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Division is in Sacramento, Calif. Section offices are maintained in Chattanooga, Tenn., and Arlington, Va.

General Office Work The major part of the year's activities of the Topographic Branch was directed toward producing maps in manuscript form from aerial photographs made for the War Department. Approximately 80 percent of the time and services of the personnel of the Arlington, Va., and Chattanooga, Tenn., groups was devoted to the mapping or supervision of mapping of areas in foreign countries for use of the Armed Forces. In all, 64,084 square miles were mapped by these facilities, of which 59,810 square miles were completed before VE-day.

Of the domestic maps published during the year, 183 were within the strategic areas designated by the War Department, thus increasing to 586 maps the total published of those areas since the declaration of war.

Section of computing.- Processing field notes of geodetic control surveys is the primary function of this section. The listed results are required by topographers and geologists in subsequent mapping processes of the Geological Survey. They are furnished regularly to the War Department, and, upon request, to other governmental organizations. As a public service, data for limited areas are available to geophysical prospectors, civil engineers, and surveyors throughout the United States. During the year lists for 374 quadranglemap areas were issued in lithographed form, and many others were prepared as typewritten manuscript.

The section is engaged in occasional tests of field instruments and researches into computing methods. Instructions are prepared for the technical procedures used in both field work and office processing of leveling, transit traverse, and triangulation.

Section of photomapping.The principal work of this section is the production of topographic maps from aerial photographs by stereophotogrammetric methods and the production of planimetric maps and planimetric bases for topographic field surveys by both stereophotogrammetric and graphic methods.

Topographic maps of areas in the United States produced during the year by these methods covered approximately 6,280 square miles; planimetric and base maps covered an area of approximately 8,688 square miles. Topographic maps of foreign areas were produced in manuscript form from aerial photographs for the War Department of an area of approximately 35,734 square miles. In addition, Geological Survey personnel working in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority either completed or supervised additional foreign mapping for the War Department in the amount of 28,350 square miles.

At the principal office of the section, in Arlington, Va., in addition to the large production facilities, which are operating on a two-shift basis, there are also maintained a central laboratory for designing, testing, repairing, and adjusting all types of special optical and mechanical equipment utilized for stereophotogrammetric work and a photographic laboratory specializing on research and precision photography required for the other offices.

The Washington office maintains a general file of aerial photographs utilized in the work of the Geological Survey and of aerial photographic negatives that have been purchased under photographic contracts. Through this office contacts are maintained with other governmental agencies involved in aerial photographic work.

Section of cartography.—Work on the International Map of the World on a scale of 1:1,000,000 was continued. Sheets H-14 (Austin); H-15 (Mississippi Delta); I-17 (Savannah); I-18 (Hatteras); (K-10 (Mount Shasta); K-17 (Lake Erie); and L-10 (Cascade Range) were in progress, and sheet K-16 (Chicago) was in course of publication at the end of the year.

The preparation of the transportation map for the Public Roads Administration was continued. Compiling, inking, lettering, and editing was in progress for the States of Louisiana, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, and West Virginia. Fourteen sheets in New Mexico were published; 33 sheets in Texas are in course of publication; and 8 sheets in North Carolina were transmitted for publication.

The Columbia River Basin maps for the International Columbia River Engineering Board as well as other special maps were prepared for publication.

Section of inspection and editing.–During the year 249 quadrangle maps were edited for publication, 175 of which were for multicolor photolithography and 74 for engraving; 376 quadrangle maps, 15 State maps, and 10 State index maps were prepared and edited for reprint editions; 112 maps and diagrams that had been prepared as illustrations for geologic reports were edited; and 392 proofs of all kinds were read. On June 30 maps in the process of reproduction included 85 for engraving and 79 for multicolor photolithography; maps being edited or awaiting editing included 32 maps for engraving and 59 for multicolor photolithography; and 292 maps remained on hand for preparation for reprinting.

The Section of Inspection and Editing maintains in Arlington, Va., a small unit to draft maps produced by the Atlantic Division.

Map Information Office The Map Information Office continued its work as clearing agency for data pertaining to maps and aerial photographs of both Federal and commercial agencies. The office maintains extensive card-index

and map files and is equipped to furnish data to Federal and State institutions and to the public.

Field Surveys Topographic mapping was carried on in 35 States. Cooperative projects were conducted with 19 States and with the Tennessee Valley Authority. Topographic mapping by the Geological Survey in the United States, Puerto Rico, and

Hawaii, to June 30, 1945

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· Planimetric maps covering 1,638 square miles in Wisconsin, not included in total surveys, were compiled from aerial photographs with field examination.

