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was safe for the State. But even yet the welfare of the State was the fundamental idea underlying all theories of government, and the citizen was educated only that he might intelligently help to rule. But there had been a great gain in the worth of the individual over the days when he existed only as a chattel of the State.

Even these theories of government are undergoing remarkable changes—changes which are profoundly affecting our entire institutional life. No longer does the individual exist merely for the welfare of the State. Under the new order of things the State has no warrant for its existence excepting as it promotes the welfare of its citizens. It finds the sanction for its organization, for its control, and for its development only in the will of the people. Thus the responsibility for wise and effective rulership has been lifted entirely from the shoulders of the few and laid upon the minds and the hearts of the many. If any part of our institutional life now fails, it is the fault of the people. This is the answer to the shallow criticism of the school. If the schools are not what they should be, it is because the people are either not prepared or not willing to make them of the best. The same laws apply to the rule of the many as to the rule of the few. Intelligence, liberality, integrity, and zeal furnish the only firm foundation for human progress whether a king or the people are in control. But there is this difference. With the people in control the possibilities for progress or retrogression are greatly increased. Only individual education combined with absolute rectitude will guarantee a progressive democracy.

In this new era, therefore, mere knowledge will no longer suffice. The people must not only know, but they must also have the power and the will to perform. The individual has so greatly increased in worth that we must put all of his possibilities in an efficient school. To do so is no light task. No one place, no one people, can see the way alone. He who would deal wisely with and for the school must be in touch with all. But the school has also both opened and spread beyond its own doors. It is not only influenced by all human activity, but it is also rapidly reaching out to touch all activity with its magic wand. This still further widens the outlook and the field of work.

The friends of the school must vision the world process that has its beginning in the school but which widens out to include the substance of all human effort and all human growth. Only in this way can they wisely see and plan. While much has been written and said along many special lines, little has been done toward this more general view. And the perspective set forth in these Annals should therefore find a large place with all who are interested or associated in any way with these developing educational influences and needs.

We are beginning to realize something of the real value of the school plant in the promotion of education for all the people. This extension of the school for the service of enlightened democracy is not sporadic. It is not ephemeral. It cannot be denied. It has come to stay. We must meet it and organize it into all forms of service compatible with the greatest good of the whole people. The necessity for sane guidance was never so imperative as now. Many suggestions and experiments are under way. The clear-visioned leader has not yet come to the front. Caution with courage is required to conserve the good, advance the best, and dismiss the bad. The evolution of the entire field of school extension, both within the processes of the school and the procedure for adult education, is a fascinating study. To understand it aright these volumes are a valuable guide. Here this evolution, step by step, is set forth, and the present status and future trend of education well indicated.

More fascinating than romance is this story of the struggle throughout the world to unfetter the human mind, enrich the human soul, advance the human kind. To be part and portion of the world enterprise is glorious. To know in a fairly definite way what is occurring along the world-girdling line of advance is inspirational. The author of these volumes has been a faithful courier from the front with messages of moment for you; with assurances of progressive educational gains; with a vision that gives hope and help to those who, with him, are struggling to make education, both as culture and as guiding knowledge, the assured possession of all.

M. G. BRUMBAUGH, Philadelphia, May 30, 1913.

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