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France and Frenchmen, has exag His successor, Charles III., an argerated the demerits of the Bourbon tist of some repute himself, sincerely kings. Spanish art had been steadily loved and generously fostered the arts. declining for years before they, with While King of the Two Sicilies, he had ill-omened feet, crossed the Pyrenees. dragged into the light of day the longIt was Bourbon prince that lost wonders of Herculaneum and brought Luca da Presto from Naples Pompeii; and when called to the throne to teach the painters of Spain “ how of Spain and the Indies, he manito be content with their faults, and fested his sense of the obligations due get rid of their scruples;” and if the from royalty to art, by conferring schools of Castile and Andalusia had fresh privileges on the Academy of ceased to produce such artists as those St Ferdinand, and founding two new whose praises Mr Stirling has so academies, one in Valencia, the other worthily recorded, it appears scant in Mexico. If Mengs and Tiepolo, justice to lay the blame on the new and other mediocrities, were the best royal family. Pictor nascitur, non living painters his patronage could disfit—no, not even by the wielders of cover, it is evident from his ultra-prothe Spanish sceptre. In a desire to tectionist decree against the exportapatronise art, and in munificence tion of Murillo's pictures, that he fully towards its possessors, Philip V., appreciated the works of the mighty Ferdinand VI., and Charles III., fell dead; and, had his spirit animated little short of their Hapsburg predeces Spanish officials, many a masterpiece sors, but they had no longer the same that now mournfully, and without material to work upon. The post meaning, graces the Hermitage at St which Titian had filled could find no Petersburg, or the Louvre at Paris, worthier holder under Charles III., would still be hanging over the altar, than Rafael Mengs, whom not only or adorning the refectory for which it ignorant Bourbons, but the conoscenti was painted, at Seville or Toledo. Even of Europe regarded as the mighty Charles IV., “the drivelling tool of Venetian's equal ; and Philip V. Godoy," was a collector of pictures, not only invited Hovasse, Vanloo, and founder of an academy. In his Procaccini, and other foreign artists disastrous reign flourished Francisco to his court, but added the famous Goya y Lucientes, the last Spanish collection of marbles belonging to painter who has obtained a niche in Christina of Sweden to those acquired the Temple of Fame. Though porby Velasquez, at expense of traits and caricatures were his forte, twelve thousand doubloons. To him, in that venerable museum of all that also, is due the completion of the is beautiful in Spanish Art—the capalace of Aranjuez, and the design of thedral at Toledo-is to be seen a fine La Granja ; nor, when fire destroyed religious production of his pencil, rethe Alcazar, did Philip V. spare his presenting the Betrayal of our Lord. diminished treasures, in raising up on But he loved painting at, better than its time-hallowed site a palace which, for the church ; and those who have in Mr Stirling's own words, “ in spite examined and wondered at the groof its narrowed proportions, is still tesque satirical carvings of the stalls one of the largest and most imposing in the cathedral at Manchester, will in Europe.”—(Vol. iii., p. 1163.) be able to form some idea of Goya's
Ferdinand VI. built, at the enor anti-monkish caricatures. Not Lord mous expense of nineteen millions of Mark Kerr, when giving the rein reals, the convent of nuns of the to his exuberant fancy, ever devised order of St Vincent de Sales, and more ludicrous or repulsive “monemployed in its decoration all the sters" than this strange successor to artistic talent that Spain then could the religious painters of orthodox boast of. Nor can he be blamed if Spain. But when the vice, and inthat was but little ; for if royal patro trigues, and imbecility of the royal nage can produce painters of merit, knaves and fools,whom his ready graver this monarch, by endowing the Aca- had exposed to popular ridicule, had demy of St Ferdinand with large yielded to the unsupportable tyranny revenues, and housing it in a palace, of French invaders, the same indigwould have revived the glories of nant spirit that hurried the waterSpanish art.
