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gage in their lodgings, and their my's fleet. But the ship that carried horses on the shore. Having arrived Buonaparte, with crowded fails, was on board the lips prepared for the foon out of danger. The other three vovage, their names were called thips, about nine in the morning of

Two strangers were found the leventh, came to anchor near St. among them and relanded. They Rapheau, which, about noon, the then weighed anchor and set fail, crews were permitted to enter. Abut contrary winds did not permit bout two, Buonaparte, with his comthem to get out of the road of panions and suite, arrived at Frejus, a Aboukir till the twenty-fourth of small fea-port of Provence, amidst an Aurut.

immense concourle of people, who Previously to his departure, Bu- hastened to behold him from the onaparte left a letter auldrelled to neighbouring country. The mogeneral Kleber, with orders that it ment they landed, they fell down, in fould not be opened for twenty. imitation of a custom among the four hours after his quitting the Greek and Roman generals, and land. This letter contained his ap- einbraced the ground, which they pointment to the chief coinmand of called the Land of Liberty: Tranithe army of all Egypt, during the ports of enthusiastic joy broke out absence of Buonaparte, and an or- among the spectators on every fide, der for conferring the command of and nothing was heard but cries of Upper Egypt on general Dellaix. vive la Republique ! vive Buonaparte. On leaving the anchorage of A- The magiltaies of Frejus went out boukir, the small French Squadron to meet them, and received them could descry but one frigate, and with a kind of triumphal honours, they arrived at Ajaccio, in Corfica, The generals Lannes and Murat, on the thirtieth of September.— both wounded, sel out from St. There they were detained by con- Rapheau with all the crews for trary winds till the fixth of Octo- Toulon, from whence, fome days ber.

On the fixth they were but thereafter, they proceeded to Paris. ten leagues distant from Toulon, It was certainly a piece of great when, in the evening, they per- good fortune that Buonaparte and ceived an English Squadron of eight his companions Mould effect their fail

. The question now propoled escape through so many hostile ships in council was, whether they thould of war, Rullian, Turkill, and fail' back to Corsica, or attempt to English. His greatest dangers, make the shore. Buonaparte foon however, were encountered during decided it. Recollecting, perhaps, the two first days after his embark the encouraging words of Julius ation, when he was prevented by Cæsar to his mariners in circum- contrary winds from getting out of stances also of danger, he said, the road of Aboukir. The army "Be not alarmed, fortune will not must have suppoled that he was abandon me, let us make directly only going to reconnoitre some part for the coast.” Signals were made of the coast, or for concerting and accordingly, and the frigates veered planning fome secret expedition. immediately eastward. The Avilo, There was not a little danger of his not perceiving the signals, remain- real defign, in the course of those ed behind in the midst of the ene- two days being discovered; in



. 4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1800. which cale there was also some formers read their parts, not liar. danger of the army stopping him, ing had time to commit them to and demanding an explanation of memory. On his appearance at the his conduct; so that the return of theatre, he was received with thunBuonaparte, as well as 'his expedi- ders of applaule, and when he tion to Egypt, and transactions went out of the house, the audithere, were strongly tinctured with ence followed him home to his the marvelous. If there were in lodgings. On the day after his arreality a divinity of fortune, there rival in Paris, he had a private aucould be no doubt that Buonaparte dience of the directory: All the is one of her greatest favourites, as ftreets and allies leading to the he himself is very ready to acknow- Luxembourg were crowded with ledge.

fpectators. Buonaparte teftified a At fix o'clock in the evening of lively fenfibility to the demonstrathe seventeenth of October, this tions with which he was every celebrated chief left Frejus, and where furrounded of the public joy proceeded to Paris, in company and gladness. In his way to and with general Berthier and the three from the directorial palace, he obmembers of the national institute ferred among the spectators several already mentioned. The courier soldiers who had served under him who had been dispatched before in his campaigns in Italy. These him, to announce his arrival to the men he called to him, wherever he directory, and to prepare relays of perceived them, and gave them horses for his journey, called out his hand, with expreslions of goodfor them every where in his nanie, will and friendship. He wore a and from every town and village great coat with a Turkish fabre. the people rushed out to meet him, His hair was cut very thort, and and accompanied him beyond their the climate of Egypt had changed respective communities : fo im- the natural palenels of his face, into menle was the crowd, even in the a dart complexion, which improved roads, that the carriages found it his appearance. On leaving the difficult to go forward. In every directory he paid visits to the miplace through which he passed, nisters of war and marine, and from Frejus to Paris, there were at other persons of consequence in the night illuminations. At Lyons, service of the republic. when it was known that he was to These particulars will not be pass that city, nothing was omitted censured as too minute, when we that could be imagined, in order - reflect on the interest which the to testify the joy of the citizens, and French nation felt in Buonaparte at give him a splendid reception. A this time, and how much that unishort theatrical piece, called the versal enthufialm, in favour of this llero's Return, was composed and single man, contributed to the imrepretented immediately. The per- portant scenes with which it was

