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on the other, it was protected by a pro- Bran ap Llyr, King of Britain. It after. digious fosse, cut with vast expence and wards got the name of Caer Collwyll, trouble in the solid rock. This place ap Tango, one of the fifteen tribes of was possessed, in 1468, by Dafydd ap North Wales, and Lord of Eifionydd Jefan ap Einion, a strong friend of the Ardudwy, and part of Lleyn. house of Lancaster, and distinguished Edward I. formed the town into a as much by his valour as his goodly per- borough, and conferred on it grants of sonage and great stature. He was be- lands and other emoluments. sieged here by William Herbert, Earl From Harlech the prospect on one of Pembroke, after a inarch through side is very comprehensive and diversithe heart of our Alps, attended with in- fied. The whole extent of Lleyn and credible difficulties, for in some parts Eifionydd appears with the beautiful the soldiers were obliged to climb, in chain of hills, gradually rising from others to precipitate themselves down, Bardseye to the stupendous Wyddfa. the rocks, and at length invested a The Bay and islands of St. Fudwals, place till that time deemed impregnable. the town of Pwllhel'i, and Criceeth Pembroke committed the care of the Castle, on the opposite coast, also adorn siege to his brother, Sir Richard, a hero the same. On the rig lit is Penmorfa, equal in size and prowess to the Bri- and the new town of Tre Maddock; tish commandant. Sir Richard sent a near which is the embankment, made at summons of surrender, but Dafydd an immense expense, with a view to stoutly answered that he had kept a deprive the sea of its possession of castle in France so long, that he made Traeth Mawr. all the old women in Wales talk of him, and that he would keep this so long that The flowers of Literature. all the old women in France should talk of bim. Famine probably subduing JOINT-STOCK COMPANY. him, he yielded on honourable termis, and Richard engaged to save his life
To the Editor. by interceding with his cruel master, Sir-Taking it for granted that you Edward IV. The King at first refused must now see clearly that the world was his request, when Ilerbert told him right in the beginning, and that every plainly that he might take his life instead
man ought to follow, not one trade or of that of the Welclı Captain, or that he business, but five-and-twenty, I take would assuredly replace Dafydd in the
the liberty, in furtherance of that prinCastle. This prevailed, but Sir Richt- ciple, to trespass for one moment upon ard received no other reward.
I think it must be, by this time, quite Margaret of Anjou, the faithful and obvious that it was all moonshine, that spirited Queen of Henry VI. found “ division of labor," which twaddlers, in the castle, in 1460, an asylum after for these three centuries past, have been the unfortunate battle of Northampton. palming upon us as a great discovery. She first fled to Coventry, and thence Is it not proved-proved practicallyretired to this fortress:-after a short that a man, now-a-days, may be his own stay here she went to Scotland, and, butelier, baker, brewer; and even what collecting her friends in the north of
was always accounted still more diffiEngland, poured all her vengeance on cult—that he may be " his own washerher great enemy the Duke of York, .at
woman ?'' the battle of Wakefield.
Now, sir, how can time, I ask, or ta- , The place more than once changed lent, be more usefully employed than in masters during the last civil wars. It carrying this new but admirable theory was well defended by Major Hugh Pen a step farther; and having already pant, till he was deserted by his men.
every man bis own washer-woIt was finally taken in March, 1647, by man,” to realise another project, by General Mytton, when Mr. William making him “ his own physician!” Owen was governor; and the whole
The fact is, every body knows the garrison consisted of but twenty-eight enormous profits which have long been
It had the honor of surrendering made by the sale of quack medicines ! on articles, and of being the last fortress profits which it is quite impossible to in North Wales which held out for the think of letting any longer remain in king. It is also said to be the last in
the pockets of those who possess them. England which held out for the House And the effect is, sir, that a General of Lancaster. The ancient fortress Quack Medicine Company is now about which stood here, and the remains of to start, under very particularly remarkwhich are still visible, was first called ably favourable auspices. Tur Bronwen, from Bronwen, sister to
: ANTIQUITIES OF LONDON.
