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Invalides, or passing in spectral re- give an unfavourable notion of his view the dead of Austerlitz and Boro- heart, to those who do not accept our dino, suspend your lonely walk, curb lenient interpretation of his coldyour shadowy charger, and contem- blooded style. The traits he sets down, plate this pitiable spectacle ! You, and which are no more than will be too, gave dukedoms, and lavished found in many French narratives, even crowns, but you gave them for despatches, and bulletins, show how services worth the naming. Ney and well the Franco-African army carry the Moskwa, Massena and Essling, out the merciful maxims of Bugeaud. Lannes and Montebello, are words Mr Borrer, a geographer and antithat bear the coupling, and grace a quary, passed seventeen months in coronet. The names of the places, Algeria ; and during his residence althongh all three recall brilliant vic- there, in May 1846, a column of eight tories, are far less glorious in their thousand French troops, commanded associations than the names of the by the Duke of Isly in person, marched men. But Bugeaud and Isly! against the Kabyles, "that mysteriWhat can we say of them ? Truly, ous, bare-headed, leathern- aproned thus much-they, too, are worthy of race, whose chief accomplishment was each other.

said to be that of being . crack-shots,' When reviewing, about two years their chief art that of neatly roasting ago, Captain Kennedy's narrative of their prisoners alive, and their chief travel and adventure in Algeria, virtue that of loving their homes.” It we regretted he did not speak out may interest the reader to hear a raabout the mode of carrying on the thermore explicit account of this singuwar, and about the prospects of Alge- lar people, who dwell in the mountains rine colonisation; and we hinted a that traverse Algeria from Tunis to suspicion that the amenities of French Morocco-an irregular domain, whose military hospitality, largely extended limits it is difficult exactly to define in to a British fellow-soldier, had in- words. The Kabyles are, in fact, the dnced him, if not exactly to cloak, at highlanders of North Africa, and they least to shun laying bare, the errors hold themselves aloof from the Arabs and mishaps of his entertainers. We and Europeans that surround them. cannot make the same complaint of Concerning them, we find some diverthe very pretty book, rich in vig- sity in the statements of Mr Borrer, nettes and cream-colour, entitled, and of an anonymous Colonist, twelve A Campaign in the Kabylie. Mr years resident at Bougie, whose pamBorrer, whom the Cockneys, contemp- pblet is before us. Of the two, the tuous of terminations, will assuredly Frenchman gives them the best charconfound with his great gipsy cotem acter, but both agree as to their porary, George Borrow of the Bible, industry and intelligence, their fruhas, like Captain Kennedy, dipped gality and skill in agriculture. They his spoon in French messes. He are not nomadic like the Arabs, but has ridden with their regiments, and live in villages, till the land, and tend sat at their board, and been quartered flocks. Dwelling in the mountains, with their officers, and received kind- they have few horses, and fight chiefly ness and good treatment on all hands; on foot. Divided into many tribes, and therefore any thing that could they are constantly quarreling and be construed into malicious comment fighting amongst themselves, but they would come with an ill grace from his forget their feuds and quickly unite to pen. But it were exaggerated deli- repel a foreign foe. " Predisposed by cacy to abstain from stating facts, his character,” says the Colonist, "to and these he gives in all their naked- draw near to civilisation, the Kabyle ness; generally, however, allowing attaches himself sincerely to the civithem to speak for themselves, and lised man when circumstances estabadding little in the way of remark or lish a friendly connexion between them. opinion. In pursuance of this system, He is still inclined to certain vices he relates the most horrible instances inherent in the savage ; but of all the of outrage and cruelty with a matter Africans, he is the best disposed to live of-fact coolness, and an absence alike in friendship and harmony with us, of blame and sympathy, that may which he will do when he shall find

himself in permanent contact with the Desjobert, and a variety of pamphletEuropean population." This is not eers and newspaper writers, attacked, the general opinion, and it differs with argument, ridicule, and statistics, widely from that expressed by Mr the party known as the Algérophiles, Borrer. But the Colonist had his own who made light of difficulties, scoffed views, perhaps his own interests, to at expense, and predicted the prosfurther. He wrote some months pre perity and splendour of French Africa. vious to the expedition which Mr Algeria, according to them, was to Borrer accompanied, and which was become the briglitest gem in the citithen not likely to take place, and he zen-crown of France.

