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This sort of prospect, far the most But, Aohd, the roof lies low, delightful which the surface of the earth And the thistle-down waves bleaching, cao supply, is enjoyed on a grand scale And the bat flits to and fro

[ing;
from any great elevation in London, but® Where the Gael once heard thy preach-
the view is too vast to admit of any And fall’n is each column'd aisle
attention to beauties of detail: works of Where the chiefs and people knelt.
sculpture and architecture even form a 'Twas near that temple's goodly pile
more subordinate portion of the whole; That honour'd of men they dwelt.
hence that train of ideas which carries For Aodh was wise in the sacred law,
back the imagination to classical anti- And bright Reullura's eyes oft saw
quity, is less necessarily and less power. The veil of fate uplifted.
fully excited; but the immeasurably Alas, with what visions of awe
wider extent of builded space, houses Her soul in that hour was gifted.-
rising above houses, streets stretching When pale in the temple and faint,
beyond streets, palaces, theatres, tem-

With Aodh she stood alone
ples climbing from among the endless By the statue of an aged Saint!
mass of edifices, further than the eye Fair sculptured was the stone,
can trace in any direction; and more'. It bore a crucifix;
than all, the majestic Thames, witb the Fame said it once had graced
ideas of world-encompassing commerce A Christian temple, which the Picts
and empire which its forest of masts is in the Britons' land laid waste;
adapted to excite, give it on the whole a

The Pictish men, by St. Columb taught,
more stimulant effect. A view of Paris Had hither the holy relic brought.
is the most beautiful, that of London is Reullura eyed the statue's face,
the most sublime.

And cried, “ It is, he shall come,

“ Even he in this very place, REULLURA.*

“ To avenge my martyrdom. (From the New Monthly Magazine.) “ For, woe to the Gael people! The Culdees were the primitive clergy “ Ulvfagre is on the main, of Scotland, and apparently her only « And Iona shall look from tower and clergy from the sixth to the eleventh steeple century. They were of Irish origin, and “On the coming ships of the Dane; their monastery on the island of Iona or “ And, dames and daughters, shall all Ikolmill, was the seminary of Christianity in North Britain. Presbyterian writers

“ With the ruffian's grasp entwine ? have wished to prove them to have been “No! some shall have shelter in caves a sort of Presbyters, strangers to the

and rocks, Roman church and Episcopacy. It' “ And the deep sea shall be mine. seems to be established that they were « Baffled by me shall the spoiler return, not enemies to Episcopacy ;—but that « And here shall bis torch in the temple they were not slavishly subjected to burn, Rome like the clergy of later periods, “Uutil that holy man shall plough appears by their resisting the Papal “ The waves from Innisfail. ordonnances respecting the celibacy of “ His sail is on the deep e'en now, religious men, on which account they “ And swells to the southern gale." were ultimately displaced by the Scottish « Ah! knowest thou not, my bride," sovereigas to make room for more Popish The holy Aodh said,

[heside canons.

« That the Saint whose form we stand STAR of the morn and eve,

Has for ages slept with the dead ?"
Reullura shone like thee,

“ He liveth, he liveth,” she said again, And well for her might Aodh grieve,

“For the span of his life tenfold extends The dark-attired Culdee.

“ Beyond the wonted years of men. Peace to their shades! the puré Culdees

“ He sits by the graves of well-loved

friends
Were Albyn's earliest priests of God,
Ere yet an island of her seas

“ That died ere thy grandsire's grandBy foot of Saxon monk was trode,

sire's birth; Loog ere her churchmen by bigotry

“ The oak is decay'd with old age on Were barr'd from holy wedlock's tie.

earth,

[him ; 'Twas then that Aodh, famed afar

« Whose acorn-seed had been planted by In lona preach'd the word with power,

“ And his parents remember the day of Aud Reullura, beauty's star,

dread Was the partner of his bower.