The mapping of forty-three 15-minute quadrangles and ninety-six 77-minute quadrangles was completed and mapping was in progress on forty-two 15-minute quadrangles and thirty-nine 774-minute quadrangles at the end of the year. In addition, work on 132 quadrangles was progressing in some one of the steps prior to actual mapping. Of the 139 quadrangles completed and the 81 partly completed, 116 are within the strategic area designated by the War Department. For use in the investigation of strategic and critical minerals, including iron, copper, bauxite, alunite, high-aluminum clay, manganese, and zinc, 9 special projects were completed and 1 was in progress.

Mapping was accomplished on 16 projects in several States for the Army Engineers, War Department, for flood control. For the irrigation and reclamation of lands, 5 large-scale maps were in progress for the Bureau of Reclamation. The survey of the Olympic National Park in the State of Washington was continued. ..

Of the total area of the United States, 47.7 percent has now been covered by topographic maps produced by the Geological Survey.


The Water Resources Branch collects and publishes basic information on the conditions and uses of surface water and ground water in all parts of the country. A widely scattered field force is needed for this work. About 100 field headquarters are maintained in which experienced men familiar with local problems related to water are available. Such decentralization serves well the purposes of cooperation, as close contact is thereby maintained between the Survey personnel and cooperating State and municipal officials, and information is available currently where urgently needed. During the emergency of war and now in preparing for peace the decentralization of the Survey's field forces has been especially valuable, because men who are specialists not only in water problems but also in local problems have been available in all parts of the country to conduct special field investigations and to furnish information promptly and efficiently.

Cooperation With States and Municipalities States and municipalities provided more than a third of the funds for the Survey's water investigations during the fiscal year 1945. The amounts contributed for cooperation in each State are summarized below:

State: contribution | State—Continued Contribution Alabama------------- $15,000 New Hampshire------- $9,208 Arizona-------------- 30, 900 New Jersey----------- 23, 550 Arkansas------------- 11, 250 New Mexico.---------- 41, 850 California------------ 90, 730 New York------------ 83, 378 Colorado------------- 32, 550 North Carolina- - - - - - - 24, 500 Connecticut.---------- 11,430 North Dakota.-------- 13, 900 Delaware------------- 2,050 Ohio----------------- 29, 751 Florida--------------- 40, 620 Oklahoma------------ 26, 130 Georgia.-------------- 17, 200 Oregon--------------- 26,075 Idaho---------------- 28,050 Pennsylvania- - - - - - - - - 41, 800 Illinois--------------- 15,090 Rhode Island--------- 2,950 Indiana-------------- 26, 400 South Carolina-------- 9,050 Iowa----------------- 27, 745 South Dakota.--------- 4, 550 Kansas--------------- 35, 540 Tennessee------------ 22, 100 Kentucky-----------. 25, 900 Texas-----...---------- 64, 300 Louisiana------------ 31, 750 Utah---------------- 25, 906 Maine--------------- 7, 500 Vermont------------- 6, 260 Maryland.------ - - - - - - 16, 975 Virginia-------------- 33, 800 Massachusetts - - - - - - - - 17, 246 Washington.---------- 55, 587 Michigan------------- 31, 375 West Virginia--------- 9, 300 Minnesota.---------...-- 15, 790 Wisconsin------------ 9,388 Mississippi----------- 15,000 Wyoming------------ 21, 200 Missouri------------- 13,055 Hawaii--------------- 43, 947 Montana------------- 13, 810 Nebraska------------- 27, 520 Total.----- - - - - - - - -- 1, 238,956 Nevada-------------- 10,000

Activities Carried on for Other Federal Agencies

Other Federal agencies provided about $970,000 for water investigations that could not be financed by appropriated funds of the Geological Survey or included in cooperative programs. These agencies are the Office of the Chief of Engineers and the Mississippi River Commission, War Department; Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navy Department; Tennessee Valley Authority; Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce; Bureau of Reclamation, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Office of Indian Affairs, Office of Land Utilization, and Bonneville Power Administration, Department of the Interior; Department of State; Defense Plant Corporation; Federal Power Commission; Federal Works Agency; War Production Board; Foreign Economic Administration; and Bureau of Prisons, Department of Justice.

War and Postwar Activities

Throughout the war the Geological Survey operated in an unusual degree as a consulting agency on matters related to the availability and chemical quality of water for war activities of all kinds. This service was based on the Survey's collection of essential facts gathered 673716–46—11

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