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by the communes, but if the necessary funds are lacking, aid is given in the shape of governmental subsidies, so that the compulsory-education act may be enforced. Elementary teachers receive pensions from funds annually set aside for that purpose by the Government. In accordance with special laws the Government maintains colleges for women for both elementary and complementary instruction.
The Government supports the normal schools as far as the director's salary, free tuition, and cost of scientific material is concerned. The provinces and communes defray the building expenses and the purchase of the apparatus. The "licei" are maintained by the Government as regards professors' salaries and expenditures for scientific material; the remaining expenses are met by the communes. The "gin nasi" are maintained by the communes; in some provinces, in accordance with special laws, they are supported by the Government.
The cost of maintaining the technical schools is defrayed by the communes, the Government, however, paying half of the professors' salaries. The technical institutes and those of the merchant marine are maintained by the joint contributions of Government, provinces, and communes, the Government bearing about half the costs. The schools of agriculture and the industrial trade and professional schools are supported by united contributions from the communes and boards of trade of the towns where they are situated; the Government adds its quota by establishing and in part maintaining them. The maintenance of the universities and superior institutes depends almost entirely upon the Government, but, in accordance with special regulations, the provinces, communes, and boards of trade unite with the Government in means of improvement of such institutions. The Government, provinces, and communcs bear the expenses of maintaining and adding to the collection of antiquities, of maintaining galleries, museums, monuments, and of increasing the academies and institutes of fine arts, libraries, etc. Assistance is also given in the form of prizes, bursaries, and other aid to students desiring to pursue a course of study and otherwise unable to do so.
Antiquities and fine arts-ancient art, 2,547,941; modern art, 1,683,696. 4, 231, 637 Classical education.
General expenditures of the local administration
nstitutes, scientific and literary organizations..
Total annual expenditures by the Government and local authorities may be reckoned as amounting to 122,948,809 lire, or $23,729,200.
The expenditures for school purposes by charitable organizations as presented in the statistics of such organizations for 1880, the latest given, amounted to 5,429,476 lire, or $1,047,888. In addition to the aid given by corporations and boards of trade, there are workingmen's associations, which participate more especially in the industrial side of elementary instruction. From these sources, as is stated by Signor Bodio, about 615,000 lire, or $118,695, was expended in 1890-91.
STATISTICS OF STATE COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEMS.1
NOTE. This chapter relates to public day schools of elementary and secondary grado (primary, grammar, and high schools).
The following statement is made up from returns for 1890-91, with the exception of a part which is derived from 1889-90. The numbers here given are therefore subject to future correction. The percentages, however, will not be appreciably altered.
Average number of days attended by each pupil enrolled..
Number of public schoolhouses
Classification by raco, as far as possible, is given in Chapter XXV, "Education of the Colored Race."
The following tables present in detail the common school statistics of the different States, mainly for the school year 1890-91. Several States failed to supply this office with figures in season for publication in the present report. The totals given for the United States and its several geographical divisions are therefore subject to future correction.
It is frequently the case in the tables of the printed reports of State superintendents that one or more counties have been excluded through their not having made any report to the State superintendent. This complete omission is equivalent to giving such counties zero in footing
up the totals, and explains in many cases the great falling off in school attendance, expenditure, etc., that appears to have suddenly taken place. in this or that State.
Whenever practicable the figures for these missing counties have been supplied by the bureau, using the latest returns available or some reliable estimate. This gives totals for the State, which, though not exact, are considerably nearer the truth than if the missing counties were given 0.
Care has been taken to make the tables as correct and useful as possible, though some imperfections have resulted from delayed returns. Attention has been paid to tabulating only percentages and percapitas which are of value in estimating the relative educational condition of different localities, omitting those which are misleading, as well as those which possess no special significance. The observations made upon this subject and upon statistical methods generally are commended to the attention of those interested in such matters; the design has been to make some contribution toward the accurate and uniform compilation of school statistics.
TABLE 1.-Total population, school population, and adult male population.
a The estimates of the total and the school population for 1891 are made on the basis of the percentages of 1890, as no new determinations of these quantities will be made until 1900.
b In 1890 (U.S. Census).