carriers of Madrid into unavailing con
flict with the troops of Murat, guided must be owned that the inspiration his caustic hand against the fierce which guided Velasquez to his conoppressors of his country; and, while ception of that sublime subject was Gilray was exciting the angry con denied to the royal amateur. In the tempt of all true John Bulls at the academy of St Luke, adjoining the impudence of the little Corsican up- church, is a well-executed bust of start, Goya was appealing to his Canova, by the Spanish sculptor countrymen's bitter experience of the Alvarez. We suspect that, like Goya, tender mercies of the French invaders. the Infante would do better to stick to He died at Bordeaux in 1828. Mr caricature, in which branch of art Stirling closes his labours with a many a pleasant story is told of his graceful tribute to those of Cean proficiency. Seated on a rocky plateau, Bermudez, “the able and indefati- which, if commanding a view of Bilgable historian of Spanish art, to bao and its defenders, was also exwhose rich harvest of valuable mate- posed to their fire, 'tis said the royal rials I have ventured to add the fruit artist would amuse himself and his of my own humble gleanings staff with drawing the uneasy movedeserved tribute, and most handsomely ments, and disturbed countenances, of rendered. But, before we dismiss this some unfortunate London reporters, pleasant theme of Spanish art, we who, attached to the Carlist headwould add one artist more to the cata- quarters, were invited by the comlogue of Spanish painters-albeit, that mander-in-chief to attend his person, artist is a Bourbon!
and enjoy the perilous honour of his Near the little town of Azpeitia, in company. Be this, however, as it may, Biscay, stands the magnificent college we think we have vindicated the claim of the Jesuits, built on the birth-place of one living Bourbon prince to be of Ignatius Loyola. Here, in a low admitted into the roll of Spanish room at the top of the building, are painters in the next edition of the shown a piece of the bed in which he Annals. died, and his autograph ; and here In these tumultuous days, when among its cool corridors and everplaying fountains, in 1839, was living
“ Royal heads are haunted like a maukin," the royal painter—the Infante Don over half the Continent, and even in Sebastian. A strange spectacle, truly, steady England grave merchants and did that religious house present in the wealthy tradesmen are counselling summer of 1839 : wild Biscayan sol- together on how little their sovereign diers and dejected Jesuits, red boy. can be clothed and fed, and all things nas and black cowls, muskets and are being brought to the vulgar test crucifixes, oaths and benedictions, of L. 8. d., it is pleasant to turn to the crossed and mingled with each other artistic annals of a once mighty emin picturesque, though profane dis- pire like Spain, and see how uniorder; and here, released from the formly, for more than five hundred cares of his military command, and years, its monarchs have been the free to follow the bent of his disposi- patrons, always munificent, generally tion, the ex-commander-in-chief of the discriminating, of the fine arts-how, Carlist forces was quietly painting from the days of Isabella the Catholic, altar-pieces, and dashing off carica- to those of Isabella the Innocent, the tures. In the circular church which, Spanish sceptre has courted, not dis of exquisite proportions, forms the dained, the companionship of the centre of the vast pile, and is beauti- pencil and the chisel. Mr Stirling ful with fawn-coloured marble ‘and has enriched his pages with many an gold, hung a large and well-painted amusing anecdote illustrative of this picture of his production ; and those royal love of art, and suggestive, alas! who are curious in such matters may of the painful reflection, that the see a worse specimen of his royal future annalist of the artists of Enga highness's skill in Pietro di Cortona's land will find great difficulty in scrapChurch of St Luke at Rome. On one ing together half-a-dozen stories of a side of the altar is Canova's beauti similar kind. With the one striking ful statue of Religion preaching ; on exception of Charles I., we know not the other the Spanish prince's large who among our sovereigns can be picture of the Crucifixion; but, alas ! it compared, as a patron of art, to any of
the Spanish sovereigns, from Charles usal of the Annals, or to drop them at V. of the Austrian to Charles III. of the the threshold. We would, however, Bourbon race. Lord Hervey bas strongly recommend all who desire tó made notorious George II.'s ignorance appreciate Spanish art, never to forand dislike of art. Among the many get that she owes all her beauty and noble and kingly qualities of his grand- inspiration to Spanish nature and son, we fear a love and appreciation of Spanish religion. Remember this, o art may not be reckoned; and although, holyday tourist along the Andalusian in his intercourse with men of genius, coast, or more adventurous explorer George IV. was gracious and gene- of Castile and Estremadura, and you rous, what can be said in favour of will not be disappointed with her his taste and discernment? The productions. Mr Stirling has not previous life of William IV., the ma contented himself with doing ample ture age at which he ascended the justice to the great painters, and throne, and the troublous character of slurring over the comparatively unhis reign, explain why art received known artists, whose merits are in but slight countenance from the court advance of their fame, but has emof the frank and noble-hearted Sailor braced in his careful view the long Prince; but we turn with hope to the line of Spanish artists who have future, The recent proceedings in flourished or faded in the course of the Court of Chancery have made nearly eight hundred years; and he public a fact, already known to many, has accomplished this difficult task, that her Majesty wields with skilful not in the plodding spirit of a Dryashand a graceful graver, and the dust, or with the curt dulness of a Christmas plays acted at Windsor are catalogue-monger, but with the disa satisfactory proof that English art criminating good taste of