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or remotely operated to produce America, extended themselves on these troubles, that have involved every side. Whilst agriculture and so many parts of the world in or the maritime commerce flourished common distraction.

on their coasts, the Indian trade The war into which all parties and drew several of our wandering deal. interests seem now to be so perfectlyers far into the inland country, and blended, arose from causes which beyond the great mountains. Here originally had not the least connec-' they found themselves in a delight. tion; the uncertain limits of the ful climate, in a soil abundantly fruit. English and French territories in ful, and watered with many fair and America, and the mutual claims of navigable rivers. These advana the houses of Austria and Branden. ' tages, joined to those of the Indian bourg on the duchy of Silesia. It trade, appeared to compensate for is no wonder that the two former its remoteness from the sea. It was powers, seizing on a country in judged, that as the first settlers on the which they considered the right of coast, we had a good right to the the natural inhabitants as nothing, inland country; and if so, to the should find it a very difficult matter navigation of the Missisippi, which to settle their own. For a long time opened another door to the ocean. neither of these powers were suffi. With these views, a company of ciently acquainted with the geogra- merchants and planters obtained a phy of America, to enable them to charter for a considerable tract of ascertain the limits of their several land near the river Ohio, on the pretensions with any tolerable ex. western side of the Allegeney mounactness; nor, indeed, were these tains, but within the province of matters deemed of sufficient moment Virginia : and the adventurers beto call for a very laborious discussion. gan to settle, pursuant to the terms At the treaty of Utrecht, whilst so many more important interests, or Now began to shoot forth the what then seemed more important, seeds of another dispute, which had were discussed, the limits of Nova long lain unobserved, but which Scotia, then called Acadia, were proved altogether as thorny and expressed only in general terms, and intricate as that concerning the li.

left to be put on a more certain foot. mits of Acadia. The French, pre. 'ing by subsequent negotiations. tending to have first discovered the These negotiations, pursued with no mouths of the Missisippi, claimed vigour, and drawn out into an ex. the whole adjacent country, towards cessive length, seemed only to in. New Mexico on the east, quite to crease the former confusion. After the Apalachian or Allegeney moun. the accession of the present royal tains on the west: they drove off family, a French connection, per- the new settlers, and built a strong haps necessary, from the circum. fort, called du Quesne, on the forks stances of the time, and afterwards of the river Monongahela; a situa. a certain negligence of all affairs but tion which commanded an entrance

those of our domestic polity, suf. into all the country on the Ohio and .fered this important point to vanish Missisippi. almost wholly out of

our considera.

The reader will observe, that zion.. During this interval, our co. I do not pretend to decide con. Lonics on the continent of North cerning the right of either nation

of their patent.

in this contest. It is evident enough, New York. The two courts, in the that the consideration of the right mean time, breathed, nothing buț had much less influence on both par. peace, and exchanged reciprocat ties than the consideration of con. professions of friendship and good veniency. Should the French be will, which deceived neither party. able to unite Canada to their coloa They who are of opinion, that the nies at the mouth of Missisippi, by passions and characters of the ruling a possession of all that vast country men influence all public concerns which lies between them, the Eng- as much as the public interests lish colonies musť lose all share in themselves, thought they saw other, the Indian trade in time .of peace; causes operating to hasten this and in time of war be exposed to breach. On the death of a great continual dangers, or to the ruin- minister, which happened some time ously chargeable defence of a fron. before, the administration was new tier more than 1500 miles in length. moulded.“ Some persons then taken If, on the contrary, the French should in, were considered as belonging to a fail to make good these claims on the party not perfectly united with the Ohio, and those on Nova Scotia, remains of the old administration. their two colonies, entirely disunit. It was thought that the leading man ed, and the entrance into one shut of this party proposed to work out up for the winter season by frost, the old servants of the crown, in and the entrance into the other order to make

way

for

a more uni. difficult in all seasons by the banks form system. As long as peace subat the mouth of the Missisippi, must sists, government is supported by it. certainly lose all their value to self, and any change is difficult; France, and in their fall involve but the conduct of a war is a thing much of the fortune of their great critical to a ministry. The leader of settlements in the West Indies. this party, therefore, conscious of his