“ When the sun on the cross look'd dim, • Reullura, in Gaelic, signifies“ beautiful

“ And the graves gave up their dead.

your locks

לו

sar."

very sound

“ Yet preaching from clime to clime, But the torches again burnt bright, “ He hath roam'd the earth for ages, And brighter than before, “ And bither he shall come in time When an aged man of majestic height “ When the wrath of the heathen rages, Enter'd the temple door. “ In time a remnant from the sword Hush'd was the revellers' sound, “Ah! but a remnant to deliver; They were struck as mute as the dead, “ Yet, blest be the name of tbe Lord ! And their hearts were appall'd by the “ His martyrs shall go into bliss for ever. “ Lochlin", appall'd shall put up her Of his footstep's measured tread. streel,

[ing keel; Nor word was spoken by one beholder, « And thou shalt embark on the bound. When he fung his white robe back on “ Safe shalt thou pass through Lochlin's his shoulder, ships

(Gael, And stretching his arms—as eath “ With the Saint and a remnant of the Unriveted Aodh’s bands, “ And the Lord will instruct thy lips As if the gyves had been a wreath “ To preach in Innisfail.”+

Of willows in his hands. The sun, now about to set

All saw the stranger's similitude Was burping o'er Tirice,

To the ancient statue's form; And no gathering cry arose yet

The Saint before his own image stood, O'er the isles of Albyn's sea,

And grasped Ulvfagre's arm. Whilst Reullura saw far rowers dip Then uprose the Daues at last to deliver Their oars beneath the sun,

Their chief, and shouting with one accord, And the phautom of many a Danish ship, They drew the shaft from its rattling Where ship there yet was none.

quiver, And the shield of alarm I was dumb, They lifted the spear and sword, Nor did their warning till midnight come, And levell’d their spears in rows. When watch-fires burst from across the Bnt down weat axes and spears and bows, main

When the Saint with his crosier sigo'd, From Rona and Uist and Skey,

The archer's hand on the string was To tell that the ships of the Dane

stopt And the red-hair'd slayers were nigh. And down, like reeds laid flat by the Our islesmen arose from slumbers,

wind,

Their lifted weapons dropt.
And buckled on their arms;
Bat few, alas! were their numbers, The Saint then gave a signal mute,
To Lochlin's mailed swarms.

And though Ulvfagre will'd it not,
And the blade of the bloody Norse He came and stood at the statue's foot,
Has fill'd the shores of the Gael

Spell-riveted to the spot,
With many a floating corse,

Till hands invisible shook the wall,
And with many a woman's wail. [torch, And the tottering image was dash'd
They have lighted the islands with ruins' Down from its lofty pedestal,
And the boly men of lona's church On Ulvfagre's helm it crash’d-
In the temple of God lay slain;

Helmet, and skull, and flesh, and brain, All but Aodh, the last Culdee,

It crush'd as millstone crushes the grain. But bound with many an iron chain, Then spoke the Saint, whilst all and Bound in that church, was he.

each

Of the Heathen trembled round,
And where is Aodh's bride ?
Rocks of the ocean flood !

And the pauses amidst his speech Plunged she not from your heights in Were as awful as the sound: pride,

“ Go back, ye wolves, to your dens,” (he And mock'd the men of blood ?

cried,) Then Ulvfagre and his bands

“ And tell the nations abroad, In the temple lighted their banquet up, “ How the fiercest of your herd has died And the print of their blood-red hands “ That slaughtered the flock of God. Was left on the altar cup. [said, « Gather him bone by bone, 'Twas then that the Norseman to Aodh “ And take with you o'er the food “Tell where thy church's treasure's laid, “The fragments of that avenging stone Or I'll hew thee limb from limb.”

“ That drank bis heathen blood. As he spoke the bell struck three, “ These are the spoils from lona's sack, And every torch grew dim,

“ The only spoils ye sball carry back; That lighted their revelry.

For the band that uplifteth spear or

sword • Denmark.

“Shall be wither'd by palsy's shock, + Ireland. Striking the shield was an ancient mode of

“ And I come in the name of the Lord convucaliou to war among the Gael.

“ To deliver a remnant of his flock."

