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Physics.-Prof. Shand, M. A., LL. D., Dunedin.
Chemistry.-Prof. F. D. Brown, M. A., Auckland.
Geography and history.-Prof. Gilray, M. A., Dunedin.
Botany.-Prof. Parker. B. Sc., F. R. S., Dunedin.
There are on the university roll the following who have become grad
uates by examination:
Bachelors of arts
Bachelors of science
Bachelors of laws..
Bachelors of medicine and surgery.
Masters of arts
Doctors of laws
Doctors of medicine
The following graduates have been admitted ad eundem gradum:
The present fellows of the New Zealand University are Rev. J. C. Andrew, M. A. (vice-chancellor); Hon. C. C. Bowen, M. L. C.; F. D. Brown, M. A., B. SC., Oxon; J. M. Brown, M. A.; C. H. H. Coop, M. A., Rt. Rev. W. S. Cowie, D. D.; F. Fitchett, LL. D., M. A.; J. Giles; Hon. M. S. Grace, M. L. C., M. D.; Rev. W. J. Habens, B. A.; James Hay, M. A., LL. B.; Sir James Hector, B. C., M. S., M. D. (chancellor); Duncan Macgregor, M. A., M. B.; W. D.. M. A., LL. B.; Sir George M. O'Rorke, Knt., B. A.; Rev. J. Paterson; His honor, Sir J. Prendergast, Knt. Chief Justice, B. A.; Most Rev. F. Redwood, D. D.; Hon. Wm. Rohlerton, B. A.; J. S. Sale, M. A.; Rev. W. Salmond, D. D.; J. Halliday Scott, M. D.; John Shand, LL. D., M. A.; Hon. Sir Robert Lunt, R. C. M. S.
These fellows constitute the governing body of the university.
EDUCATION IN FRANCE.
PART I-Brief conspectus of the state system of education and operations in 1890–91, PART II. The progress of primary schools since Guizot's law, 1833. Translation from La Population Française par E. Levasseur.
PART III.-Higher primary and classical schools of France.
MATERIAL CONSULTED.-Statistique de l'enseignement primaire, 1886–87.-L'enseignement secondaire, 1865, 1887.—L'enseignement supérieur, 1878-88.-Recueil des monographies pédagogiques, Tomcs I, II.—Résumé des États de situation de l'enseignement, 1889–90, 1890-91.-Rapports sur le budget général de l'exercice, 1892-93.-Service de l'instruction publique, par Charles Dupuy.—L'enseignement primaire public à Paris, par E. Duplan, Tome II.—Revue Internationale de l'enseignement, August 15, 1888.—Files of the Bulletin administratif.—Plans d'études et programmes de l'enseignement secondaire classique et moderne.
BRIEF CONSPECTUS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND OPERATIONS IN 1890 AND 1891.
[France: Republic; area, 204,092 square miles; population (census, 1891), 38,218,903.] The public system of education in France comprises all grades of scholastic institutions, primary, secondary, and superior, which derive their support from State and local appropriations. Authority over these is vested in a cabinet officer, the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, who exercises his control through a large body of officials appointed by himself or by the President of the Republic in advice with the minister. These officials belong either to the central ministry or to the local subdivisions, i. e., académies (17 in number). Each of the three grades of instruction constitutes a distinct department of the system under the charge of a director3 who ranks next in authority to the minister. While the operations of each department
1 1 By A. Tolman Smith, specialist in English, French, and Belgian school systems. 2M. Léon Bourgeois held this portfolio from March 17, 1890, to December 6, 1892. At the latter date M. Charles Dupuy was appointed to the position, and at the same time the Ministry of Worship, formerly combined with that of justice, was transferred to his province.
3 M. Louis Liard is director of superior instruction; M. Babier, of secondary; M. F. Buisson, of primary.
the inspector's diploma (certificat d'aptitude à l'inspection des écoles primaires).
It would seem from this survey that locally constituted authorities have little control in educational matters. This is true with respect to the higher orders of education, but not so in respect to primary schools. Communal authorities have here a decisive voice, since they furnish buildings and equipments and a proportion of the fund for current expenditure. The views and wishes of taxpayers are made known through the communal councils, and the power of the purse causes them to be respected. In Paris, for example, where the school expenses are entirely provided from local funds, the communal council' is the controlling power.
The following statistics from the latest official report show the operations of the system whose general features have been outlined.