Both nations being fully persuad. own talents, which all men acknowed of this, no longer looked on the ledged to be conspicuous, and of affair of the Ohio as a matter of in. his connections, which were consia difference: they prepared to cut derable, warmly pushed on a war, the gordian knot of the long and seconded by the fairness of the pubintricate negotiation by the sword. lic motives, and the general voice of Ships were fitted out, and some the people. In this war; his friends troops silently sent off from Brest. relied that things must necessarily General Braddock sailed to Virgi. be so embarrassed, that the old party

nia with about 1500 regular would find themselves obliged to re. 1755

troops: 24 men of war, un- tire, and to leave the stage clear for der the Admirals" Boscawen and them to serve their country accorda Mostyn, were ordered to America, ing to their own plans, and on their to intercept the French supplies. own terms. This design was bea Orders were:sent to our colonies to lieved to be pushed forward by an. arm, and three operations were other great man of that party, who actually urdertaken; one against had played a game nearly of the Fort du Quesne, under Braddock; same kind before, and in whom an the other two against the French advanced age had not abated any forts in Nova Scotia, and the fort thing of his natural fire and lote of Crown Point, on the frontiers of of violent councils,

Thinge

B2

Things came to a crisis by the honourable for Mr. Johnson, and the June 10.

taking of two French mea provincial troops under his command, of

war, by the Admirals yet, as it was gained late in the sea. Boscäwen and Møstyn. The opera. son, and as the army was in no very. tions by land were carried on with good condition, it had no conse. vigour, but whether conducted with quences. On the whole, we seemed, equal judgment, we stand too near after allowing for this victory, and

the time to decide. How.. for the dislodgment of the French June 16.

ever, the French fort at from Nova Scotia, to have had the Beausejour was taken, and soon after, worst part in the campaign; consi. those on St. John's river were aban. dering the sanguine expectations, doned; by which we remained mas. which had been formed, and the great ters of all Nova Scotia. The prin. superiority of strength which we ex. cipal expedition was that against erted, or were able to have exerted, Fort du Quesne, under General in that part of the world. Braddock. That general, abound. During this summer, our court ing too much in his own sense for took a resolution not to wait the the degree of military knowledge he precarious operations of our arms in. possessed, commanding in a country, America, for redress of the griev. where he did not know, and carry ances complained of, but to strike ing on a species of war in which he such a blow as would at once put a had nd experience, suffered himself, security into our hands for the evawhen he had advanced within ten cuating the places the enemy had miles of Fort du Quesne, to be sur. fortified in our territories, and dis. prized by an ambuscade of French able them in the two most material

and Indians. His army was points; the resources of their trade, July 9 seized with a panic, from the and their Their merchant unusual appearance and horrid cries, ships were every where attacked, as of the savages: they fed in confu

if war had been actually declared, sion : they were totally defeated and vast numbers brought into our with a considerable slaughter, espe. ports. The French made all Europe cially of their officers. The general resound with complaints of what himself, after having had five horses they called a proceeding so unjust, killed under him, was mortally and a violation of the law of na. wounded; wiping away all the er. tions, so flagrant and unprecedented. rors of his conduct by an honour. But whether it was that they were able death for his country.

really in no condition to acto or The nation was something con that they intended to influence the soled for this loss, in the signal ad

other courts in their favour, by a vantage gained by general Johnson, shew of extraordinary moderation,

who commanded the ex they contented themselves with this, Sept. 7. pedition designed against and neither declared war nor made Crown Point. He was attacked in any sort of reprisal for seve. his retrenchments

by the French geral months after. At length 1756. neral Dieskau; but the assailants they began to act: several bodies of wanting cannon, and firing from too troops moved to the coasts of Picar. great a distance; were totally defeat. dy, Normandy, and Britanny; and ed; and Dieskau himself was made all things threatened an invasion on prisoner. The victory, though very some part of this kingdom. Under

the

seamen.

the shadow of this stratagem, they censured ; and the measures which got ready in the harbour of Toulon rather indignation at our losses and i fleet of twelve men of war of the disgraces, than a cool sense of things, April 18.

line with the utmost ex. obliged us to take, are known to all

pedition, which convoyed the world. Our affairs were in such an army of about 11,000 men, un. a condition, that we were driven to der command of the Duke de Rich. the expedient of a court-martial, lieu, to the island of Minorca. In to revive the British spirit, and tp

a few days they opened the unfortunate necessity. Feb. 141 April 25. trenches before St. Phi. of shedding the blood of lip's fort.