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A rempant was call'd together,

nated the ring finger. Gold rings bad A doleful remnant of the Gael,

come into fashion anterior to the battle And the Saint in the ship that had brought of Cannæ, after which Hannibal sent to him hither

the Cartbaginian senate a whole pushelTook the mourners to Innisfail.

full of them. The Roman senators likeUuscathed they left Iona's strand, [sky, wise wore gold rings; and Florus relates, When the opal morn first Aushed the that after the disastrous battle just menFor the Norse dropt spear, and bow, and tioned, the Roinan senate possessed no brand,

other gold than that of its rings. The And look'd on them silently;

plebeians soon began to follow the Safe from their hiding-places came fashion, but at first with iron rings; Orphans and mothers, child and dame: gold ones were only granted to them as But alas! when the search for Reullura distinctions. Under the emperors, howspread,

ever, soldiers, nay even freedmen, were No answering voice was given,

seen with gold rings. They were origiFor the sea had gone o'er her lovely head, nally prohibited from wearing the latter And her spirit was in Heaven.

unless presented to them by the emperor himself. Justinian, however, weary of

the numerous petitions soliciting this HANDS AND RINGS. favour, permitted all who pleased to

give them away. Hence none but gold (From Ackermann's Repository.) or at least gilt rings were worn : many

of them are to be found in antique colAMONG the Romans a handsome hand,

lections. When none but iron rings as well as a handsome foot, was considered as a great beauty. In speaking, vanity carried, that people endeavoured

were allowed, to such & length was they gesticulated a great deal, for the purpose of displaying the band in every that they might at least not wear real

to give to gold the colour of iron, that graceful movement. The Italians even

iron. at the present day express a great number of ideas by mere gestures. As it

SONNET.-THE BRIDE. was not then customary to wear gloves,

A holy softness glisteu'd in her eyes, so much the more attention was paid to

As bright in tearful smiles the new-made bride the delicate appearance of the hand : it Survey'd the wedded lover by her side,

Now linked to her for ever with the ties was above all required that the nails

Of Heaven's own blest cementing ; and with should be nicely cul, and 'shine as if

sigbs polished. Ovid says, in his Art of Love, That breathed of speechless fondness, she à fair lady with clumsy fingers and replied

To his enraptured words, and strove to hide coarse nails must not gesticulate much.

Those sweet effusions wbich at times would In large families there was a female slave expressly to keep the fingers and To dim her radiant glances, like the dews nails in order. The nails were cut with

That fall on summer mornings, and bespeak

The heart's o'erflowing transport, while the hues a small knife; the parings were pre Of love's celestial painting softly break served, and used for sympathetic cures. O'er her fair clieek, and add a blushing grace Pliny says,

“ If you mix the parings of To each divine expression of her face. A.S. nails with wax, make it up into a little

MIDSHIPMAN'S SONG. ball, and stick it against the door of a strange house, the fever will infallibly 'Tis a time of pride, when the bark is prancing,

Like an Arab steed; o'er the waste of waves, reinove from your house to the other."

When her path behind in light is glancing, Those who were not rich enough to keep And the fire-white foam her bowsprit laves; slaves applied to a barber, whosè busi. Then, then is the time of proud emotion,

And, if in the bosom a proud one sleep, ness embraced the cutting of nails.

'Twill'awake to dance to the music of ocean, Nobody took the trouble to do it him And sweep with the winds o'er the weltering self.

Thus too the wearing of rings was With my bark through her own blue path career. adopted for adorning the hand. The ing,

I never can envy the landsman's bliss ; origin of this practice is so old, that it

No sun on the shore ever shone so cheering. is lost in the obscurity of remote anti As it sparkles down on a world like this. quity. It passed from Egypt to the What inusic can make the heart so sprightly,

As the roll of the billows in the breeze? Greeks, from the Greeks to the Hetrus

What ball upon earth ever shone so brightly, cans, and so to the Romans. The first

As the stirring dance of the sun-lit seas ! rings were of iron, and were worn only by soldiers, and that on the third finger The Shah, or present king of Persia of the hand, wbich was thence denomi- has 39 sous and 140 daughters !

rise

deep.