• It is a question of not a little curiosity, what is the reason why Buonaparte affects to consider himself as under the peculiar protection of fortune? When he had to do with barbarians, to talk of fate and fortune, miglit not be bad policy? Fut in fortune he has expreifed his conñdence to the French army, and even the French nation and legislature, who, if they are not even deists, are much less polytheists.

quickly quickly followed. Without this lost in an admiration and fond enthusiasm the revolution of 1799 attachment to the hero who conwould not probably have been con- ducted it, returned after many ceived, and certainly could not perils, and deeds of valour, within have been exccuted. Human na- the Freneh territories. It was this. ture is prone to cast off all melan- boundless attachment and conficholy reflections, and anticipations, dence, no doubt, that encouraged and to grasp at some object of hope, Buonaparte to form the design of if possible. This disposition is par- fubverting the present conftitution ticularly remarkable in the French -and government, or confirmed him nation. They are also distinguish in that delign, if already formed. ed by another propensity, indulged The filuation of the republic in to excess : a devoted attachment its relations, both external and into some object of fond admiration. ternal, were such as foftered disTheir whole attention, their pride, content and invited to innovation. and their hopes were, at this time, Though victory had returned to fixed as on a centre, on Buona. the French standards in Switzerparte. Of him alone they thought; land, the privations and sufferings spoke, and dreamed. From him, of the armies of both Switzerland fome great though unknown good and Italy were very great, and a was to arise to France, and every subject of loud complaint against class of men in the republic. Six administration. The forced loan months had not elapsed since a of 100 millions of which only a majority, in the nation and the le- small portion was collected, had gislative councils, had condemned shaken public credit, damped the the expedition to Egypt as impru- spirit of industry, and produced, dent, and the source of that re. with many inconveniences and sufverse of fortune, which had been ferings, much discontent and mura experienced both in Italy and Ger- murming among the busy classes many. This was urged, as matter of the people. "But, the imbecilof accusation againīt the ex-direc- lity and rashness of government, tors Merlin, Rewbel, and la Réveil- ftill farther increased the general lere Lepaux, who infifted that the dissatisfaction, anxiety, and alarm, cxpedition to the East was projects by a law known by the name of the ed and insisted on, in opposition to law of Hoftages. tbe sentiments of the executive go. During the administration of the vernment, by Buonaparte. The late directors, various projects had same position was maintained, in been formed, and presented to the fundry memorials by the ex-bihop legislature, for the fuppression of Talleyrand, and Charles la Croix. disorders under the title of a law The ascendant obtained, by the for the relponsibility of the different general, over the public councils, districts, known by the name of they said had overcome all oppo- Communes, or Communities. Thele Sition on the part of the directory. projects had hitherto been deemed This question concerning the pro- inadequate to the purpose. In the priety or impropriety, the advan- mean time, the evils, for which they tages or disadvantages of the ex- were intended as a remedy, grew pedition against Egypt, was now up to an alarining height, particu

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arly in the western departments: children of the perfon alaffinated : which determined the council of which indemnity was allowed likefive hundred to apply a remedy still wase to every perton mutilated. more violent.