403 Our view, at present, is to raise a physic always refuse to drink it them capital (small but sufficient) of 250,000). selves. by creating 5000 “ Joint-Stock Quack Sir, it must be unnecessary, I think, Medicine Shares," at 501. a share; and for me to press on you particularly the the provisional Direction is already in adviseableness of an early application possession of four highly productive spe- for shares in this desirable speculation; cifics—" Solomon's Drops,' “ The since the surplus capital of the country, Edinburgh Ointment," “ Daffy's Elix, which it was erroneously imagined the ir,” and “ The Milk of Elephants," for Joint-Stock Companies would consume, the property in which only 150,000). is is daily renewing itself, and must go on to be taken from the Company at large. to do so, owing to the private tradesmen
Now, sir, to these nostrums, which which these Companies drive out of buare already in high request, the bye laws siness ; only, knowing your circulation of the Company will at once impart a among monied people, and your general great additional sale. Because, as it is anxiety for the publie welfare, is the taken for granted that some one or other cause of your receiving this trouble of them-or, to say the least, the whole from, sir, your very obedient servant, four taken together-must form a cure
(-) Provisional Secretary for any ailment that human nature can
to the Undertaking. be affected with, therefore it is made a
P.S. No connection at all with the condition, that every proprietor of Quack Medicine Stock shall, either by has (something unhandsomely,) copied
“ General Journal Company,” which himself or by proxy, he bound to take
our plan; but it is in contemplation to physic, in the course of the year, or rub himself with ointinent, to one-half the append a General Burying Company (if
an Act of Parliament can be obtained) amount of his dividend. The inmediate general advantage it complete. We mean to cast no ré
to our Establishinent, in order to render flowing from this arrangement will be
flection by this upon Mr. Chandler, or of a nature really quite miraculous : for,
any other undertaker of Fleet-market; at one stroke, it gives every man an interest both in being sick and making yard are open to us all.
but public patronage and the churchother people so. To prevent abuse, no person carrying on trade as a sausage.
ANTIQUITIES OF LONDON. maker, wine-inerchant, pastry-cook, table beer-brewer, or otherwise, holding the lives of the community in his It has been well observed in one of gift, can be permitted to be a share.
our most popular magazines that one of holder; but, as to ordinary interests, the most interesting sights in London the tables will be most completely turn is that stone which has remained there ed upon illness; because, the more
from time immemorial, and which from physic or salve that a man can use, or long standing has acquired the metropersuade his family or his
friends to take, politan title. The admiration with ibe greater his profit, by dividend, at which we regard the most noble piece Quarter-day.
of architecture in our widely extending Proprietors of Life Insurance Com- city, however great and however pleapanies will find great benefit from tak- sing it may be, can have no comparison ing shares in this Institution, as the an
with the feelings which agitate us when nual loss upon annuitants whose lives
we cast our eyes on London Stone. are unreasonably prolonged, will be
There are some buildings which, from compensated, in a great measure, by an
their antiquity, excite our wonder and annual profit on the “Solomon's Drops,” our pleasure. While viewing the Tow&c. that those old persons swallow. er, we reflect that William the Conquer
Nurses are inadmissible as proprie. or himself may have cast his eyes on the tresses of this Company, to prevent any stones which we then behold. While possible suspicion as to misuse of the visiting the gloomy dungeons in which * Daffy's Elixir." For the same rea the traitors were confined, we say to son, upon the grounds before stated,
ourselves, “ Here perhaps the noble shareholders in any of the new Milk Stafford stood and looked abroad on Companies about town cannot be treated the Thames on the evening previous to with. Froin the regular apothecaries, his execution,” and at the thought the physicians, and surgeons, the Company blood runs through our veins more quickhopes to meet with every encourage- ly; and we wish with eagerness it had ment, as its formation will certainly been our lot to stand among the crowd remove one old stigma upon the medical which welcomed the Norman conqueror profession—to wit, that the dealers in
to the fortress, or accompanied the un
NO, I.-LONDON STONE.
