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The provinces, however, were abolished, and education was made colonial, and the system above mentioned was adopted. There was, however, no provision in the new colonial act for higher education except what was called district high schools, which provided for the following:

The education board of any district on receiving an application in writing from the committee may, with the express sanction of the minister previously obtained, convert any public school in the district into and establish the same as a district high school.

Every such district high school shall be under the charge of a head master and such number of duly qualified masters and assistants as the board shall from time to time consider necessary.

All the branches of a liberal education, comprising Latin and Greek classics, French, and other modern languages, mathematics, and such other branches of science as the advancement of the colony and the increase of the population may from time to time require, may be taught in such school. For such higher education, fees shall be paid by the pupils at such rates as shall be fixed by regulations.


In every district high school instruction shall also be given in the ordinary branches of education prescribed by this act to be given in public schools.

It was thought necessary to incorporate some of the secondary schools that had been managed by provincial boards.

As each school is dealt with its mode of management will be mentioned. It will be seen that several of them are similar in their constitution; that is, they have a board appointed by different bodies, and they are quasi public schools. Two or three of the schools that will be mentioned are managed by church organizations, but give the higher secular instruction. A general system of education was, so to speak, laid down in 1877, amalgamating the various provincial systems that had been previously in existence, and prescribing a uniform mode of providing for elementary instruction. There has, however, not been as yet any general law for secondary schools. Some of those that now exist were founded far back in the early days of the colony, others are of more recent creation, but no general plan has been adopted for their management or for their endowment. Some have had land grants, some have had money endowments, some for a time had annual grants from parliament, and some mainly depend upon their fees.

There are 24 secondary schools under government inspection. There are also what are termed 6 district high schools; that is, elementary schools, with higher classes added to them and controlled by a rector. It will be well to deal with each school separately, stating its constitution, its endowment, the subjects taught, the mode of paying the teachers, the staff, the buildings, etc. In doing this it will be wise to begin at the northern part of the colony, and at the same time it may be noted that the islands of New Zealand have a long seaboard stretching from 34° latitude south to 48° latitude south, and in such a range of latitude there is necessarily a great range of temperature. The climatic conditions vary considerably, the northern part being almost subtropical whilst the southern part is temperate. There is, however, ED 91-4


this to be remarked, that there is no severe winter. Snow is almost unknown except on the ranges or in the high lands in the interior. All along the seaboard, even the most southern, snow never lies. New Zealand has been termed by Mr. Fiske, the American writer, "the land of the spring time," and it is not an inapt name. In the far north, however, there is quite a warm enough summer.

To appreciate properly the standards and education of the secondary schools, reference must be made to the New Zealand University, for its entrance and scholarship examinations furnish the tests for secondary school work. A short description of the university teaching and examinations will appear further on.


Beginning in the northern district, there is the Auckland College and Grammar School. This institution was first established in 1850 by a grant of land made to trustees for a college and grammar school. The following principles were to be observed in conducting it: (1) The branches taught were to be the English language, mathematics, and Greek and Latin. (2) Evening classes were to be maintained in connection with the schools. (3) Persons of all races were to be admitted on equal terms. (4) Free scholars were to be maintained so far as the fund permitted. The foundation deed gave certain lands as endowments, and in the year 1891 the total rents obtained from landed property amounted to £2,676 17s. 6d. Three hundred pounds was received from reserves for the girls' school in addition. The school was created a corporation by an act of the general assembly in 1877.

The following is a short history of the school:

Foundation. In the year 1852 his excellency Sir George Groy, as governor of the colony, set apart certain endowments for the foundation and maintenance of a grammar school or schools in Auckland. In 1854 these endowments passed into the hands of the provincial government. In 1868 a board of governors was constituted and empowered to employ a portion of the endowments in starting the school. The sui made available having been found insufficient, a subsequent act authorized the board to deal with the whole endowment and accumulations, and provided a site with an old building upon it. In this building the school was opened on May 17, 1869, by his royal highness the Duke of Edinburgh, and his excellency Sir George Bowen, the governor of the colony. More than ten years, however, elapsed before it found a permanent home in a building erected for the purpose. In the meantime it had changed its quarters more than once and had for a time been dispersed among two or three small buildings.

Governing body.-The first board of governors mentioned above consisted of the superintendent and executive of the Auckland province, the speaker of the provincial council, and three members elected by that body. In 1876, on the passing of the education boards act, the school was handed over to the Auckland board of educa tion, but in the following year an act provided a special board consisting of three members elected by the members of the legislative assembly resident in the Auckland province, three elected by the Auckland board of education, and one ex-officio momber, namely, the mayor of Auckland. Subsequently three members representing the senate of the University of New Zealand were added.


The dual title of the school is a record of the fact that from 1871 to 1882 it was affiliated to the University of New Zealand. But the establishment of the Auck

land University College having removed the necessity for such a connection, disaffiliation was sought and obtained. The title, however, was not changed.

Head masters.-The first head master was the Rev. Robert Kidd, LL. D., of Trinity College, Dublin. He was succocded after two years by Farquhar Macrae, esq., who held office until 1881, when it was resolved to obtain from England a graduate in honors of Oxford or Cambridge. J. A. Sloman, esq., B. A. (Sydney) was appointed to act as head master during the interregnum. In January, 1882, the present head master, C. A. Bourne, esq., M. A., sometime exhibitioner and scholar of St. John's College, Oxford, was elected by a board of four commissioners, of whom the Rev. Dr. Jowett, master of Balliol College, Oxford, was chairman.

