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andra College, founded in 1866 for the higher education of women, prepares women for the degree examinations.
The movements of which the Queen's Colleges and the Royal University were the outcome are inextricably involved with the political and religious history of the country. The outcome on the side of the Catholic party, which has maintained a struggle for the official recognition of a university of its own, is the college of the Catholic University, Dublin, founded in 1854.
The rivalry of the universities and denominational zeal appear to stimulate the interest in higher education. Dublin University enjoys a prestige which even those who have suffered from its intolerance in the past recognize with pride. The preparations for the tercentenary of this university, appointed for July, 1892, call forth from every center of learning high praise for its scholastic distinction and for the number and valuable achievements of its illustrious graduates.
To complete the enumeration of superior institutions, mention should be made of the Royal College of Science, Dublin, which is maintained by the science and art department. This is a high-grade scientific school, whose courses of instruction prepare students for the degree examinations of the Royal University.
The same department maintains at Dublin a museum of science and art, which includes also a national library. The numbers annually visiting the various departments of this museum (344,071 in 1890) testify to the popular appreciation of their advantages.
The recent census (1891) reveals a favorable view of the results of education in the country. The census commissioners observe that "the progress achieved in both primary and superior instruction may be considered the most gratifying fact elicited by the census. In 1881 the percentage of wholly illiterate persons was 25.2, whereas in 1891 it reached no more than 18.4 per cent. Of the whole population above 5 years of age, 70.6 per cent could read and write at the latter date as compared with 59.3 per cent in 1881. The addition to the number of schools and of pupils has been relatively small."1
The improvement in material conditions which is also brought out by the census must be regarded as another favorable indication of the effects of the educational system.
'In this connection it should be observed that the returns show " a decrease of no less than 15.7 per cent in the number of children under 15 years of age as compared with the returns of the provious decade (1881). This decrease reaches 18 per cent among children 5 to 10 years old, and 19 per cent among children 1 to 5 years. Analysis of the returns makes it evident that this decrease is not due to emigration alone, but is the proof of a check in the normal increase of the population." (Lon-. don Times, August 19, 1892.)
INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN CENTRAL
SOURCES OF INFORMATION.—(1) Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, edited by Conrad, Elster, Lexis and Loening. Article: Gewerblicher Unterricht, by Dr. Carl Roscher, which has been freely used and translated—(2) Statistik der landwirthschaftlichen und zweckverwandten Unterrichts-Anstalten Preussens, 1890–(8) Jahrbuch des Unterrichtswesens in der Schweiz, 1890, by C. Grob—(4) Statistik der Unterrichtsanstalten in Oesterreich, 1889-'90—(5) Statistik des Unterrichts- und · Erziehungswesens in Würtemberg, 1890-'91.
I. GENERAL STATEMENT.-(1) Origin—(2) Classification-(3) Connection of industrial schools with one another, and (4) with practical life—(5) Frequent faults of such schools. Sunday and evening schools—(6) Compulsory attendance—(7) Sources of revenue—(8) Teachers—(9) Means of instruction—(10) Local supervision—(11) School exhibitions—(12) Literature, statistics, and history.
II. CLASSES OF SCHOOLS.-(A) Industrial continuation schools, and public draftsmen's rooms—( —(B) Industrial schools for women—(C) Lower industrial or trade schools; workshops, schools for builders, and schools for foremen―(D) Secondary industrial and commercial schools-(E) Schools of design; museums of industrial art(F) Polytechnica or technical universities.
I. GENERAL STATEMENT.
(1) Origin. The inventions of modern times have perfected many old industries, such as spinning and weaving, and led to the establishment of new ones, such as the building of engines, labor-saving machines, locomotives, and steamships, and the chemical and electric industries. The former mode of perspective drawing has been supplemented by parallel projection, according to the principles of which working drawings are made, which furnish the means of easy and accurate measurement. This has greatly promoted progress in technical pursuits. The liberty of trade, which is barely 50 years old in central Europe, has added another incentive to technical education; it has increased the demands on the talents of industrial men. To develop these talents and special aptitudes is the aim of industrial schools, the youngest branch of the modern school system.
France took the lead in this. German experts, like Eitelberger and von Dumreicher, emphasized the fact that the strength of French textiles, for instance, and the greater value of the products of French art
industry, were not owing to the greater innate talents of French laborers, but to their better and more appropriate schooling in labor. This special education had been going on in France from the time of Colbert (minister of finance of Louis XIV). Indisputable proofs of this have been furnished by the various world's expositions, especially that of Philadelphia in 1876, from which city the German commissioner, Prof. Reuleaux, reported to the Imperial Government, "Our goods are cheap, but poor." These expositions opened the eyes of intelligent men to the great inadequacy of the existing institutions for industrial education, and it may be said that German industry thereupon took an upward start most gratifying in its results, since it was consistently planned and aided by the establishment of higher institutions for technical and industrial pursuits.
The entire system of technical and industrial schools of central Europe (Germany, Austria, and Switzerland) is still in its youth, hence mány questions concerning it are yet under discussion; course and method of instruction are still mooted problems, and much less definitely settled than those of elementary and secondary schools for general culture. Another cause that retards an early settlement is the fact that laymen who represent various interests assume to dictate in the management and plans of these schools; hence it is that sometimes the results attained by such schools are not commensurate with the outlay, and their usefulness is questioned.