fortunate statesman in his unmerited are extremely well-informed, and, in sorrows. But, when looking on London consequence, generous and humane; Stone, our imagination is carried much then they were considered no better farther back. This,” say we, “has than beasts of burden; now what a conperhaps witnessed the horrible rites of trast! they have knowledge, knowledge the ancient Britons, when the Druids is power, and no man has a right to use immolated theirshrieking victims to their them as he would his horse; for their sanguinary gods; or, at all events, the condition was very little better at the stately march of the Roman legions period of which we speak; no wonder when they went to oppose Boadicea, the ihen, that, when the iron band of despatriotic queen.
Those chivalrous potism was pressed too hard on thein, knights, who spent their lives and their ihey rose en masse to demand their just fortunes in unavailing attempts to re- rights; but this, though it might be a cover the holy sepulchre, have, no doubt, consideration with most of the malconeyed with awe and reverence this an tents, was not that of their leader, who cient stone, It was on this that Jack
was either the agent of a powerful facCade struck his staff, whilst, with joy tion, or the ambitious would-be soveand exultation depicted in his counte- reign. bance, he uttered those famous words which are recorded by Ilollingshed, In the first volume of the Portfolio • Now is Mortimer Lord of this citie.” will be found an interesting account of Around it stood bis infatuated follow- this ancient relic; and the curious read. ers in the dress of the rude artizans and er may, by taking a walk to Cannon. mechanics of the period, waving their street, view himself this famous and leathern caps in the air and shouting in well-known antiquity.
A. A. triumph the exclamation of their leader. N. B. My next will consist of reThe affrighted citizens viewed the rabe marks, &c. on the Tower, and the vable with horror and dismay, and hur- rious historical events connected with ried to seize their arms, and repulse the that venerable structure, daring invaders of London. Now, how altered is the scene! all around betoken
MODERN ANTIQUES. peace and plenty; near it stands the
Bellows.-The first idea mansion of ihe chief magistrate, a proof
mere hollow reed. Beckman, in his (if any were wanting) of the wealth and
History of Inventions, allows that our prosperity of London, which can erect
common bellows was known to the such beautiful and expensive structures for their public men. But a still strong. bellows appears on a Roman lamp; but
Greeks, and a fac simile of the modern er proof of the importance of the city he is not authorized in aflirming that is derived from viewing the houses in they were first invented by the Germans an adjoining street*, where gold glit in the seventeenth century. Dr. Clarke ters in plentiful profusion, and where derives the origin from the Wallachian reside those men whose immense stock
bellows. They are made by fixing a of money enabled, and will enable us to uphold the rights and liberties of round air-pipe to the skin of the nech of Albion, our dear, and, in one word, our
an animal, and fastening two wooden natire land.
handles to the part which covered the Then let us bless the names of those meli
, by whose patriotic feet. Some of a very singular form acexertions we have overcome our numer
company figures of Vulcan on ancient ous enemies, and liave rendered it im- bellows blowers were officers in royal
In the thirteenth century the possible that such a man as Jack Cade should again scatter terror and dismiy kitchens, whose duty it was to see that through this extensive town. The re
soup, when on the fire, was neither
burnt nor smoked. eollection that this rebellion was supported principally by ignorant mechan- - In the thirteenth century it was made
Dutch Oven.-Of classical antiquity. ics, a class now extinct, recals to our mind the many and successful efforts of iron, or pottery. Dr. Pegge, the anlately made, and now inaking, to in- tiquary, conceives that the curfew was struct every artizan, however poor, in
a contrivance under which bread, or the mysteries of art and science. Since
other things, might be baked. Jack Cade's time this order of persons
Milk Pail.--- Among the Romans it is totally changed; then they were un
was in form like a barber's shaving pot, informed and brutally stupid, now they
of copper, but much flatter and broad
With us it was a pail, the Anglo• Lombard-street, so called from its origill. furnished with handles, so as to be ca
Saxon esion and mile-fæt, and it was al inhabitants, the Lombards of Italy.