These sanstrongly advocated its propriety-ad guine gentlemen were met with facts mitting, however, that public opinion and figures. During 1846, said the in France was greatly opposed to a anti-Algerines, your precious colony military incursion into Kabylia. Him will have cost France 125,000,000 of self established at Bougie, of course francs. And they proved it in black in some description of commerce, the and white. There was little chance necessity of roads connecting the coast of the expense being less in following and the interior was to him quite years. Then came the loss of men. evident. A good many of his coun In 1840, said M. Desjobert, giving trymen, whose personal benefit was chapter and verse for his statements, not so likely to be promoted by cause 9567 men perished in the African way-cutting in Algeria, strongly de hospitals, out of an effective army of precated any sort of road-making that 63,000. Add those invalids who died was likely to bring on war with the in French hospitals, or in their Kabyles. France began to think she homes, from the results of African was paying too dear for her whistle. campaigning, and the total loss is She looked back to the early days of moderately stated at 11,000 men, or the Orleans dynasty, when Marshal more than one-sixth of the whole Clausel promised to found a rich and force employed. Out of these, only powerful colony with only 10,000 227 died in action. The thing seemed

She glanced at the pages of hopeless and endless. What do we the Moniteur of 1837, and there she get for our money? was the cry. found words uttered by the great What is our compensation for the Bugeaud in the Chamber of Deputies. decimation of our young

men? “ Forty-five thousand men and one France can better employ her sons, good campaign," said the white-headed than in sending them to perish by warrior, as the Arabs call him, " and African fevers. What do we gain by in six months the country is pacified, all this expenditure of gold and and you may reduce the army to blood ?- The unreasonable mortals ! twenty thousand men, to be paid by Had they not gained a Duke of Isly imposts levied on the colony, con and a Moorish pavilion ? M. Desscquently costing France nothing." jobert surely forgets these inestimable Words, and nothing more—mere wind; acquisitions when he asks and anthe greatest bosh that ever was uttered, swers the question—“What remains even by Bugeaud, who is proverbial of all our victories ? A thousand bulfor dealing largely in that flatulent letins, and Horace Vernet's big piccommodity. Nine years passed away, tures. and the Commission of the Budget “How many times," says the same “ deplored a situation which writer, “has not the subjection of the pelled France to maintain an army of Arabs been proclaimed! In 1844, more than 100,000 men upon ihat General Bugeaud gains the battle of African territory." (Report of M. Isly. Are the Arabs subdued ? Bignon of the 15th April 1846, p.

* When the Arabs appear before 237.) Bugeaud himself had mightily the judges who dispose of life and changed his tone, and declared that, to death, they confess their faith, and keep Algiers, as large an army would proclaim their hatred of us; and be essential as had been required to when we are simple enough to tell conquer it.

Lamoricière, a great them that some of their race are deauthority in such matters, confirmed voted to us, they reply, “Those lie the opinion of bis senior. Monsieur to you, through fear, or for their own



p. 285 ?

interest; and as often as a scheriff hands, must render the hearts of those shall come whom they believe able to acquainted with this people perfectly conquer you, they will follow him, callous as to what misfortunes may even into the streets of Algiers.' befall them or their country; and (Examination of Bou Maza's brother, many may think that, as far as the 12th November 1845.) Thus spoke advancement of civilisation is conthe chief. The common Arab had cerned, the wiping off of the Kabyle already said to the Christian, “If and Arab races of Northern Africa my head and thine were boiled in the from the face of the earth, would be the same vessel, my broth would separate greatest boon to humanity. Though, itself from thy broth.”

however, they may be fraught with This was discouraging to those all the vices of the Canaanitish tribes who had dreamed of the taining of the of old, yet the command, 'Go ye after Arab; and the more sanguinary him through the city and smite; let mooted ideas of extermination. Such not your eye spare, neither have ye a project, clearly written down, and pity; slay utterly old and young, both printed, and placed on Parisian maids, and little children, and women,' breakfast tables, might be startling; in is not justifiably issued at the pleaAlgeria it had long been put in prac. sure of man; and we can but lament tice. What said General Duvivier in to see a great and gallant nation enhis Solution de la Question d'Algérie, gaged in a warfare exasperating both

