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ing this decision. Certainly economy which is achieved by eliminating waste, duplication, and inefficiency is commendable, but I would like to caution the committee to guard against false or blind economy--the type of economy which deprives the public of services which they have a right to expect of their Government, and which usually costs more in the end.

GENERAL INVESTIGATIONS Examinations and surveys

I would like to call the attention of the committee to the vital importance of approving adequate funds so that the Corps of Engineers can go ahead with the studies, examinations, and surveys which are so vital to adequate waterresource development in our Nation. Minnesota projects

In my own State of Minnesota, the Corps of Engineers requested $110,000 to carry on the examination and survey work they felt would be necessary this year. In the revised budget this amount was cut by about $27,000. This means that it will take much longer for each of the urgently needed studies now under way to be completed and work on other strategic studies must be abandoned entirely. This, in turn, means that it will be another year and another year before any construction work can be approved or started. What shall I tell these people if there should be a flood in their area this spring?

I strongly urge the committee not only to approve the minimum requests contained in the revised budget, but to restore the full amounts contained in the original request of the Corps of Engineers for studies on Minnesota projects.

The Corps of Engineers has alreally testified concerning what they plan to do with the proposed allocations for examinations and surveys in Minnesota, so I will not dwell on that. I would just like to say a few words about the need for these funds:

A. Mississippi River, Knutson Dam, interim: The Corps of Engineers plans to complete the report on the dam if the revised budget request is approved. This dam is deteriorating and needs to be replaced.

B. Duluth-Superior Harbor, Minn, and Wis.: This is the most important harbor on the Great Lakes. It has been found that there are certain disturbing currents which are damaging boats and throwing them off their course. The corps will, if adequate funds are approved, make a model study of current conditions. More tonnage of iron ore, grain and petroleum prodacts leaves this harbor than any other on the Great Lakes, and it is vitally important to trade to do something about the disturbing currents.

C. Minnesota River, main stem communities, interiin: The small towns all along the Minnesota have suffered heavy damage from recent floods. The corps will study the possibility of a reservoir in the headwaters to protect these towns.

D. Red River, ("rookston, Minn., interim: The corps will study local protection for Crookston which has suffered considerable damage in recent floods,

E. Root River, Minn.: If the funds requested in the revised budget are approvedl, the corps expects to complete their study on protection of the agricultural and local communities all along the entire basin. These com

munities have suffered heavy damage in the 1950 and 1932 floods. Need for specinl funds to complete studies

Each week I receive letters from people who live in communities which are threatened by disastrous tloods. But despite the fact that the Corps of Engineers reconizes these threuin, nothing enn be done about them because no funds have been allocated for the undertaking or completion of so many of these important mulier. I would like to call a few of these to the attention of the committee and urge that adequate funds be earmarked for the resumption and completion of these studies. Reduood River

One of these concerns the floods along the Redwood River in Minnesota. The Corps of Engineers recently submitted a report on their reconnaissance of the Redwood River in the interest of tlood control. It is their recommendation that extensive food.control problems of the type existing on Redwood River should be bundled under the normal procedure calling for subinission of a survey report to the Congress. The Corps of Engineers has for some time been authorized by Congress to make a study of the Minnesota River Basin, which would include a study of the flood-control problems on the Redwood River, too. But work on this study had to be suspended because of lack of funds.

I'want to urge the committee to earmark sufficient funds so that this main study of the Minnesota River Basin can be resumed. Reservoirs on upper Mississippi River

I also urge this committee to appropriate a specific sum to the district engineer for the completion of the survey of the operations of the reservoirs of the upper Mississippi River. I understand this headwaters reservoir study will cost at ut $75,000 and will require about $60,000 to complete. No money has been put us this study since 1950. This was going to be a study of the operations of the danes in connection with navigation and flood control. I have had many urgent letters from the people of Aitkin County who have suffered from the many tloods which have resulted from the operation of these dams and I want to urge your 01-.mittee to appropriate a specific fund so that this vital study may be resumed. St. Anthony Falls

I ask the committee to earmark funds for another urgently needed study on the upper Mississippi River which relates to St. Anthony Falls. The tinier apron protection at the foot of this dam is being destroyed because of the: floods. The power companies in the area are affected. The cost of this study is estimated to be about $10,000. I strongly urge you to approve the funds necessary to make this study. Construction, general projects

Duluth-Superior Harbor.-I am very happy to see that the Bureau of the Budget saw fit to retain the Corps of Engineers' original request for KINO for this project. I interpret this to mean that the Bureau recognizes tbe imp*** tance of this construction job, and I urge the committee to approve the full amount requested in the original and the revised budgets.