The fame relpontibility was also By the law of Hostages, passed extended to whatever damage or on the twelfth of July, it was de- waste was commitied against procreed, among other articles, that perty. And the law was to have when a departmert, or commune, its due course, till the conclufion was notoriously in a state of civil of a general peace. disorder, the relations of emigrants, The effects of this law and nobles, comprehended in the such as might have been expected. revolutionary law of the twenty- While some, from the various motives fifth of October, third year of the of ambition, interest, and relentrepublic, their grand-fathers, grand- ment, were tempted to commit inmothers, fathers and mothers, and numerable acts of oppression, others individuals, who, without being were driven to despair. In fuch relations, or ex-nobles, were known departments of the wilt as had to form part of the assemblies or never been thoroughly reduced to bands of allaslins, Mould be person- an obedience to the republic, the ally and civilly responsible for what- law of Hostages was a signal of ever afaslinations or robberies were almost general resoli, not only secommitted in their communes; that veral of thole who had been forwhenever disorders should take place merly chiess of the inforgents and the administration of departments again took up the arms which they should take hostages among these clal- had laid down, but others who had fes, and that they Mould be authori- hitherto remained quiet, preferred zed to do so, even before any declara- a state of insurrection, and oppofition of such department or commune tion to tyranny, before a subbeing in a state of disorder; that million to laws of so atrocious a these hostages mould surrender nature. Tumults and riots had themselves, on demand, in such for some time disturbed the peace places as should be pointed out; of different departments, when, that a delay of ten days Nould in- towards the end of August, a genecur constraint by force, and fight. :ral insurrection broke out in the If a murder was committed on any department of Mayenne, on the public functionary, defender of the right of the Loire. Here the incountry, or purchaler of national Turgents, who had hitherto remaindomains, or any person of this cha- ed in the woods, or villages remote racter carried off

, four hofiages were from general relort and communito be banished for every person lo cation, appeared under their leaders murdered or carried off, besides in force, made themselves masters a fine of six thousand livres. Every, of several towns, depoled the conholiage was made responsible for filuted authorites, seized their pathe payment of four thousand livres, pers, took republican hostages, and in case of any murder in his com- proclaimed by public advertiser munity, to be paid into the public ments the object of their rifing in treasury, of fix thousand to the arins: which was, the restoration widon, and three thousand to the of the monarchy without limita




tions. As the republican force in Scepeaux, Chatillon, d'Audigne, that quarter was' but weak, and and Turpin, commanded in Anjou the spirit of difcontent and revolt, and Britanny, as far as Morbihan ; general and ardent, the insurrection generals Georges and de Sol, the ipread so rapidly, that, in a short Lower Britanny ; le Mercier, the {pace of time, no less than twenty districts lying towards St Brieux. departments were, more or less, The count d’Autichamp was at the in a state of insurrection.

head of the army of Poictou, and Their principle place of strength of the country on the left bank was, at first, Meins. This how- of the Loire to the confines of ever, on the appearance of the 'Aunis; and under him were the republican troops, they were forced generals Suzannet, Sapineau, Soto evacuate, after pillaging it, and yer, and Berlier. Of all the great taking hostages. But, by this time, towns throughout these provinces the flames of insurrection had spread the royalists were in polieflion, and far and wide. The insurgents they were all of them stored with were, for a while, in poffeffion of aminunition and provisions: fopNantes, the capital of the depart. plies of which, had, from time to ment of the Nether Loire, and time, been landed, on such parts Port-Brieux, that of the depart of the coast,

under ment of the northern coasts. From their influence and liway by the this last place they did not retreat English. On the whole, the French without carrying off all the public nation was in a state of discontent, money, and allo the principal in- alarm, and anxious expectation. habiiants as hostages. A regular The noble families and clergy were chain of posts was formed from proscribed and perfecuted; , the the Bay of Biscay almost to the men of property were harassed with walls of Paris. The infurgents requifitions; the jacobins were publihed manifeftoes, demanded excluded from the public councils, fupplies of men, money, and pro- and ready to attempt any entervilions, and, in a word, assuming prize thai might throw all things the title of the royal and catholic into confufion, however desperate army, exercised within the sphere and dangerous. of their influence and power all the Some measures had indeed been functions of government.

This taken for modifying, not repealing, army, which covered so great an the law of Hoftages, and for deextent of country and amounted stroying one dreadful engine of defin all, to about a hundred thousand potisnı, in the hands of the late men, was formed into five grand directory, by cloning the list of divifions. The province of Nor- emigrants : other measures too, had mandy (for we presume that the old been taken for alleviating the pubdivisions of France will yet be more lic distresses, but the whole were intelligible to most of onr readers feeble, and in their operation tardy than the new) was under the orders and inefficacious. The nation was of count Lewis Frotté: the pro- in a state of distraction ; the go. vince of Mayne was occupied by a vernment, if not altogether in a formidable army, under the count state of languor, indecifion, and de Bourmont. The marquistes of ftupefaction, rather watched and

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