an accomand genius are not exiled from Eng plished English gentleman, and in a land's palaces. The professors, then, style at once racy and rhetorical. of that art which Velasquez and There are whole pages in the AnRubens, Murillo and Vandyck prac nals as full of picturesque beauty a3 tised, shall yet see that the Crown of the scenes or events they describe, England is not only in ancient legal and of melody, as an Andalusian phrase, “the Fountain of Honour," summer's eve; indeed, the vigorous but that it loves to direct its grateful fancy and genial humour of the streams in their honoured direction. author have, on some few occasions, Free was the intercourse, unfettered led him to stray from those strict the conversation, independent the rela- rules of úds, which we are old-fations, between Titian and Charles V., shioned enough to wish always obVelasquez and Philip IV.; let us hope served. But where the charms and that Buckingham Palace and Windsor merits are so great, and so many, and Castle, will yet witness a revival of the defects so few and so small, we those palmy days of English art, may safely leave the discovery of the when Inigo Jones, and Vandyck, and latter to the critical reader, and Cowley, Waller, and Ben Jonson, shed satisfy our conscience by expressing a lustre on the art-loving court of Eng a hope that, when Mr Stirling next land !
appears in the character of author-a The extracts we have given from period not remote, we sincerely trust Mr Stirling's work will have suffi- —he will have discarded those few ciently shown the scope of the scentless flowers from his literary garAnnals, and the spirit and style in den, and present us with a bouquetwhich they are written. There is no tedious, inflexible, though often un
“ Full of sweet buds and roses, manageable leading idea, or theory of
A box where sweets compacted lie." art, running through these lively But if he never again put pen to paper, volumes. In the introduction, what, in these annals of the artists of Spain ever is to be said on the philosophy of he has given to the reading public a Spanish art is carefully collected, and work which, for utility of design, pathe reader is thenceforward left at tience of research, and grace of lanliberty to carry on the conclusions of guage, merits and has won the highest the introduction with him in his per- honours of authorship.
THE DODO AND ITS KINDRED.
WHAT was the Dodo? When was assured that of such of our readers as the Dodo? Where is the Dodo ? are admit that Zoroaster must have had a all questions, the first more especially, mother of some sort, very few really which it is fully more easy to ask remember now-a-days that her name than answer.
Whoever has looked was Dodo. There were no baptismal through books on natural history—for registers in those times; or, if such exexample, that noted but now scarce isted, they were doubtless consumed in instructor of our early youth, the the "great fire”—a sort of periodical, it Three Hundred Animals—must have may be providential, mode of shortening observed a somewhat ungainly crea the record, which seems to occur from ture, with a huge curved bill, a short time to time in all civilised countries. ish neck, scarcely any wings, a plumy But while the creature in question, tuft upon the back-considerably on -we mean the feathered biped—has the off-side, though pretending to be been continuously presented to view a tail, -and a very shapeless body, in those “ vain repetitions” which extraordinarily large and round about unfortunately form the mass of our the hinder end. This anomalous ani- information in all would-be popular mal being covered with feathers, and works on natural history, we had having, in addition to the other attri. actually long been at a stand-still in butes above referred to, only two relation to its essential attributes—the legs, has been, we think justly, re few competent authorities who had garded as a bird, and has accordingly given out their opinion upon this, as been named the Dodo. But why many thought, stereotyped absurdity, it should be so named is another of being so disagreed among themselves the many mysterious questions, which as to make confusion worse require to be considered in the history founded. The case, indeed, seemed of this unaccountable creature. No desperate; and had it not been that one alleges, nor can we conceive it we always entertained a particular possible, that it claims kindred with regard for old Clusius, (of whom byeither of the only two human beings and-by,) and could not get over the we ever heard of who bore the name : fact that a Dodo's head existed in the " “And after him (Adino the Eznite) Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and a was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Dodo's foot in the British Museum, Ahohite, one of the three mighty men London, we would willingly have inwith David, when they defied the dulged the thought that the entire Philistines that were there gathered Dodo was itself a dream. But, shaktogether to battle, and the men of ing off the cowardly indolence which Israel were gone away.” Our only would seek to shirk the investigation other human Dodo belonged to the of so great a question, let us now infair sex, and was the mother of the quire into a piece of ornithological famous Zoroaster, who flourished in biography, which seemed so singularly the days of Darius Hystaspes, and to combine the familiar with the fabubrought back the Persians to their lous. Thanks to an accomplished ancient fire-worship, from the adora- and persevering naturalist of our own tion of the twinkling stars. The day-one of the most successful and name appears to have been dropped assiduous inquirers of the younger by both families, as if they were some generation—we have now all the facts, what ashamed of it; and we feel and most of the fancies, laid before us
The Dodo and its Kindred ; or, the History, Affinities, and Osteology of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other Extinct Birds of the Islands Mauritius, Rodriguez, and Bourbon. By H. E. STRICKLAND, M.A. F.G.S., F.R.G.S., President of the Ashmolean Society, &c., and A. G. MELVILLE, M.D., Edinburgh, M.R.C.S. One vol., royal quarto: London, 1848.