an admiral, a person of a

1757: This was done while the nation noble family, as a sacrifice to the trembled under a shameful panic, discipline of our navy. too public to be concealed, too fas: From this melancholy picture, let tal in its consequences to be ever as turn our eyes another way, and forgotten. The real invasion did review the steps by which this war not lessen our fears of the imaginary came to involve the rest of the cona one: it threw us into a confusion tending powers. The French, to that suffered us to be sensible of no. mongst the other plans they formed thing but our own weakness. We for distressing our affairs, made no did not look upon ourselves suffi. secret of their design of attacking. ciently secured by the arrival of the His Majesty's German dominions. Hanoyerian and Hessian troops, These countries evidently had no which the same weakness had in. sort of connection with the matters duced us to call to aur assistance. which gave rise to the war; but The ministry seemed to have been being under a sovereign so remarkinfected with the common i terror; ably affectionate to his native coun, for though they had very early try, they judged he might be terri. notice of the French designs, such fied into a relaxation of his rights was the apprehension of the inva. in America, to preserve Hanover sian, or such the ill.contrived dispo- from the calamities with which it sition of our navy, that admiral was threatened. Their politics, Byng was not dispatched to the-Me. however, in this instance proved diterranean before the 5th of April, as unsuccessful as they were unjust. and then with a squadron of no Ņo motion was made towards an more than ten ships of the line. abatement in our claims with regard The engagement with the French to America: His Majesty took other

fleet, under M. Galisso. methods for the preservation of the May 12.

niere; the retreat of Byng, peace of Germany. - His British .by which the garrison of fort St. Phi. subjects, by their representatives, lip was cut off from all hopes of re. not more generously than reasonably,

lief; the surrender of that resolved to defend the Hanoverians, June 29. garrison, after nine.weeks if attacked in their quarrel. To an. open trenches; the sentiments of swer this purpose, the ministry en. the court and the public on the dif. tered into a subsidy-treaty with the ferent merits of the governor and Empress of Russia, in virtue of which the admiral; the opposition of some, she was to hold 55,000 men in rea. who thought the one too highly ho diness to be sent on a requisition poused, and the other too severely wherever the British

service required.

The

B 3

-- The alliance with Russia was union with that power. By this exchosen for reasons which were then traordinary revolution, the whole sufficiently plausible ; though it is political system of Europe assumed to be hoped they can never subsist a new face; it was indeed a revoluagain. The long ill understanding tion so extraordinary, that we shall between the King of Prussia and our be justified if we interrupt the court, and his close connection with course of this narrative, to look back that of Versailles; raised no ill. at the causes which produced it. grounded apprehensions that he The house of Brandenbourg, a might be induced to act a dangerous little more than two centuries ago, part on this occasion. Russia was was in a very humble condition; therefore a proper ally, who had but by the part she took in the Rea both a political and personal enmity formation, which put into her hands to this monarch, and who would be the estates of the Teutonic order; sure to employ a great power with by a marriage, from which she acgreat vigour in such a cause? But 'quired the duchy of Cleves; and this system was in a short time totally by an uncommon succession of able Teversed: the King of Prussia kad princes, who carefully improved been too well ápprized of the close every turn in the affairs of Germany

conjunction of the courts of Peters. to their advantage, she raised terself bourg and Vienna, and of the real by degrees to a considerable ‘state, ·motive to that conjunction, to have to an electorate, and at last to a roythe least design of embroiling him alty, not only in name but in power, self with England. Matters were The late King of Prussia, in order therefore very soon explained ; and to strengthen this power, though he the treaty betweeii his Prussian Ma. past almost his whole reign in the jesty and this court, to keep all fo. most profound peace, gave his Teigners out of the empire, was sign. whole attention to his army. Fruced at London in Jan, 1956. These gal in all other respects, in this "treaties were censured as inconsistent alone he was expensive: it was his with each other; but in reality they business, and what was perhaps of were consistent enough, aiming pre greater moment, it was his only dicisely at the same object-to oppose version. Thus in a reign apparently the scheme meditated by France for inactive, there was always kept up disturbing the affairs of Germany, an army of near roo,ooo men, in as

If, reflecting on the sentiments of much exercise as they could have in - these courts, there was something peace, and formed with the most per, unexpected in the alliance between feet discipline. Great Britain and Prússia, it was - When his present Majesty came -soon followed by another alliance, to the throne, he immediately shew. of a nature infinitely more surpriz. ed a disposition of employing effecing. "The Empress Queen of Hun- tually that military force which his "gàry; finding England in no disposi, father had spent his life only in tion to co-operate in her designs, had forming and training. He managed

recourse to other measures. The his dispute with the bishop of Liege house of Austria, which had for, by the summary method of force, merly united Europe to preserve her and seemed disposed to carry all from the power of France, now en. things with so high a händ, as made tesed herself into the most intimate him indeed: much respected, but

much

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