This project was authorized by the s2d Congress in Public Law 568 en Jay 16, 1952. Minnesota and Wisconsin join hands in asking for these funds.

These funds will be used to start the construction of the deepening of te Superior front channel. All the work except for the deepening of the Superir front channel and the east gate basin channel, has been completel. The Super front channel is the connecting link between Duluth and Superior portions o? the harbor. A depth of 25 feet in this channel is necessary to correspond with that depth in the channels and basins in the two portions of the harbor and in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

The project calls for deepening more than 3 miles of harbor channel from to 25 feet, to permit deep-draft vessels to move between Duluth and Superior Harbor basins when 1 of the 2 entries is blocked.

The existing Superior front channel presents a definite bottleneck to all carriers. With certain conditions, the Duluth entrance may be closed and the entering and leaving the harbor because of the reduced chanuel depthis ang the Superior front must do so with reduced carrying capacity.

Moreover, any accidents that might occur to ships within the Duluth entrada could conceivably require all vessels to come through the Superior front azd utilize the Superior channel, not permitting them to carry their full ( loads of commodities. Both of these conditions have existed with the rest that ore shipments in particular are curtailed. The funds we are requesting * this authorized improvement will correct that situation.

This project is economically justified in view of the fact that this is the man important harbor on the Great Lakes. More tonnage of iron ore. kain, and petroleum products leaves this harbor than any other on the Great Lakes. The harbor is second in waterborne commerce to New York. Because 75 percent its total commerce is in iron ore shipments, this port is essential to nakon! defense, as well as to the economy of the Midwest.

I point out to the committee that in view of Senate action in passing the St Lawrence seaway bill during this session, construction work on this baruar assumes greater importance than ever before.

St. Anthony Falls, Minn.-On February 26, I sent a statement to the chairman expressing my views concerning the appropriation for the St. Anthony 11.5 project in Minneapolis. I ask that this letter be included in the record at this point and I would like to add this statement to it: I want to urge this even mittee to restore the $500,000 cut that the Bureau of the Budget made in the original request of the Corps of Engineers for the reasons expressed already in the aforementioned letter.

Aitkin, Minn.--I am pleased to see that the Bureau of the Budget concurred in the Corps of Engineers' request for funds for construction in the vicinity of Aitkin, Minn. Aitkin is a little town just north of St. Paul, Minn., which has been severely hit by floods in recent years. The funds requested are for the completion of construction of a diversion channel to get the river by the town. It is of the utmost importance that sufficient funds be approved in order to alleviate the extensive crop losses and damages to urban and rural properties and many industries which have occurred often in the last few years. Damaging floods have occurred in 1941, 1943, 1945, 1948, and 1950. The food in 1950 was considerably higher and more prolonged than ever before. In 1952 they had another serious flood and again in August 1953. If the amount requested in the revised budget is approved, it will make possible the completion of this very urgent project. We owe it to the long-suffering people of this area to complete this construction job.

Red River of the North, Minn, and N. Dak.-Again I am glad to see that the request of the Budget Bureau in the revised budget concurs with original request of the Corps of Engineers. In the past few years I have submitted extensive evidence to this committee on the devastating flood damages in sections of the Red River Basin covering portions of Minnesota and North Dakota. I do not think it would be necessary to elaborate on the extensive toll of the annual floods in this area. Reports of the Army engineers and the American Red Cross have testified to this fact. I strongly urge you to approve the funds earmarked for this purpose for the safety of the people in this area. Operation and maintenance, general