SUPERSTITIONS

pains, so that he must either give up Iris Of the Peasantry of Westphalia. plunder, or die without retrieve. (From Ackermann's Repository.)

To ascertain whether a person will die The peasants of Westphalia ascribe in the current year, the country folk in supernatural influence to the cross. It some places, about Midsummer, pluck expels evil spirits, and thwarts the mali some St. John's wort before suprise in the cious designs of witches againt cattie. morning, and bide it in the walls in They never cut a loaf till they have various parts of the house. The bunches crossed the surface of it with the knife. which immediately droop announce with • Many an indolent female subsists hy certainty the speedy death of those who dispensing blessings and charms. The placed them there; but if the herb method of charming a complaint is as

remains fresh and green, then the person follows :- After rubbing the ailing mem who deposited it will not die during that ber of the patient, they breathe upon it year. crosswise, at the same time taking the Single drops of blood issuing from the name of God in vain, apply salt and rye nose announce the speedy death of a near flour, or some kind of salve, to ihe relation. affected part, pronouncing a certain form When horses drawing a corpse happen of words, in which the disorder is warned to meet with any obstruction, another of to depart. Though this trade is forbidden the family will soon die. by edicts, especially in Prussian West If a clergyman makes a mistake in phalia, it is still carried on by great naming a child, or changes for instance numbers.

the Low German into the High German It is very pernicious to men and cattle 'name, the child is sure to be sickly. when a person who sees them for the first If a pregnant woman stands godmother time, praises them without adding the to a child, either that or her own unborn words, “ God bless them!”

infant will die young. Many persons have such a malignant If a bride turns pale during the mar eye, that by merely looking at men and riage ceremony, it is the sign of a death cattle, they unknowingly bring them into that will soon happen. great danger of their lives.

Young females knock on Christmas-eve The peasants of Westphalia are so at the hen-house. If a heu first cackles, thoroughly convinced, that there are they relinquish all hope of being married persons who, by muttering certain during the ensuing year; but if a cock formulæ, are able to stop a horse in full crows, the fulfilment of their wishes is at speed, to silence a vigilant dog, to prevent hand. fire from spreading, to staunch blood, and Even in the present century almanacs to do many other wonderful things, that were printed in Westphalia, in which the nothing can persuade them to the con- good or ill fortune of children were trary.

aetermined by the months in which they In some Catholic provinces, the farmer were born. obtains and takes some consecrated wine, There are certain days on which, in the or a consecrated wafer, as a remedy for opinion of these people, the state of the diseases among his cattle.

weather for some time depends. Thus, if Many a housewife hangs her husband's it rains on the festival of St. Ægidius small-clothes or cap on the horns of an (Sept. 1.), on Midsummer-day, and espeailing cow, for the purpose of curing the cially on the following Sunday; and on 'animal.

the Visitation of the Virgin Mary (July A few years since, in Prussian West- 2), there will be rain for the four ensuing phafia, a countryman, if it was foretold weeks. · The animals which announce that any misfortune should befal him, rain are the cuckoo, the swallow, the cock, caused prayers to be offered in the church, and fish. that it might be averted. Though this The notion of lucky and unlucky days

silly practice has been prohibited by the is almost universal. On Monday no goverument, it still takes place here and business of importance is commenced. there,

Servants do not go to place; neither do In some of the provinces, for instance, parents send their children for the first in the county of Ravensperg, many time to school; nor are weddings or believe that they car recover stolen goods, betrothals held on that day. Thursday if they fill a bag with the earth on which also is considered as an 'unlucky day. the thief stood when committing the Friday is the luckiest day for marrying, -depredation, and beat it with a stick and Tuesday for servants entering on their twice or three times a day, till the dust service. Wheat sown on Sanday is sure fies out. The thief is supposed to be to be mildewed. In short, there is vo ympathetically affected with excessive end to the superstitions of this kind.