VOL, LXV.-NO. CCCXCIX.
in a splendid royal quarto volume, extinct. We say utterly, because just published, with numerous plates, neither proof nor vestige of their exdevoted to the history and illustration istence elsewhere has been at any of the “Dodo and its Kindred.” It time afforded ; and the comparatively was, in truth, the latter term that small extent, and now peopled state cheered our heart, and led us again of the islands in question, (where towards a subject which had pre- they are no longer known,) make the viously produced the greatest despon- continuous and unobserved existence dency; for we had always, though of these birds, so conspicuous in size most erroneously, fancied that the and slow of foot, impossible. great misformed lout of our Three Now, it is this recent and total Hundred Animals was all alone in the extinction which renders the subject wide world, unable to provide for one of more than ordinary interest. himself, (and so, fortunately, without Death is an admitted law of nature, in a family,) and had never, in truth, respect to the individuals of all species. had either predecessors or posterity. Geology, " dragging at each remove a Mr Strickland, however, has brought lengthened chain," has shown how, at together the disjecta membra of a fa- different and distant eras, innumerable mily group, showing not only fathers tribes have perished and been supand mothers, sisters and brothers, but planted, or at least replaced, by other cousins, and kindred of all grees. groups of species, entire races, better Their sedate and somewhat sedentary fitted for the great climatic and other mode of life is probably to be accounted physical changes, which our earth’s for, not so much by their early habits surface has undergone from time to as their latter end. Their legs are time. How these changes were short, their wings scarcely existant, brought about, many, with more or but they are prodigiously large and less success, (generally less,) have tried heavy in the hinder-quarters; and to say. Organic remains—that is, the organs of flight would have been but fossilised remnants of ancient speciesa vain thing for safety, as they could sometimes indicate a long continuance not, in such wooded countries as these of existence, generation after generacreatures inhabited, have been made tion living in tranquillity, and finally commensurate with the uplifting of sinking in a quiet grave; while other such solid bulk, placed so far behind examples show a sudden and violent that centre of gravity where other death, in tortuous and excited action, wings are worked. We can now sit as if they had been almost instantanedown in Mr Strickland's company, to ously overwhelmed and destroyed by discuss the subject, not only tran some great catastrophe. quilly, but with a degree of cheerful Several local extinctions of elseness which we have not felt for many where existing species are known a day: thanks to his kindly considera to naturalists—such as those of the tion of the Dodo and “its kindred." beaver, the bear, and the wolf, which
The geographical reader will re no longer occur in Great Britain, member that to the eastward of the though historically known, as well as great, and to ourselves nearly unknown, organically proved by recent remains, island of Madagascar, there lies a to have lived and died among us. small group of islands of volcanic Their extinction was slow and graorigin, which, though not exactly con dual, and resulted entirely from the tiguous among themselves, are yet inroads which the human race—that nearer to each other than to the greater is, the increase of population, and island just named, and which is inter- the progress of agriculture and composed between them and the coast of merce-necessarily made upon their Southern Africa. They are named numbers, which thus became “ few Rodriguez, Bourbon, and Mauritius, by degrees, and beautifully less." or the Isle of France. There is proof The beaver might have carried on that not fewer than four distinct business well enough, in his ov quiet species of large-bodied, short-winged way, although frequently incommoded birds, of the Dodo type, were their by the love of peltry on the part of a inhabitants in comparatively recent hat-wearing people; but it is clear times, and have now become utterly that no man with a small family, and