“For eleven years they parties to indulge in sanguinary atrohave razed buildings, burned crops, cities, – atrocities to be attributed on destroyed trees, massacred men, one side to the barbarous and savage women, and children, with a still-in. state of those having recourse to them; creasing fury.” We have already but on the other, proceeding only from shown that this work of extermina a thirst for retaliation and bloody retion was not carried on with perfect venge, unworthy of those enjoying a impunity. Here is further contirma- high position as a civilised people. tion of the fact. “Every Arab killed,” War is, as we all know, ever producsays M. Leblanc de Prébois, another tive of horrors : but such horrors may officer, who wrote on the Algerian be greatly restrained and diminished war, and wrote from personal expe- by the exertions and example of those rience, costs us the death of thirty- in command." three men, and 150,000 francs.” Sup The hoary-headed hero of Isly is posing a vast deal of exaggeration in not the man to make the exertion, or this statement, the balance still re set the example. At the beginning mains ugly against the French, for of 1847, rumours of a projected inroad whom there is evidently very little amongst the Kabyles caused uneasidifference between catching an Arab ness and dissatisfaction in Algeria, and catching a Tartar. Whilst upon when such a movement was highly the subject of extermination, Mr unpopular, as likely to lead to a long Borrer gives an opinion more decidedly and expensive war. The “Commisunfavourable to bis French friends sion of Credits," a board appointed by than is expressed in any other part the French Chamber for the particular of his book. His estimate of Kabyle investigation and regulation of Algevirtues differs considerably, it will be rine affairs, applied to the minister of observed, from that of the Colonist, war to know if the rumours were well and of the two is much nearest the founded. The minister confessed they truth.

were; adding, however, that the expe“The abominable vices and debauch- dition would be quite peaceable; but eries of the Kabyle race, the inhuman at the same time laying before the barbarities they are continually guilty commission letters from Bugeaud, of towards such as may be cast by "expressing regret that force of arms tempest, or other misfortune, upon their was not to be resorted to more than rugged shores; the atrocious cruelties was absolutely necessary, the submisand refined tortures they, in common sion of the aborigines being never cerwith the Arab, delight in exercising tain until powder had spoken." The upon any such enemies as may be so marshal evidently felt like fighting." anhappy as to fall alive into their The Commission protested;


minister rebuked them, bidding them upon, but they do not attack.” The mind their credits, and not meddle with marshal, whose whole public life has the royal prerogative. Thus unjustly been full of contradictions, was the snubbed—for they certainly were mind- first to intrude upon them, although ing their credits, by opposing increase but a very few years had elapsed since of expenditure—the Commission were he said in a pamphlet, “ The Kabyles mute, one of the members merely ob are numerous and very warlike; they serving, by way of a last shot, that it have villages, and their agriculture is was easier to refuse to listen than to sedentary; already there is too little reply satisfactorily. In France, public land to supply their wants; there is opinion, the Chamber of Deputies, and no room, therefore, for Europeans in Marshal Soult, had, on various occa the mountains of Kabylia, and they sions, declared against attacking the would cut a very poor figure there." Kabyles. “Nevertheless, a proclama This last prophetic sentence was reation was issued by Marshal Bugeaud lised by M. Bugeaud himself, who to the inhabitants of the Kabylie, to certainly made no very brilliant apwarn them that the French army was pearance when, forgetting his former upon the point of entering their terri theory, he hazarded himself in May tory, 'to cleanse it of those adventu 1847, at the head of eight thousand rers who there preached the war men, and with Mr Borrer in his train, against France.' The proclamation amongst the hardy mountaineers of then went on to state, that the marshal Kabylia. had no desire to fight with them, or to Hereabouts Mr Borrer quotes, in devastate their property; but that, if French, the statement of a member there were amongst them any who of the Commission already referred wished for war, they would find him to. It is worth extracting, as fully ready to accept it." If a hard confirming our conviction that the favoured stranger, armed with a horse- conduct of France in Algeria has been whip, walked uninvited into M. throughout characterised by an utter Bugeaud's private residence, loudly want of judgment and justice. " The proclaiming he would thrash nobody native towns have been invaded, unless provoked, the marshal would ruined, sacked, by our administration, be likely to resist the intrusion. The more even than by our arms. In Kabyles, doubtless, thought his ad time of peace, a great number of privance into their territory an equally vate estates have been ravaged and unjustifiable proceeding. As to the destroyed. A multitude of title-deeds pretext of " the adventurers who delivered to us for verification have preached war," it was unfounded and never been restored. Even in the ridiculous. Such propagandists have environs of Algiers, fertile lands have never been listened to in Kabylia. been taken from the Arabs and given "The voice of the Emir Abd-el-Kader to Europeans, who, unable or unhimself," says the Colonist, “would willing to cultivate their new posses. not obtain a hearing. Did he not go sions, have farmed them out to their in person, in 1839, when preparing to former owners, who have thus bebreak bis treaty of peace with us, and come the mere stewards of the inheripreach the holy war? Did he not tance of their fathers. Elsewhere, traverse the valley of the Souman, from tribes, or fractions of tribes, not one end to the other, to recruit com hostile to us, but who, on the conbatants ? And what did he obtain trary, had fought for us, have been from the Kabyles ? Hospitality for a driven from their territory. Condifew days, coupled with the formal in tions have been accepted from them, vitation to evacuate the country as and not kept-indemnities promised, soon as possible. Did he succeed and never paid-until we have combetter when he lately again tried to promised our honour even more than raise Kabylia against us?” Mr Borrer their interests.” Such a statement, confirms this. Marshal Bugeaud him- proceeding from a Frenchman-from self bad said in the Chamber of one, too, delegated by his government Deputies, “The Kabyles are neither to examine the state of the colonyaggressive nor hostile; they defend is quite conclusive as to administrathemselves vigorously when intruded tive proceedings in Algeria. It would

