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The Cuts by the celebrated Bewick.



Death is better than a bitter life, or continual Man that is born of a woman is of few days, sickness.

ECCLES. xxx. 17. and full of trouble. He cometh forth like a The grim countenance of this good shower and is cut dowa: he fleeth also as a

shadow, and continueth not. JOB. xvi. I, old dame does not indicate the same resignation as appears in the former Ir under the roof of poverty there is subject. Wholly occupied in mumbling any comfort, it is in having children by her rosary, she pays no attention to the whom we may hope one day to be sound of a dulcimer, on which one of solaced. This is the case with this poor her, conductors is playing. The other widow ; but Death is of a different skeleton, impatient of the slowness opinion, and is come to carry off her of the Old Woman's march, is employ- youngest child, unmoved by her prayers ing menaces aud blows to make her and lamentations. advance. NOTICES.

appearance, superiority of EmbellishSO numerous have been oar orders for ment, variety and universal interest in the First Number of our new Volume, the Articles, will, we trust, invariably with the Portrait of Miss TREE, that a characterise our subsequent Numbers new Copper-plate has been, by necessity, We beg to draw the attention of our new put in hand, to supply the additional Subscribers to a few observations which thousands required.

will be found in page 352 of our last The scientific Article, and accom- Volume. papying Engraving, by the celebrated As our circulation increases, our comEngineer and Mechanist alluded to in munications also multiply. Every letter our last, will be inserted in the next shcet. will have the most respectful attention, A press of important matter will, we are and be accepted or rejected upon the sure, be a sufficient apology.

principle of strict impartiality, and as Our readers will recognize a new and the real merits of the articles warrant. superfine paper, made expressly for the We shall trespass on the patience of our Portfolio. A general uniformity of Correspondents until next week. LONDON: -WILLIAM CHARLTON WRIGHT, 65, Paternoster Row, and may be had of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

[SEARS, Printer, 45, Gutter Lane.

The Portfolio,









THE ASTRONOMICAL EXHIBITIONS OF MODERN TIMES, Which add to their Mechanical Arrangements the Illustration of Music, and Scenic Decoration.


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SELF-MOVING ORRERY. action) was preserved, and the mecha. fAnxious to render the pages of the PORT. nical friction almost annihilated. POLIO valuable and cseful, as well as amusing, Having completed his temporary expe and interesting, we have employed an Artist of riments, the author next endeavoured to description of the Self-moving Orrery by Mr. apply this beautiful combination to some Busby, and to prove the utility of these mai other purpose of general usefulness; and chines in a general point of view. We have it immediately occurred to him, that an read the article with much interest, and doubt Orrery might be so constructed upon pot it will prove equally so to our numerous readers.)

hydraulic principles, as, by their instru

mentality, to afford a more perfect and The Busby Orrery, unquestionably accurate representation of the harmothe most beautiful contrivance of modern vious movement of the heavenly bodies, times, for the popular exhibition of 'than hád yet been effected. Astronomical Phenomena, ranks high as Orreries are now too generally known well for its mechanical merit as its sin- to be otherwise than familiar to every gular beauty of action: it is properly well-informed person : these instruments, termed a self-acting machine, and, to the however, have hitherto been constructed eye of taste, is equally charming in its by a complication of wheel-work, which, conception, its organization, and its although extremely ingenious, are never. effect. The self-acting Hydraulic Oirery theless altogether unequal to the imiseems, indeed, to lay open a new field tation of those equable, silent, and undefor the display of philosophical me- viating movements which characterize chanism.

the grandest works of the Creator. The Mr. Busby, its inventor, was; it seems, Hydraulic Orrery, on the contrary, posengaged, some time back, in a series of sesses all the advantages of the former experiments to determine the resistances machines, together with the distinguishopposed to floating bodies passing ing characteristic of self-action, and a through Auids; and his method of per- perfect imitation of the motions, as well forming these will, we presume, be in- as the positions, of the planetary bodies. teresting to our scientific readers, both It will be recollected, that to constitute as it led to the invention of the machine an orrery, it is not necessary that the we are about to describe, and as it machine should include all the planets : exhibits the rationale of its construction. a machine, which represents the motions

A circular reservoir of water was pro- of the sun, the earth, and the moon, vided, having a small perpendicular sbaft is still an orrery; and to these bodies, erected in the centre, and the vessel with Jupiter and his satellites, Mr. Busby which formed the particular subject of first applied his hydraulic principles. experiment was placed upon the water, It appears, however, he has recently near the circumference, but connected arranged and organized a plan for å with the centre, by an arbor extending more extensive Hydraulic Orrery, in to the shaft, and snpported by a float. which the most remote planets and ibeir The vessel was pierced in the bottom, satellites are included. and the shorter extremity of a siphon

