.94 collected in Wyoming under act of June 26, 1926 (44 Stat. 1621), $176,868.94 collected in California under Executive Order 9087 dated Mar. 5, 1942, and $15,967.22 collected in Alaska. * Range improvement fund. * Includes $112.50 from sale of reserved reclamation lands.

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