be superfluous and impertinent to add long shots at the rear-guard. Four another line of evidence. A comment venerable elders bring two yoked oxen may be appropriate. • Is it not in token of submission. In general, Montesquieu,” says Mr Borrer, “ in the inhabitants have disappeared. his Esprit des Lois, who observes— Their deserted towns appear, in the “The right of conquest, though a ne. distance, by no means inferior to many cessary and legitimate right, is an French and Italian villages. The unhappy one, bequeathing to the con marshal will not permit exploring queror a heavy debt to humanity, only parties, for fear of ambuscade. Night to be acquitted by repairing, as far as arrives, and passes without incident possible, those evils of which he has of note. At three in the morning, been the cause'?—and Montesquieu the camp is aroused by hideous was a wise man, and a Frenchman!” yells. A sentinel has fired at a horse

Dismissing this branch of the sub- thief and broken his leg, and now, ject, let us see how the Duke of Isly mindful of the ten francs, tries to made “the powder speak” in Kaby- cut off the head of the wounded man, lia, and try our band at a rough who objects and screams. A bayonetsketch, taking the loan of Mr Borrer's thrust stops his mouth, and the bill on colours. A strong body of French Bugeaud is duly severed. The next troops—the 8000 have been increased, day is passed in skirmishing with the . since departure, by several battalions Beni-Abbez, the most numerous tribe and some spahis-are encamped in a of the valley of the Souman, but not rich valley, cutting down the unripe a very warlike one-so

savs the wheat for the use of their horses, Colonist; and, indeed, they offer but whilst, from the surrounding heights, slight resistance, although they, or the Kabyles gloomily watch the un some other tribes, make a firm and scrupulous foragers. "Now soft- determined attack upon the French winged evening, as Mr Dawson outposts in the course of that night. Borrer poetically expresses himself, There is more smoke than bloodshed; "hovers o'er the scene, chasing from but the Kabyles show considerable woodlands and sand-rock heights the pluck, burn a prodigious number of gilded tints of the setting sun.” In cartridges, and make no doubt they other words, it gets dark—and shots have nearly “rubbed out” the Chrisare heard. The natives, vexed at the tians; in which particular they are liberties taken with their crops, harass rather mistaken — the French, not the outposts. Their bad powder and choosing to leave their camp, having overloaded guns have no chance quietly lain down, and allowed the against French muskets. “In the Berber lead to fly over them. At last name of the Prophet, HEADS !" Bu the assailants' ammunition runs low, geaud the Merciful pays for them ten and they retire, leaving a sprinkling francs a-piece. Four are presented of dead. Mr Borrer quotes the Koran. to him before breakfast. The pre 16 • Those of our brothers who fall in mium is to make the soldiers alert defence of the true faith, are not dead, against horse-stealers. Ten francs but live invisible, receiving their nourbeing a little fortune to a French riture from the hand of the Most soldier, whose pay in hard cash is two High,' says the Prophet.” Nourriture or three farthings a-day, Mr Borrer is not quite English, at least with that suspects the heads are sometimes orthography; but no matter for Mr taken from shoulders where they have Borrer's Gallicisms, which are many. a right to remain. An Arab is always We rush with him into the Kabyle an Arab, whether a horse-stealer or a fire. Here he sits, halted amongst mere idler. But no matter—a few the olive-trees, philosophically lightmore or less. Day returns; the co- ing bis pipe, the bullets whistling lumn marches; the Kabyles show about his ears, whilst he admires the little of the intrepidity, in defence of sang froid of a pretty vivandière, their hearths and altars, attributed to seated astride upon her_borse, and them by M. Bugeaud and others. jesting at the danger. The column Their horsemen fly before a platoon advances—the Kabyles retreat, fightof French cavalry; the infantry limit ing, pursned by the French shells, their offensive operations to cowardly which they hold in particular horror,

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