Forest Trees: For Shelter, Ornament and Profit. A Practical Manual for Their Culture and Propagation

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H. T. Williams, 1871 - Forests and forestry - 247 pages
 

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Page 12 - ... productiveness and population. Vast forests have disappeared from mountain' spurs and ridges ; the vegetable earth accumulated beneath the trees by the decay of leaves and fallen trunks, the soil of the alpine pastures which skirted and indented the woods, and the mould of the upland fields, are washed away ; meadows, once fertilized by irrigation, are waste and unproductive...
Page 12 - ... have shrunk to humble brooklets; the willows that ornamented and protected the banks of the lesser water-courses are gone, and the rivulets have ceased to exist as perennial currents, because the little water that finds its way into their old channels is evaporated by the droughts of summer, or absorbed by the parched earth before it reaches the lowlands ; the beds of the brooks have widened into broad expanses...
Page 142 - A large or small tree, extremely variable in foliage: leaves grayish-downy or fulvous beneath, obtuse or rounded at base, 3 to 5-lobed above (sometimes entire) ; the, lobes prolonged, mostly narrow and more or less scythe-shaped, especially the terminal one, entire or sparingly cuttoothed: acorn globose, 8 to 10 mm. long.
Page 155 - Duds and branch/els glabrous ; branches not corky ; leaves obovate-oblong or oval, abruptly pointed, sharply and often doubly serrate (2'-4' long), soft-pubescent beneath, or soon glabrous ; Jlowers in close fascicles ; calyx with 7-9 roundish lobes ; fruit glabrous except the margins ( J' long), its sharp points incurved and closing the notch.
Page 189 - ... other respect peculiar. The wood of the American Larch is superior to any species of Pine or Spruce , and unites all the properties which distinguish the European species , being exceedingly strong and singularly durable.
Page 192 - ... left dry by its fall. This species of alternation is the most trying of all circumstances for the endurance of timber; and accordingly the oaken posts decayed, and were twice renewed in the course of a very few years, while those that were made of the Larch, remained altogether unchanged.
Page 194 - ... latter purpose, it is found the most durable of all kinds of wood : the vine props made of it are never taken up ; they remain fixed for an indefinite succession of years, and see crop after crop of vines spring up, bear their fruit, and perish at their feet, without showing any symptoms of decay. In most cases, the proprietors of the vineyards are perfectly ignorant of the epoch when these props were first placed there : they received them in their present state from their fathers, and in the...
Page 68 - It is a large tree, growing to the height of seventy or eighty feet, with a diameter of three or four feet.
Page 13 - ... the little water that finds its way into their old channels is evaporated by the droughts of summer, or absorbed by the parched earth before it reaches the lowlands ; the beds of the brooks have widened into broad expanses of pebbles and gravel, over which, though in the hot season passed...
Page 110 - Sepals, three ; petals, six to nine ; stamens, numerous; pistils, numerous; carpels, disposed compactly in spikes, opening by the external angle ; one or twoseeded, permanent ; seeds, berry-like, hanging by an extensile thread.

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