ANECDOTES OF TWO SAILOR-MONKEYS.
pable of carriage between two men, by rope's end, but derived little benefit a pole thrust through.
from his chastisement. SACK - The antiquity of this is well The captain, who had also suffered known, being mentioned in holy writ from his depredations, conceived the very early. The Anglo-Saxons had idea of a more effectual punishment; some which contained à quarter, or but this not only led to no reform, but eight bushels, and were called Seam was the cause of a new and most ludi. byrdens.
crous offence. SNUFFERS.- Of Roman invention. He was in the habit, it seems, of Montfaucon has engraved a print of stealing preserved apricots; into which lamp tweezers resembling a tuning a quantity of unanna was infused by the fork with a long ornamented handle, captain's order. The beast, who (as and this idea answers to the Angio-Sax was expected) swallowed the bait, was on candel-twist. In the venerable John considerably inconvenienced by the efNichols's Progresses of Queen Eliza- fects of his inedicine, but found out a beth, I find“ two pair of small snuffers, mode of remedy and revenge. He took silver gilt.”
possession of one of the quarter-gallerTrivet is mentioned in the twelfthies, having observed to what purposes century, though the shape is not kuown. they were appropriated, kept his seat
within for some hours, and was only ANECDOTES OF TWO SAILOR dislodged by breaking down the bulk
All these pranks, however provoking The first of these sailed on board a at the moment, seemed only to make frigate, and, though always in serapes, him a greater favorite with the crew. was the favorite both of cabin and ward The caplain himself, who studied pug's room, and indeed of every mess except happiness as much as the others, and the midshipmen's, being perlaps dis who perhaps thought he might be someliked by these young gentlemen for the what steadied by matrimony, same reasons that poor cousins (as a anxious to provide him with a wife. French author observes) are ill seen by It was at this period that a trilling us, to wit, for approaching them too mistake in wording an order inundated nearly in nature.
all England with monkeys. E This animal was distinguished, like W distinguished by his passion the rest of his tribe, by a propensity to for a conservatory, meant to write to gratuitous mischief, and one of his his correspondent in the Brazils, to colprincipal amusements in fine weather lect and send him the two hundred vawas to possess himself of a plate, cup, rieties of the monkey plant : but unforor saucer, which he would break to pie- tunately omitted the word plant. In ces in the chains, and throw overboard, consequence of this order arrived a watching the fragments descending letter from his correspondent, informing through the water with infinite gratili- bim that he had seni bim one hundred cation. This,' the reader will per- and seventy-three varieties of the monhaps say, “any monkey might do;''but key, which were all that were known in another of his exploits can hardly, 1 Rio de Janeiro and its neighbourhood; think, be paralleled by any fact in monk- but he had no doubt that the order could ish history.
be completed by his agents in the inThis monkey was well aware of there terior. being a large store of apples in a lock Before the unbappy botanist could er in the ward-room; but his thiev- provide for the disposal of this wilderish tricks were so well knowi, that he ness of monkeys, came another letter, was excluded from all legitimate access out of which dropped an ominous paper, to it. Under these circumstances, he "half printed and half written,' which provided himself with a piece of wad was a bill of lading in the usual formding, and with this implement in one 'Shipt by the grace of God, sound and hand, and swinging himself from the in good condition, on board the good stern gallery with the other, he broke ship Friendly Endeavour, 173 monkeys, a pane in the ward-room window with foc.fic. for, and so God send the good his wadding, and, having carefully ship Friendly Endeavour, with hercargo, picked out the broken glass, introduced to a safe port.' E-W, having himself into the forbidden territory, a little recovered from his consternation, Here, like the animal in the fable, he proceeded to read the letter from which gorged himself so fully that he was un this fearful annunciation had dropt. This able to retreat. Being taken in the was from the captain of the good ship fact, he received the discipline of the Friendly Endeavour, informing him that
he was arrived in the river with 169 out was but an indifferent top-man, and selof 173 monkeys consigned to him, four dom got beyond lubber's hole. having died upon the passage; and beg The monkey, on the contrary, was ging bim to have them landed as soon as famous for his activity, and for some time possible, for they began to be very mis was entitled by the sailors, *Deputy cheevous.'