I would just like to make a few general remarks about the budget requests for the operation and maintenance of navigation and flood-control projects. I know that this committee is fully aware of the importance of caring properly for the projects that have already been constructed. There is no point in spending millions of dollars on the construction of channels and harbors, locks, dams, reservoirs, etc., without making adequate provision for their upkeep, repair, inspection, and servicing. I again am pleased to note that for the inost part the Bureau of the Budget has concurred with the Corps of Engineers on the allocations which would he necessary to carry on this work on Minnesota projects. I do wish to call to the committee's attention, however, the $3,400 cut in the allocation for navigation on the Duluth-Superior Harbor. This cut would mean that it would not be possible to undertake important rehabilitation work in this harbor. I understand the Corps of Engineers felt this sum was necessary to remove shoals, to restore project depths, and to rip up the breakwater at the Superior entrance. I urge the committee to restore this amount so that the necessary rehabilitation work can be carried out.

keokuk lock.---Each year at this time I feel that I shonld say a few words abont the construction of lock No. 19 at Keokuk, Iowa. Minnesota has a vital stake in the construction of this new lock on the part of the Mississippi River between the Missouri River and Minneapolis. I want to call the attention of the committee to the fact that the Bureau of the Budget has wisely recognized the importance of carrying out this work by approving the original request for $3,200,000 as made by the Corps of Engineers.

As I said in my statement before this committee last year, the Keokuk lock is a matter of vital emergency, in view of the precarious condition of the present 39-year-old obsolescent lock at Keokuk. It would he a matter of life and death in the wintertime in Minnesota if the present obsolescent lock should fail. Such failure would mean there would be no fuel oil or coal in the upper part of the Mississippi, without which we would indeed be in desperate straits. The upper Midwest is largely dependent upon river transportation for the supply of these products. I am sure the committee realizes the seriousness of this situation, anil I strongly urge that the request made in both the original and revised budget be approved in full, so that the new lock will be completed as soon as possible.

COXCLUDING REMARKS Again I would like to call to the attention of the committee the danger of false economy. When projects are already underway, it is usually more costly to the Federal Government to spread out construction time or defer funds for completion than to approve the amounts requested to continue the work in the next fiscal year. Interruption of a construction program because of lack of funds is also very costly to the Government. This usually necessitates the protection of completed work, the storing of equipment, the repair of facilities temporarily out of commission, etc., all of which add to the total cost in the end.

I urge the committee to consider the effect of inadequately developed navigation facilities on potential business and industrial expansion. The cost to the Nation in lost tax revenue, lost new income and lost economic and material contributions is usually far greater than adequate public investment in desirable improvements. I urge the committee, too, to remember the tragic cost in terms of life and property in failing to provide for an adequate flood-control program It is false economy indeed to face even greater cost in the future because of some possible saving now. Sincerely,

HUBERT H. HUMPHRET. Senator KNOWLAND. I will also submit for the record a letter from Delegate Farrington concerning an appropriation for flood control for Hanapepe, Hawaii. (The letter referred to follows:)

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

Washington, D. C., March 9, 1954 Senator WILLIAM F. KNOWLAND, Chairman, Subcommittee on Civil Functions, Committee on Appropriations,

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am informed that the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army will complete within a very short time the plans for the Hanapepe. T, H., flood control project. I wish to request, therefore, the appropriation of funds necessary to carry out this project in the coming fiscal year.

The government of the county of this island feels that this improvement is an urgent one and asks that it be carried out in order to prevent the disaster tha: inevitably will result from unexpectedly heavy rainfall.

The construction of this project was postponed because of the war in Korea and should now be urdertaken as promptly as possible.

Joint Resolution 4 of the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii, requeeting Ongress to enact legislation to appropriate funds for flood control at Hanapepe was approved on April 15, 1953, by the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii and #letter from the chairman and executive officer of the Board of Supervisors of the County of Kauai, Territory of Hawaii, setting forth the position of the county orlicials on this project, are enclosed for the information of the committee Yours sincerely,

J. R. FARRINGTON, Delegate from Harasi

TERRITORY OF HAWAII

(S. J. Res. No. 2) JOINT RESOLUTION 4-REQUESTING THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF ANDICA

TO ENACT LEGISLATION APPROPRIATING FUNDS FOR FLOOD CONTROL AT HASAPEFI KAUAI, AUTHORIZED BY PUBLIC LAW 534, 78TH CONGRESS, SECOND SESS.S, SECTION 10

