Low Back Disorders: Evidence-based Prevention and Rehabilitation
Access the latest research and applications to build effective prevention and rehabilitation programs for your patients or clients with "Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition." Internationally recognized low back specialist Stuart McGill presents original research to quantify the forces that specific movements and exercises impose on the low back, dispels myths regarding spine stabilization exercises, and suggests prevention approaches and strategies to offset injuries and restore function.
"Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition," presents a clear exposition of back anatomy and biomechanics and demonstrates how to interpret the latest research on low back involvement for clinical applications. The text also contains detailed information on injuries associated with seated work and sport and ergonomic issues related to manual handling of materials. With "Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition," you will
-gain valuable information on measured loading of the back during specific activities and apply it to avoid common--but counterproductive--practices in back rehabilitation;
-learn how to analyze each patient's or client's unique physical characteristics and lifestyle factors to tailor preventive measures and treatments to individual needs;
-learn how to help patients and clients progress through the stages of rehabilitation: corrective exercise, stability or mobility, endurance, and strength; and
-acquire the information necessary to design an effective injury-prevention program.This fully updated second edition expands knowledge of low back disorders and best practices in several areas. Enhanced algorithms guide progessive therapeutic exercise, and specially designed patient assessment provocation tests aid you in determining the cause of back troubles, guide your choices in the best ways to eliminate problems, and improve the development of appropriate activities for functional gain. Whereas the first edition focused on increasing spine stability, the second edition provides new information on dealing with both regional instability or mobility and regional stiffness present in individuals where most of the motion occurs at a single spinal segment.
With an expanded repertoire of pain-free motion exercises and additional information on ways to find and adjust stabilization exercises, "Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition," offers you new tools to help your patients and clients achieve pain-free exertion.
The text includes exercises and activities that provide a solid foundation of physical work in preparation for more advanced activities in sports and occupations. Also, the process of transitioning into performance exercise is outlined with an explanation of the critical stages of the performance pyramid, including the design of appropriate corrective exercise, building joint and whole-body stability, enhancing endurance, training true strength, and transitioning to ultimate performance.
"Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition," presents foundational information and corresponding clinical applications in a clear, well-sequenced format. Part I builds your knowledge of lumbar function and injury. Part II demonstrates how to use this knowledge to build evidence-based injury-prevention programs by assessing risks, creating ergonomic interventions, and training personnel. Part III focuses on improving rehabilitation techniques, including specific diagnostic and provocative tests, with specific therapeutic exercises proven to enhance performance and reduce pain through a continuum from corrective exercise to stability and mobility, endurance, strength, and power.
Additionally, the text offers these practical features to guide your learning and inform your practice:
-More than 475 photos, graphs, and charts support the research and the scientific basis for the text's conclusions.
-More than 50 tests and exercises with step-by-step instructions help you develop successful programs for your patients and clients.
-Special sections highlight how the anatomical, biomechanical, and research results can be applied to clinical situations.
-Extensive discussions on individualizing treatment for clients or patients help you improve your assessment skills by learning what questions to ask and what avenues of investigation to pursue with each patient or client.
-Reproducible handout sheets for each of the 25 basic rehabilitation exercises, which include photos and blank lines for instructions, enable the creation of instruction sheets tailored to the current needs and progress rates of each patient or client.Cutting-edge research and evidence-based application strategies from the leading spine specialist in North America make "Low Back Disorders: Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation, Second Edition," the authoritative text for study, care, and treatment of the low back. Its unique approach to back care will guide you in developing intervention, rehabilitation, and prevention programs to address the unique needs of each patient or client and develop a strong scientific foundation for your practice.
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Introduction to the Issues
The Unfortunate Adverse Impact on Bad Backs
Is It True That 85 of Back Troubles Are of Unknown Etiology?
Is It True That Most Chronic Back Complaints Are Rooted in Psychological Factors?
Does Pain Cause Activity Intolerance?
IllAdvised Rehabilitation Recommendations
Can Back Rehabilitation Be Completed in 6 to 12 Weeks?
NIOSH Approach to Risk Assessment
Snook Psychophysical Approach
Biological SignalDriven Model Approaches
Reducing the Risk of Low Back Injury
Compensation Board StatisticsAn Artifact?
Should the Primary Goal of Rehabilitation Be Restoring the Range of Motion?
A Final Note
Scientific Approach Unique to This Book
In Vivo Lab
Development of the Virtual Spine
Epidemiological Studies on Low Back Disorders LBDs
Three Important Studies
Do Workers Experience LBDs Because They Are Paid to Act Disabled?
Does Pain Have an Organic BasisOr Is It All in the Head?
Are Biomechanical Variables and Psychosocial Variables Distinct?
How Do Biomechanical Factors Affect LBD?
What Are the Lasting Physiological Biomechanical and Motor Changes to Which Injury Leads?
What Is the Optimal Amount of Loading for a Healthy Spine?
What Are the Links Between Personal Factors and LBD?
What the Evidence Supports
Functional Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine
Posterior Elements of the Vertebrae
Other Ligaments in the Thoracolumbar Spine
Lumbodorsal Fascia LDF
A Quick Review of the Pelvis Hips and Related Musculature
Clinically Relevant Aspects of Pain and Anatomic Structure
Can Pain Descriptors Provide a Reliable Diagnosis?
Normal and Injury Mechanics of the Lumbar Spine
Kinetics and Normal Lumbar Spine Mechanics
Loads on the Low Back During Various Exercises
Dubious Lifting Mechanisms
Biomechanics of Diurnal Spine Changes
Muscle Cocontraction and Spine Stability
Injury Mechanics Involving the Lumbar Mechanism
Biomechanical and Physiological Changes Following Injury
Specific Patterns of Muscle Inhibition Following Injury
Myths and Realities of Lumbar Spine Stability
Quantitative Foundation of Stability
Potential Energy as a Function of Height
Potential Energy as a Function of Stiffness and Elastic Energy Storage
Muscles Create Force and Stiffness
LBD Risk Assessment
Studies on the Connection Between Fitness and Injury Disability
LBD Prevention for Workers
What Are the Ways to Reduce the Reaction Moment?
Should One Avoid Exertion Immediately After Prolonged Flexion?
Should IntraAbdominal Pressure IAP Be Increased During Lifting?
Are Twisting and Twisting Lifts Particularly Dangerous?
Is There Any Way to Make Seated Work Less Demanding on the Back?
Some ShortAnswer Questions
LBD Prevention for Employers
Injury Prevention Primer
A Note for Consultants
The Question of Back Belts
Studies of Belts Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
Low Back Rehabilitation
Building Better Rehabilitation Programs for Low Back Injuries
Finding the Best Approach
Stages of Patient Progression
Establish Stability Through Exercises and Education
Guidelines for Developing the Best Exercise Regimen
Basic Issues in Low Back Exercise Prescription
Evaluating the Patient
First ClinicianPatient Meeting
Some Provocation Tests
A Note on Motion Palpation
Some Functional Screens
The Stiff Spine
Testing for Aberrant Gross Lumbar Motion
Testing Muscle Endurance
Developing the Exercise Program
Flossing the Nerve Roots for Those With Accompanying Sciatica
Identifying Safe and Effective Exercises
Incorporating and Patterning the Muscles
Selecting Safe and Effective Exercises
Exercises That May Be Used in a Stabilization Program
Safely Increasing Challenges
Safely Progressing Back Exercises
Occupational and Athletic Work Hardening
Low Back Exercises Only for Athletes
HANDOUTS FOR PATIENTS OR CLIENTS
REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READINGS