captain of the fore-top.' He obtained They were landed as soon as possible, this designation from a very singular were disposed of with equal speed, and, practice. Having observed the excitein consequence, an unprecedented fall ment produced on deck by the announcetook place in the monkey market. Ex ment of a sail a-head, which, as well as ports were now made to the remotest the chase which followed, seemed to be parts of England, and, among these, highly agreeable to him, the fore-top was a female, dispatched to Portsmouth, became his favourite station; from who was bought a bargain by the posa whence he made his signals with great sessor of the maritime monkey, and energy, chattering with a peculiar given by him in marriage to his favourite, scream when any vessel came in sight,
For some time the happiness of the and indicating by signs in what direc. wedded pair appeared to be complete ; tion it appeared. and the frigate sailed upon a summer Pug continued to volunteer his servi. eruize during their honey-moon. The ces for some time in this manner, and husband, however, soon grew indiffe constantly found his reward. But, at rent; and indifference was soon suc length, upon the sloop's getting on bad ceeded by disgust. This was manifest cruizing ground, he found his employ. ed by angry looks, chatter, and even ment dull, and, by way of enlivening it, blows, upon the female persevering in amused bimself with giving false alarms. her attentions.
He was started for this by the boat. All were much disappointed and swain's mate, and lost his rank as De. scandalized at the evil success of so puty-captain of the fore-top. In lieu promising a union.
of which, moreover, he was new-named At length, however, an apparent Monk the Marine; a denomination change took place in the husband's con which he certainly knew to be opproduct, and was hailed with correspond- brious, as he resented it with grimaces, ent joy by the ship's company. Their chatter, and when he dared with blows. pleasure was, however, of short dura Though he was fond of the excite. tion, for the traitor, having one fine day of a chase, he was not supposed decoyed bis wife out to the end of the to have good nerves, and those who bad fore-top-gallant yard, as if to show her seen him in action (he was, after the something at sea, and sat down with first experiment, always sent below) her on the spar, slipt his paw under her made but au ill report of his steadiness sitting part, and tumbled her overboard. under fire.
I never shall forget the momentary This poor monkey caine to a melan. horror with which this was witnessed by choly end. He had observed a siek all, with the exception of a French cap lieutenant, who breakfasted after the tain then a prisoner on board, wlio, rest of his mess, making his tea, and turning to the second lieutenant, ex- being accidently left alone in the gunclaimed, 'Parbleu, Monsieur, ce drole la room, determined to imitate him. He a beaucoup de caractère.'
however succeeded ill in his mixture: The second monkey extracted much for he infused a paper of tobacco which fun from a bear. This beast, who was was lying on the table, into his pot, inof a saturnine complexion, indulged him- stead of tea, and afterwards swallowed self much in sleeping on the sunny side it with its accompaniments of milk and of the deck. On these occasions the sugar. This ill-imagined beverage promonkey would overhaul his paws, and duced the most fearful commotion in his twitch out any hair which might be found inside, attended with long and loathmatted by tar or pitch, the suffering some vomitings, of which he finally died, which to remain seemed to be a great The doctor, who was a materialist scandal in his opinion.
and an atheist, and a most quarrelsome At other times he would open Bruin's fellow, (he had killed two brother offi. eyelids and peep into his eyes, as if to cers in duels, one for only calling him ascertain what he was dreaming about. Dr. Gallipot,) attended with more care The bear, irritated at sich liberties be- than we had expected; but the poor ing taken with his person, used to make beast (as the purser said) was outward elumsy attempts to revenge himself, but bound, and could not be recalled. his persecutor was off in an instant. The The surgeon apnounced that Pug rigging was, on these occasions, his died of the iliac passion, and announced Place of refuge. Thither he was indeed this as a reason for believing that man followed by his enemy; but poor Bruin was a better breed of monkey.