Whereas Public Law 534, 78th Congress, 2d session, section 10, authorised ex penditures for the first step of flood control at Hanapepe, Kauai; and

Whereas the Board of Supervisors of the County of Kauai, T. H., hy Resolaties 142, 1951, agreed to provide the items of local cooperation as specified by sail Public Law 534; and

Whereas, by Act 306, Session Laws of Hawaii 1941, the Territory of Hawaii appropriated $50,000 of which $ 19,000 has been held in reserve for the pure meeting local requirements in connection with said flood-control projat, and the county of Kauai floated county bonds in the amount of $50,000 under Act 4. Ses sion Laws of Hawaii 1939, for the same purpose; and

Whereas the district engineer, San Francisco District, Corps of Ergicas l'nited States Army, submitted an estimate of $307,800 as the cost of cupiecha of the flood-control project authorized by said Public Law 534; now, therefore Be it enacted by the legislature of the Territory of Hawaii:

SECTION 1. The Congress of the United States of America is hereby requested to enact legislation which will appropriate the amount of $307,800 to be expended for the completion of the flood-control project at Hanapepe, Kauai, as authorized by Public Law 534, 78th Congress, 2d session, section 10.

SECTION. 2. Certified copies of this joint resolution shall be sent to the President of the United States, to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, to the Secretary of the Interior, and to the Delegate to the Congress from Hawaii.

SECTION 3. This joint resolution shall take effect upon its approval.
Approved this 15th day of April A. D. 1953.

SAMUEL WILDER KING,
Governor of the Territory of Hawaii.

LIHUE, KAUAI, T. H., September 30, 1953. Subject: Federal aid for Hanapepe flood-control project, Kauai, T. H. Hon. JOSEPH R, FARRINGTON,

Delegate to Congress, Honolulu, T. H. MY DEAR MR. FARRINGTON: The need for immediate flood-control measures for the Hanapepe River is still a pressing issue on which every effort is necessary in making this vital project a reality. I wrote you on January 31, 1952, requesting your kind assistance. Your effort thereon is deeply appreciated by all on Kauai.

We understand the policy of the administration and Congress in regard to appropriations for national defense only as you had written in your letter of March 20, 1952. I concur that national defense during wartime shall not be jeopardized. Now that "cease-fire” in Korea has become a reality, the welfare of a thriving community should receive just consideration.

I would like again to emphasize that the project and plans therefor have been adopted and aut rized by Congress. would like to again prevail upon you as Hawaii's Delegate to Congress for your kind assistance to get the Federal aid necessary for this project.

Enelosed herewith are letters to Hon. Richard M. Nixon, Vice President of the United States, Hon. Hugh Butler, chairman, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, and Hon. Joseph Martin, Speaker of the House, with extra copies of each for your file. Additional pertinent correspondence and resolutions are enclosed. May I prevail upon you to forward these letters and information, requesting that their effort in recommending favorable action would be most deeply appreciated ? Respectfully yours,

A. C. BAPTISTE, Jr., Chairman and Executive Officer,

LIHUE, KAUAI, T. H., September 30, 1953. Subject: Federal aid for Hanapepe flood-control project, island of Kauai, T. H. Hon. RICHARD M. Nixon, Vice President of the United States,

Washington, D, C, MY DEAR MR. Nixon: The town of Hanapepe, county of Kauai, T. H., has been a constant victim of the rampaging floodwaters of the Hanapepe River. The water overflows and floods before emergency measures can be taken because of the shortness of the tributaries and the severeness of the southerly rainstorms.

On March 20, 1948, a flash flood occurred, overflowing the riverbanks and inundating the town. Although agricultural damage was not great, the business and residential districts suffered extensively. On December 17, 1949, a flash flood with a duration of 112 hours and an estimated maximum discharge of 15,000 cubic feet per second caused approximately $50,300 damage to the business and residential areas. Major floods may discharge an estimated 18,000 cubic feet per second.

The frequency of these floods and the distress of the residents of Hanapepe is of deep concern to all who are familiar with the condition. The Federal Government has long recoguized the fact that flood-control measures are imperative.

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