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HISTORY OF THE STEAM ENGINE.

DESCRIPTIVE HISTORY OF generation ; and a thirst for honest THE STEAM ENGINE,

celebrity, which is the safest guarantee a

Publisher can give for useful exertion. From its original invention to the present time.

Elementary Definitions. Elementary definitions necessary to the WHEN water is heated under the young reader.-Date and circumstances of the Invention. - The Engine of the Marquis of pressure of the atmosphere, or in the Worcester.—Uncertainty as to its nature. ---First usual way in the common operations of defivite construction of a Steam Engine by life, to 212 degrees of Fahrenheit's Swary.-Particular organization and action of thermometer, it becomes gradually his machine.—T'he elasticity of Steam, his first mover.- Defects of Savary's Engine.' - New. converted into steam. Steam may be comen's Engine, the second step of improve- familiarly described vapour of extraorment-General principles. Particular organi- dinary elasticity, and exerting irresistible zation and action of the Newcomen Engine. force under confinement in any closed - His introduction of the working-beam, pneumatic cylinder and piston. — His first vessel. It is capable, however, of being mover the pressure of the atmosphere.--Imper- heated after production, much beyond 213 provements by Beighton.--Statement of the degrees, the point at which it is produced practical advances of the Stearn Engine, its from boiling water, and at such higher semaining desiderata, and reneral condition, to temperatures has the property of being the date of Mr. Wate's earliest attention to the immensely increased both in its power subject

and elasticity; in these extensions of its ORIGINAL

powers, its temperature is the measure * *Soon shall thy arm, nnconquered steam ! afar of its elasticity. " Drag the slow barge, or arive the rapid car." If a vessel already filled with common

DARWIN,

air, be suddenly and completely filled So sang a poet, who, with the metho- with steam, the steam must first bave dical calculations of a practical pbilo- driven the air out, and next have occupied sopher, had the rarer possessions of an its place. If after this, cold be applied extensive and clear-sighted knowledge of to the same vessel, by any contrivance, human capabilities, and an enthusiastic as exposure to the atmosphere, or imagination. His prediction, made immersion in cold water, the steam which before the earliest projection, nay, even occupies it will be instantly condensed, the abstract idea of Steam navigation, i. e. converted into water, occupying bow becomes interesting; it has an air evidently but an extremely small proabsolately oracular.

portion of the vessel's capacity, and of The progressive advances and appli- course leaving its much greater part in cations of the steam engine form a curious a state of vacuum. and extensive field of research and If, to the knowledge of this circuminquiry, and we bow to the repeated stance be added that of the principles of invitations of our best friends and sub the common pump, we may reasonably scribers, in opening a series of papers on conclude that our young readers, or any the subject, which shall be really popular. person previously uninformed on the

We of coarse begin with the early subject, will read the following historical arrangements of the engine itself, ond and descriptive sketch of the steam shall contioue through all its important engine with interest and advantage and rapid strides towards perfection. Whilst we state that our views of this We are of opinion with more than one of vast and important agent, in all our our intelligent correspondents, that the mechanical engagements, is written probable applications of the steam expressly for this class of readers, we engine, are, as well as its probably yet must also observe, that we address unknoon powers, completely such as to ourselves in equal confidence to the set all ordinary calculations at defiance. mechanicaland more extensively informed

We have engaged the same scientific orders of the reading community, looking pen which has afforded our readers so for their approval, for the faithful conmuch interest (and ourselves so much densation of a subject, which they will honourable praise) in his account of the most readily admit, cannot be too Hydraulic Orrery; and proceed in the extensively explained ; while we earn the same path with an alacrity proportioned thanks of the former class, for a more to the high encouragement with which simple and intelligible statement than has We are distinguished. In this particular been presented them through any channel branch of our undertaking, we bring to of easy access, of a highly amusing the task an ardent love of Science; a subject, which, perhaps, they have throbbing desire to contribute effectively, hitherto too hastily avoided as abstruse to the best improvement of the rising and laborious.

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