In the centre of his exhibition-roona being soldered into the opening, the was placed a circular reservoir, five feet longer leg hung over the circumference diameter. The Sun, represented by a of the reservoir. This leg, unlike that of ball of nine inches diameter, sustained the ordinary siphon, was closed at the upon a slender shaft, about two feet bottom, but a small lateral aperture being above the surface of the water, and borne made, the water spouted througb it, in å by a small circular floating vessel in the direction at right angles to the arbor, and middle of the reservoir; this vessel the vessel immediately began to move carried a syphon, which discharged a with accelerated velocity

in an opposite minute lateral stream into a sēparate course: in a second or two it arrived at a' 'Aoating rim, or concentric circular vessel, maximum, and the future progress exhi- which surrounds it. The re-action of bited that delightful, equable, gliding this discharge causes the vessel bearing motion, which seems to afford the only the Sun to revolve upon an axis erected true similitude to the silent grandeur of in the centre of a bar, extended diamethe celestial movements.

trically across the inner circle of the rim, The principle upon which this experi- or surrounding vessel. The water thus ment was made, is that of the well received into the rim flows along a tube known philosophical machine called beneath the surface of a reservoir, and “Barker's Mill;" but the grand improve euters a Boating cylindrical chamber at ment consisted in combining that principle the otber extremity. In the centre of with a syphon, supported by a Aoating this chamber a tube is erected, through body; by which means a perfectly uni which a forked rod passes, and bears the form head of water (and consequently of Earth, represented by a ball of three

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inches diameter, at an appropriate Aoating vessel, and the satellites are
elevation, and having its axis duly in- borne by concentric floating vessels at
clined to the ecliptic. A separate foat. their due distances, respectively, from the
ing rim surrounds the cylindric chamber, primary. The primary receives its
bearing the shaft which carries the Moon motion by the action of a stream of rare-
on one side, and a re-acting syphon on fied air, which proceed from the flame of
the other, the discharge from which a small lamp, and acting against an
impels it round the shaft which hears inclined shade or sail, is thrown out in an
the Earth. This floating rim also acts, horizontal direction. Thus the circula
by contact, upon a small wheel, attached vessel bearing Jupiter, is made to rer
to a slender rod, cotnmunicating by an volve; the motion of this vessel imparts
universal joint with the axis of the Earth, a gyratory motion to the whole body of
and thus causes that body to revolve; water, by transmission from the several
while the action of a vertical wheel, with concentric vessels; and the vessels
a radiating axis rolling round a horizontal beating the satellites, are consequently
circle fixed to the rod sustaining the made to revolve by the action of the
Earth, gives motion to a small crank, water itself, with velocities regularly
which imparts an ascending and descend- diminishing as their distances from the
ing motion to the Moon, and produces primary increase.
the obliquity of its orbit; and a calcu- The Hydraulic Orrery, its inventor has
lated disparity between the diameters of justly observed, may be erected on the
the vertical wheel, and the circle upon most extensive scale, on a natural or
which it rolls, causes these ascending and artificial basin in the open air, or would
descending motions to take place in a form an interesting appendage to a
less. period than one revolution of the conservatory or aquarium ; but, as there
Moon, and thus gives the due changes of exists no practical obstruction to the
the nodes.

erection of these beautiful orreries on
The shaft which bears the Earth is the great scale, we venture to recommend
continued beneath the surface of the them as suitable ornaments for all public
water, and a flat plate, of six inches places, in which a suitable piece of water
diameter, is conuected with a plate of Occupies a commanding site. And we
equal diameter at the circumference, by are decidedly of opinion, that an
three parallel and oblique rods extending arrangement of this self-acting ma-
to it at the bottom of the centre of the chinery, in any such situation, would do
reservoir, thus preserving the parallelism more to promote a love of science and
of the Earth's axis, on a principle general astronomical information, than
apalagous to that of a parallel ruler, at any thing that has been yet effected with
the same time the lateral motion of the that intention.
central vessel, bearing the Sun, is pre-
vented, by a spur, which embraces the
circumference of the plate beneatb.

RYLAND'S LIVING ORRERY. · But as the water which is discharged THE singular beauty and attractive by the two syphons already described, simplicity of the Busby Orrery, and the would soon fill the receptacles, the unlimited scale on wbich it may be operation of a third syphon is introduced, practically employed, is approached (it which carries away the superfluous is certainly not equalled) by a conwater, and by its lateral discharge on the trivance for a popular exhibition of the outside the general reservoir, gives the planetary system, by John Ryland, in his annual motion of the Earth and Moon elementary treatise of Mechanics, in the about the Sun.

year 1768. And a more extensive and We have tbus attempted to describe more perfectly organised arrangement, the construction of this beautiful machine, hy De Vaux, announced in Iris treatise on but mere description does but imperfectly the Longitude.-Ryland's description is convey an idea of its effect in action. simple and concise; he designates his Qur plate correctly represents its ap- arrangement as “a living orrery, made pearance ou an enlarged scale, and (on with sixteen school-boys." And, speaka design of our own) under circumstances ing of astronomy as a science capable of which, in actual construction, would popular illustration, he says, render it of delightful interest, but its “It may be taught them in their playevolutions must be seen to be understood, hours with as much pleasure as they its novelty and beauty of action felt and learn to play at marbles, or drive a hoop appreciated.

