Marine Mammals and Noise
Academic Press, Oct 22, 2013 - Nature - 576 pages
Many marine mammals communicate by emitting sounds that pass through water. Such sounds can be received across great distances and can influence the behavior of these undersea creatures. In the past few decades, the oceans have become increasingly noisy, as underwater sounds from propellers, sonars, and other human activities make it difficult for marine mammals to communicate. This book discusses, among many other topics, just how well marine mammals hear, how noisy the oceans have become, and what effects these new sounds have on marine mammals. The baseline of ambient noise, the sounds produced by machines and mammals, the sensitivity of marine mammal hearing, and the reactions of marine mammals are also examined.
An essential addition to any marine biologist's library, Marine Mammals and Noise will be especially appealing to marine mammalogists, researchers, policy makers and regulators, and marine biologists and oceanographers using sound in their research.
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Chapter 9 Documented Disturbance Reactions
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acoustic aircraft airgun altitude ambient noise levels animals areas audibility audiograms auditory avoidance background noise baleen whales band bandwidth behavior belugas boats bottlenose dolphin bowhead whales broadband calls cetaceans Chapter clicks depth detectable distance disturbance dredging drilling drillship echolocation emit energy estimated explosions exposure Frequency Hz fur seals gray whales habituation harbor seal helicopter human activities humpback whales hydrophone icebreaking in-air increasing killer whale low frequencies low-frequency Malme man-made noise manatees marine mammals masking measured noise source numbers octave odontocetes offshore pinnipeds playbacks porpoises pupa pupa-m quency radius range react reactions received level response Richardson right whales ringed seals Schevill sea lions sea otters Section shallow water ship sonars sound propagation sound signal sound transmission source levels species spectra spectrum level sperm whales strong studies surface Terhune terrestrial mammals threshold tion tones toothed whales types underwater noise underwater sounds versus vessels Vibroseis W3-octave Watkins