These schools are established and maintained chiefly by committees and trade unions; by the latter in Saxony, Hessia, Nassau, and Switzerland. When the funds of these are insufficient, or the needs of the country demand it, for instance, for the promotion of the building trades, industrial art, or technical universities, schools maintained by the state are justified. Only in exceptional cases does the state maintain lower industrial schools, in Austria more frequently than in other countries. In some cases the state encourages and subsidizes lower schools, and in others the revivifying and stirring influence and active participation of individual leaders furnish the necessary impetus for the establishment of such schools, and at times also for their mainte
(2) Classification.-According to the requirements of admission and the objects of the schools they are classed as (a) lower, (b) secondary industrial schools, and (c) art schools and polytechnica. According to the time when instruction is given they are classed as (a) day, (b) evening, and (c) Sunday schools. According to their aim they are classed in industrial continuation schools and trade schools. Beside these classes we may divide the schools into those for boys and those for girls, also into public and private schools. When comparing the statistics of these schools, care must be taken to consider the time devoted to studies; thus, for instance, a three-years' course in an industrial continuation school with four weekly hours of instruction (equal to four hundred and
eighty hours), is about equal to fourteen weeks of instruction in an industrial day school with thirty-five hours per week.
(3) Organic connection of industrial and technical schools.-Among industrial schools the practical relation of one class of schools to other classes is not well defined. This may be the cause why some, like agricultural and various trade schools, are given over to the supervision of one governmental department while art schools and polytechnica are given to another. An organic connection is as yet not practicable, although the necessity makes itself felt quite keenly. In the system of schools for general culture and the learned professions the division and limitation of each grade of schools have developed in the course of time owing to the scientific unity, the so-called universitas literarum. The distinctions between general and industrial continuation schools, between technical and trade schools, between lower and secondary technical schools, and between secondary and higher schools, or polytechnica-have nowhere been sharply drawn. This makes extremely difficult a definite grouping of these institutions according to plan and course of study, as well as a mutual understanding among themselves regarding their respective functions.
(4) Connection of industrial schools with industrial life; chief supervisory authorities.-This connection is very important, since the schools are to serve practical life. A fulfillment of the following conditions promotes the connection:
(a) Selection of location: Professional schools that depend upon constant contact with workshops and factories must be located in centers of industrial activity, and must be near to the branches of industry they are to serve.
(b) Students: Preliminary practical work or experience gained in workshops is frequently a condition of admission to trade schools. Practical work side by side with academic instruction and separation of the students according to trades in industrial continuation schools, aid in connecting industrial education and practical life.
(c) Course of study and methods of instruction: The connection of industrial education with industrial pursuits must not only exist but be thoroughly understood by the students. The more the industrial schools place in the foreground studies which can be immediately utilized in the workshop, and the more they promote technical ability (especially drawing), the more will they rise in the estimation of masters and workmen. In arithmetic, for instance, accuracy and skill are the most essential aims, hence restriction to the simplest modes of solving problems is necessary. In geometry it is much less the logical proof than it is practical application that must be considered; in drawing it is not so much ornamental as it is technical drawing, parallel projection, or the making of working drawings. Side by side with the technical the economic side of an industrial pursuit is to be considered, thus particular attention is paid to bookkeeping and the consideration
of profit and loss. It is altogether wrong, although customary, to expect and demand of industrial schools that they should furnish men who are perfect in certain trades or arts, instead of men able to become masters of their particular branch in the future.
(d) Teachers: The teachers must be trade masters, or at least be in contact with master workmen; in the first case there is danger that the method of instruction will be anything but pedagogical, since men of that kind are apt to take for granted what must first be learned. Teachers should be and are often sent to other centers of industry for information.
(e) The material appliances of instruction should be objects of practical use; at any rate should be suitable for such use. Thus, for instance, actual models should be taken from workshops and museums of industry. In the selection of these appliances practical experts should be consulted.
(f) Supervision. Local supervision should be exercised by successful tradesmen who can aim at close connection between school and trade, raise the standing of technical instruction in the eyes of all concerned, and lend their influence toward regular attendance. These local supervisors should make frequent visits to the schools. It has been found that the chief supervision is best exercised by the state department of trade and commerce, and not by the department of public education. The ultimate aim of all industrial schools, the promotion of wealth, ontweighs the means, promotion of education, in the community. As an exception to this are considered the technical universities or polytechnica, which are everywhere in central Europe placed under the supervision of the minister of education.
In Prussia industrial and technical schools have been transferred from one department of state to another. Many of them were placed under the supervision of the minister of education in 1877, but in 1885 they were, after rather unpleasant experiences, transferred again to the minister of industry and commerce. In Saxony, the industrial, commercial, and agricultural schools have always been under the jurisdiction of the minister of the interior. In Würtemburg there has been in the department of education since 1858 a subordinate commission for industrial continuation schools formed of practical tradesmen and commercial men, also of members of the commission for secondary schools and higher institutions, as well as directors of the school of design. In Baden we find an anomaly in the fact that one industrial art school (Pforzheim) is supervised by the minister of education and another (Carlsruhe) by the minister of the interior. In Switzerland the constitution expressly enjoins upon the federal government to establish technical universities and schools that lead up to them. In Austria, since 1882, a combination of all industrial schools has been effected under the supervision of the minister of education, but the appropriations for these schools are managed by the minister of commerce. The