for an hour or two; and this may be In another part of the room, an inge- done in the following manner : nious apparaius represented the planet « Take sixteen blank cards ; write on Jupiter and his satellites. In this the one, the Sun; a seventeenth boy of a planet is centrally supported on a circular large size must be used for the Sun in

the centre, with his diameter, which is ingenuity, and its excellence of practical seven bundred thousand miles. Ou effect, we cannot doubt, but its origi, another card write Mercury, with his nality, after the proposal of our countryperiod, eighty-eight days, distance from man Ryland, we are bound to question. The Sun thirty-two millions, diameter two De Vaux lhus describes his method :thousand six hundred miles, and hourly « Let us suppose that you have a motion, which is one hundred thousand pleasure-ground in the Isle of Wight, miles. So go on to Venus, our Earth, containing a large grass-plot about 400 Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Then write feet diameter, with a southern aspect on your other cards the names and towards the bay of St. Helen's, forming periods of the ten moons in our system, a declivity of 234 degrees from the Having thus furnished your cards, then centre. In this centre should be a round provide the orbits for these sham planets; pavilion, having a sky-light and windows go into any plain field or place, where all round. This pavilion will be our boys can play; draw a circle of two observatory, and at the same time will hupdred feet diameter, which you may represent the Sun in the middle of our easily do with a cord and a broom-stick, planetary system. As this pavilion ordering one boy to hold the cord in the must contain company and music, &c. centre, while you describe the circle with it must be at least 20 feet diameter; the stick at the other end of the string. which diameter representing that of the When you have formed your circle, Sun, and the distance of the Earth from divide the semi-diameter into a hundred the Sun being about 100 of his diameter, parts; if you choose exactness, take five if we intended to place the Earth at its of these parts from the centre, and de- true distance from the Sun, relative to its scribe a circle for Mercury's orbit; take diameter, then the Earth's place or orbit seven parts for the orbit of Venus; ten would be 2,000 feet from the Sun, and parts for our Earth's orbit; fifteen parts the diameter of the Earth in this hypofor the orbit of Mars; fifty-two parts, thesis would be only 2-12ths inches ; that is fifty-two feet, for the orbit of and consequently the superior planets Jupiter. And let the outward circle of would be, in proportion, at a distance a bundred feet represent the orbit of too considerable for our object; but if Saturn, which is the boundary of the we keep that proportion two 2-12ths Newtonian system.

After this draw inches for the diameter of the Earth, and your cireles for our Moon round the if we follow the same for all the other Earth, for Jupiter's moons round him, planets, we shall have Mercury 2-10ths and last of all for Saturn's five moons. of an inch, Venus 2 inches, the Earth There is no occasion to be serupulously two 2-12ths inches, Mars one 2-12ths exact till the boys are well versed in inches, Jupiter 2 feet, Saturn 1 foot these first easy notions, reduce them to 8 inches, and Georgium 10 inches. accuracy by degrees. Whiston's Astro “ As to the distances of each planet nomical Principles of Religion and from the Sun (which is the semi-diameter Ferguson's Astronomy will furnish ample of each of their orbits,), if we adopt their materials for all your purposes. Now proportional distances, as in the last line begin your play, fix your boys in their of the above table, we shall bave Mercury circles, each with his card in his hand, 4 feet, Venus 7, the Earth 10, Mars 15% aud then put your orrery in motion, Jupiter 52, Saturn 95, and Georgium 190 giving each boy a direction to move from feet distance from their centre, the Sun, west to east, Mercury to move swiftesty that is to say, from our paviliom and the others in proportion to their “Now, let'us trace our planisphere, as distances, and cach boy repeating in his it should be done before the building of furn, the contents of his card, concerning the pavilion. For this purpose, take a his distance, magnitude, period, and cord, at least 190 feet long; tie a peg at hourly motion. Half an hour spent in each end; fix one of these pegs at the this play once a week will, in the com- centre point; deduce 10 feet for the pass of a year, fix such clear and sure semi-diameter of the pavilion; then, at ideas of the solar system, as they cau 190 feet farther, trace with the other peg never forget to the last hour of life ; and a circle, which will be the orbit of the will probably rouse sparks of genius, remotest planet Georgium. Double which will kindle into a bright and the cord in two, and at $5 feet from the beautiful fame in the manly part of life, surface of the pavilion's place, you will

have the orbit of Saturn to trace there.

At the distance of 52 feet from the paDE VAUX'S MILITARY ORRERY.

vilion, you will trace the orbit of Jupiter; DE Vaux's arrangement is evidently at 15 feet, that of Mars; that of the built on, and was in all probability sug- Earth at 10 feet; of Venus at 7; and of gested, by Ryland's method. Of its Mercury at 4 foot, from the outside of

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