Marine Mammals and Noise
Academic Press, 1995 - Nature - 576 pages
Many marine mammals communicate by emitting sounds that pass through water. Such sounds can be received across great distances and can influence the behavior of these undersea creatures. In the past few decades, the oceans have become increasingly noisy, as underwater sounds from propellers, sonars, and other human activities make it difficult for marine mammals to communicate. This book will discuss, among many other topics, just how well marine mammals hear, how noisy the oceans have become, and what effects these new sounds have on marine mammals. The baseline of ambient noise, the sounds produced by machines and mammals, the sensitivity of marine mammal hearing, and the reactions of marine mammals are also examined.
An essential addition to any marine biologist's library, Marine Mammals and Noise will be especially appealing to marine mammalogists, researchers, policy makers and regulators and marine biologists and oceanographers using sound in their research.
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Acoustic Concepts and Terminology
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acoustic airborne aircraft airgun Alaska ambient noise levels animals approach areas audibility audiograms auditory avoidance background noise baleen whales band bandwidth Beaufort Sea behavior belugas boats bottlenose dolphin bowhead whales broadband Caldwell calls cetaceans clicks critical ratio depth detect distances disturbance dredging drilling drillship echolocation effects emit energy explosions fur seals gray whales harbor seal helicopter human activities humpback whales hydrophone icebreaking in-air increasing killer whale low frequencies low-frequency Malme Mamm man-made noise manatees marine mammals masking noise source numbers octave odontocetes offshore pinnipeds playbacks porpoise pressure propagation pupa pupa-m quency range react reactions received levels response Richardson right whales ringed seals Schevill Schusterman sea lions sea otters Section shallow water ship sonars source levels species spectrum level sperm whales studies surface Terhune threshold tion tones toothed whales transmission types underwater noise underwater sounds vessels Vibroseis vocal Watkins whistles Würsig