Provision for the reception of boarders.-It was understood when the school was founded that the wants of the country districts should be, as far as possible, met by the provision of a schoolhouse for the reception of boarders, but though the governors have from time to time had this subject under consideration, and on one occasion actually resolved on the erection of a school house, and had designs prepared, this important addition is still wanting.

Girls' side.-Until September, 1888, the benefits of the school were confined to boys. Claims had indeed been put forward on behalf of the secondary education of girls, but it was clear that such an application of the endowment had not been originally contemplated, and it was at least doubtful whether it would be legal. Moreover, the board of governors were carrying on a girls' high school, receiving an annual subsidy from the legislature for the purpose. But in the year mentioned this grant was withdrawn, and the school was closed in consequence. To meet this emergency, the girls' side was opened. The arrangement, which was intended to be temporary, has now continued for four years. The two sides are carried on in the same building, but are kept separate in work and in play. The hoad master is in charge of both, and he and other masters take part in the instruction of the higher classes on the girls' side.

Curriculum.-The principal subjects of instruction are Latin, French, mathematics, various branches of natural and physical science, English history, geography, drawing (freehand, mechanical, and geometrical); reading and writing, bookkeeping, and mensuration are also taught, chiefly as alternative for Latin, which is optional. For Greek there is no appreciable demand, otherwise it would be taught. German and, for girls' class, singing are taught out of school, but without extra fee. Drill and gymnastics are taught to the younger scholars in school hours, to the older in the midday interval. The workshop, for attendance at which a small fee is charged, is very popular. Boys often construct in it models of engineering works from drawings made in the drawing school. For girls, the course is somewhat modified, but it is on the whole very similar.

Recreations.-Cricket and football are carried on by the boys with considerable energy, though under difficulties arising from the facts that there are no boarders, that many of the scholars come from remote suburbs, and that the playground is unsuitable. Practice and match wickets are hired in the Auckland Domain, and, by kind permission of his excellency the governor and the government, a field attached to the Government house is used. There is a fives court for the boys; for the girls, two tennis lawns are being formed. Annual meetings are held by the boys, in the first term for swimming races, in the second for hare and hounds, in the third for athletic sports. A small orchestra meets for practice weekly, and every year a musical and dramatic entertainment is given.

Entrance.-Applicants for admission are required to pass an examination, and to produce certificates of good character from the school last attended.

Terms, etc. There are three terms in the year, namely: One of fourteen, and two of thirteen weeks, with vacations of seven weeks in the summer, two weeks, and three weeks. An examination is held at the end of the year, prizes are awarded and promotions made on the result of the three examinations combined. Occasionally. the examinations are conducted by examiners not connected with the school, but


muty's Poems of English Heroism. Grammar: Davidson and Alcock's Intermediate, pp. 1 to 40. History: Blackwood's First Reader, the whole. Geography: Blackwood's First Reader, the whole. Object lessons.


Highest. The same as boys, except that heat is substituted for electricity. Lowest.--Reading: Longman's Fourth Reader, the whole; repetition, passages from the reader. Grammar: Davidson and Alcock's Intermediate; noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, analysis, parsing. History: Blackwood's First Reader, the whole. Geography: Blackwood's Third Reader, the whole; outlines of New Zealand geography.

Scholarships were held at the school during the last quarter of 1890 as follows:

College scholarships.-Senior foundation (£20 and free education), 1 boy, 1 girl; Junior foundation (free education), 9 boys, 2 girls; under education board's certificate of proficiency (free education), 5 boys, 5 girls; children of members of staff, 4 boys, 4 girls. The college also gave free education to some holders of education' board scholarships.

Education board scholarships.—At £45, 2 girls; at £40, 6 boys; at £30, 7 boys, 1 girl; at £25, 5 boys, 3 girls; at £20, 9 boys, 7 girls.

Rawlings scholarships (free education and books).—Nine boys.

The success of the school in the university examinations for 1890-91 was as follows:

In the examination for university junior scholarships held in December, 1890, 3 pupils of this school obtained scholarships, viz, 2 male and 1 female; 6 passed with credit, viz, 4 male and 2 female. For matriculation, 9 passed, viz, 5 male and 4 female. In the examination for senior district scholarships, held by the Auckland board of education in December, 1890, scholarships were awarded to 7 pupils of this' school, viz, 3 male and 4 female; and certificates of proficiency to 8 pupils, viz, 6 male and 2 female. At the civil service examinations held in January, 1891, in the senior examination 3 pupils of the school passed, viz, 2 male and 1 female; and 3 boys obtained partial passes. In the junior examination 10 pupils of the school passed, viz, 7 male and 3 female.

The school meets in rather a commodious building.


There is at the Thames, distant from Auckland 45 miles, a boys' and girls' high school. It is managed as follows:

A board of governors is appointed and is constituted a body corporate by the name of the Thames high school board.

The board consisted first of 7 persons nominated by the governor, but no member could hold office longer than a year, a retiring member being eligible for reëlection or renomination.

After the expiration of the first year the governor appointed three members; the Thames borough council appointed three other members, and the mayor for the time being of the borough of Thames was the other member.

The revenue received from reserves and gold fields last year amounted to £719 15s. 10d. The work of the highest class was that of the junior

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