Scholastic institutions and statistics for 1890-91.-To the department of primary instruction belong infant schools (Écoles maternelles, ages 2 to 6 years), enrolling in 1890-91 a total of 709,579 children (public, 465,333; private, 244,246); primary schools (elementary ages, 6 to 13; higher ages, 12 to 14 or 16) enrollment, 5,593,883 (public, 4,384,905; private, 1,208,978). Of the total number 41,018 were in higher primaries. Boys and girls were about equally represented, viz, 2,823,428 and 2,770,455, respectively. The teaching force numbered 152,436 persons (women, 86,965, including teachers of infant schools; men, 65,471), distributed as follows: Infant schools 8,686 (public, 5,133; private, 3,553); primary schools, 143,750 (public 101,272; private, 42,478).
[Public primary schools numbering 67,318 comprised 100,064 classes; private primaries, 14,672 in number, 38,166 classes. Of the public schools 72 per cent, and of the private 32 per cent, had but one class. A completely graded primary school comprises three divisions: Elementary, ages 7 to 9; intermediate (moyen), 9 to 11; superior, 11 to 13. Each division has two classes. Promotions are made annually. The certificate of primary studies which exempts from farther compulsion as regards school attendance is required for promotion to the superior division and also admits candidates to the higher primaries. Although the test is not obligatory the number of candidates annually increases. The number successfully passing this examination rose from 165,211 in 1889 to 173,368 in 1890 and to 184,506 in 1891.
The following statistics reported January 1, 1891, in comparison with the previous year are interesting: Number of school libraries, 38,240; number of volumes, 5,111,204; increase, 771 and 213,991 respectively. Teachers' reference libraries (bibliothèques pédagogiques), 2,634, with 963,538 volumes; increase, 25,251. Number of school gardens, 51,989; gymnasiums, 6,318; workshops, 742; increase, 109, 369, and 3, respectively. School savings banks (caisses d'épargne scolaires), 20,689; number of depositors, 453,319; amount deposited, 12,830,355 francs ($2,566,071); these figures show a slight decline since January 1, 1890. The funds for aiding poor children, purchase of prizes, etc. (caisses des écoles), numbered 16, 212, an increase of 37 over 1889. The total receipts for 1890 amounted to $1,062,149 and the disbursements to $828,008. Teachers' mutual benefit associations (sociétés de secours mutuels) to the number of 41,931 were in operation with a capital of $1,065,142.]
1 The commune of Paris is governed by a town council of 80 members, divided into committees for various public services.
The department of secondary instruction (enseignement secondaire) includes the classical schools, which are of two orders: lycées or state schools whose courses lead to the bachelor's degree, and collèges communaux, a class of local colleges whose curricula are modeled, so far as practicable, upon those of the lycées.
Private classical schools (called lycées or seminaires) are maintained with the consent of the minister. In 1891 the enrollment in the public classical schools for boys was 83,764 students, and in the private 90,063, or a total of 173,827. There were also 11,645 students in public lycées and collèges for girls.
The department of superior instruction comprises the state facultés, i. e., groups of professors (at present 59 in number1) who maintain courses of instruction and lectures in letters, sciences, law, medicine, pharmacy, and Protestant theology, and are also the only authorities empowered to examine for and confer degrees; that is, they perform the same functions as the universities of other countries. They generally have their seat in the principal town of their respective académies the academic rector being their official chief and the intermediary between them and the minister. Private facultés also maintain courses of instruction but can not confer degrees.
The number of students on the registers of state facultés the 15th of January, 1891, was 20,785, which with 931 in private facultés gave a total of 21,716 students in university courses.
To the foregoing statistics of attendance should be added 7,491 in the primary normals, about 75 in the superior normal schools for women, and 130 in the École Normale Supérieure, making a sum total of 6,518,346 pupils and students, private schools for girls not included. Of this total 70 per cent were in public institutions. For purposes of comparison with other countries it is best to eliminate the 709,576 children in infant schools. This done, there remain 5,808,770 youth under formal instruction. This number is equivalent to 15.19 per cent of the population. The primary school enrollment alone, infant schools not included, was equivalent to 14.63 per cent of the population.
There are also three superior schools of pharmacy and three of medicine and pharmacy of equal rank with the facultés, and fourteen schools of medicine and pharmacy, and three of science and letters, classed as preparatory. These are borne on the same budget as the facultés. To the department of superior instruction belong also the great special schools under the exclusive control of the minister of public instruction, i. e., Collège de France, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Muséum Histoire Naturelle, Ecole Française de Rome, École Française d'Athênes, École Nationale des Chartes, Ecole Spéciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes, Ecole Nationale et Spéciale des Beaux Arts à Paris, Conservatoire Nationale de Musique et de Declamation. The Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, at Paris, is a private institution of high rank.
2 Census of 1886, legal population 38,218,903. The school attendance of Algiers, 82,457, is included, but not the population (3,910,399). For obvious reasons the use of the latter would produce a greater error in the calculation than that of the former alono.